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Waves and Rays in Elastic Continua

Waves and Rays in Elastic Continua

by Michael A. Slawinski (Author)
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The present book - which is the second, and significantly extended, edition of the textbook originally published by Elsevier Science - emphasizes the interdependence of mathematical formulation and physical meaning in the description of seismic phenomena. Herein, we use aspects of continuum mechanics, wave theory and ray theory to explain phenomena resulting from the propagation of seismic waves. The book is divided into three main sections: Elastic Continua, Waves and Rays and Variational Formulation of Rays. There is also a fourth part, which consists of appendices. In Elastic Continua, we use continuum mechanics to describe the material through which seismic waves propagate, and to formulate a system of equations to study the behaviour of such a material. In Waves and Rays, we use these equations to identify the types of body waves propagating in elastic continua as well as to express their velocities and displacements in terms of the properties of these continua. To solve the equations of motion in anisotropic inhomogeneous continua, we invoke the concept of a ray. In Variational Formulation of Rays, we show that, in elastic continua, a ray is tantamount to a trajectory along which a seismic signal propagates in accordance with the variational principle of stationary traveltime. Consequently, many seismic problems in elastic continua can be conveniently formulated and solved using the calculus of variations. In the Appendices, we describe two mathematical concepts that are used in the book; namely, homogeneity of a function and Legendre's transformation. This section also contains a list of symbols.



Fundamentals of Atmospheric Physics, Volume 61 (International Geophysics)

Fundamentals of Atmospheric Physics, Volume 61 (International Geophysics)

by Murry L. Salby (Author), Roger A. Pielke Sr. (Series Editor), Renata Dmowska (Series Editor)
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Fundamentals of Atmospheric Physics emphasizes the interrelationships of physical and dynamical meteorology. The text unifies four major subject areas: atmospheric thermodynamics, hydrostatic equilibrium and stability, atmospheric radiation and clouds, and atmospheric dynamics. These fundamental areas serve as cornerstones of modern atmospheric research on environmental issues like global change and ozone depletion. Physical concepts underlying these subject areas are developed from first principles, providing a self-contained text for students and scholars from diverse backgrounds.
The presentation is Lagrangian (single-body problems) in perspective, with a balance of theory and application. Each chapter includes detailed and extensive problems; selected answers are provided, as are appendices of various constants. The text requires a thorough foundation in calculus.
* Presents a comprehensive introduction to atmospheric thermodynamics, hydrostatics, radiation and clouds, and dynamics
* Develops concepts from first principles, providing a self-contained volume for readers from diverse backgrounds
* Emphasizes the interaction of physical processes shaping global problems of atmospheric energetics, transport, and chemistry
* Provides a balance of theory and applications, with examples drawn from a wide range of phenomena figuring in global atmospheric research
* Extensively illustrated with global satellite imagery and analyses and photographs of laboratory simulations
* Exercises apply to a wide range of topical problems



Thermodynamics of Natural Systems

Thermodynamics of Natural Systems

by G. M. Anderson (Author)
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Thermodynamics of Natural Systems



Geochemistry

Geochemistry

by William M. White (Author)
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This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of geochemistry. The book first lays out the ‘geochemical toolbox’: the basic principles and techniques of modern geochemistry, beginning with a review of thermodynamics and kinetics as they apply to the Earth and its environs. These basic concepts are then applied to understanding processes in aqueous systems and the behavior of trace elements in magmatic systems.  Subsequent chapters introduce radiogenic and stable isotope geochemistry and illustrate their application to such diverse topics as determining geologic time, ancient climates, and the diets of prehistoric peoples. The focus then broadens to the formation of the solar system, the Earth, and the elements themselves. Then the composition of the Earth itself becomes the topic, examining the composition of the core, the mantle, and the crust and exploring how this structure originated. A final chapter covers organic chemistry, including the origin of fossil fuels and the carbon cycle’s role in controlling Earth’s climate, both in the geologic past and the rapidly changing present.Geochemistry is essential reading for all earth science students,  as well as for researchers and applied scientists  who require an introduction to the essential theory of geochemistry, and a survey of its applications in the earth and environmental sciences.Additional resources can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/white/geochemistry 



Climatology

Climatology

by Robert V. Rohli (Author), Anthony J. Vega (Author)
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Ideal for the upper-level undergraduate or introductory-level graduate courses, the second edition presents students with a thorough foundation on the climactic system. The authors begin with an overview of climatology basics, including a discussion on climatology versus meteorology and an introduction to the atmosphere. They then introduce more advanced concepts, such as microscale transfer of energy, matter, and momentum; the global water balance; global atmospheric circulation; climatic classification with special emphasis on the regional differences within the same climate types; and much more.



Computational Methods for Geodynamics

Computational Methods for Geodynamics

by Alik Ismail-Zadeh (Author), Paul Tackley (Author)
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Written as both a textbook and a handy reference, this text deliberately avoids complex mathematics assuming only basic familiarity with geodynamic theory and calculus. Here, the authors have brought together the key numerical techniques for geodynamic modeling, demonstrations of how to solve problems including lithospheric deformation, mantle convection and the geodynamo. Building from a discussion of the fundamental principles of mathematical and numerical modeling, the text moves into critical examinations of each of the different techniques before concluding with a detailed analysis of specific geodynamic applications. Key differences between methods and their respective limitations are also discussed - showing readers when and how to apply a particular method in order to produce the most accurate results. This is an essential text for advanced courses on numerical and computational modeling in geodynamics and geophysics, and an invaluable resource for researchers looking to master cutting-edge techniques. Links to supplementary computer codes are available online.



Descriptive Physical Oceanography, Fifth Edition

Descriptive Physical Oceanography, Fifth Edition

by Lynne D. Talley (Author), George L. Pickard (Author), William J. Emery (Author), James H. Swift (Author)
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'Descriptive Physical Oceanography: An Introduction' 5th edition provides an introduction to descriptive (synoptic) physical oceanography for science undergraduates and early graduate students. There has been an updating of topics such as the heat budget, instruments (particularly the use of satellites), a complete revision of the material on equatorial oceanography, sea-ice physics and distribution and El Nino and information has been added on thermohaline circulation, mixing nad coral reef oceanography.





Petrogenesis of Metamorphic Rocks

Petrogenesis of Metamorphic Rocks

by Kurt Bucher (Author), Rodney Grapes (Author)
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Petrogenesis of Metamorphic Rocks presents a large number of diagrams showing the stability relations among minerals and groups of minerals found in metamorphic rocks. The diagrams help to determine the pressure and temperature conditions under which a given set of metamorphic rocks may have formed. Other parameters that control metamorphic mineral assemblages are also discussed and pitfalls resulting from simplifications and generalizations are highlighted. The book discusses the most common metamorphic rock types, their nomenclature, structure and graphical representation of their mineral assemblages. Part I defines basic principles of metamorphism, introduces metamorphic processes, geologic thermometry and barometry and defines metamorphic grade. Part II presents in a systematic way mineralogical changes and assemblages found in the most common types of metamorphic rocks. The computation of diagrams is based on recent advances in quantitative petrology and geochemistry. An extensive bibliography, including the key contributions and classic papers in the field, make it an invaluable source book for graduate students and professional geologists.



Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism (Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series)

Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism (Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series)

by David Gubbins (Editor), Emilio Herrero-Bervera (Editor)
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This reference encompasses the fields of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism in a single volume. Both sciences have applications in navigation, in the search for minerals and hydrocarbons, in dating rock sequences, and in unraveling past geologic movements such as plate motions they have contributed to a better understanding of the Earth. The book describes in fine detail the current state of knowledge and provides an up-to-date synthesis of the most basic concepts. It is an indispensable working tool not only for geophysicists and geophysics students but also for geologists, physicists, atmospheric and environmental scientists, and engineers.



Physics and Chemistry of the Solar System, Volume 87, Second Edition (International Geophysics)

Physics and Chemistry of the Solar System, Volume 87, Second Edition (International Geophysics)

by John S. Lewis (Author)
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Physics and Chemistry of the Solar System, 2nd Edition, is a comprehensive survey of the planetary physics and physical chemistry of our own solar system. It covers current research in these areas and the planetary sciences that have benefited from both earth-based and spacecraft-based experimentation.

These experiments form the basis of this encyclopedic reference, which skillfully fuses synthesis and explanation. Detailed chapters review each of the major planetary bodies as well as asteroids, comets, and other small orbitals. Astronomers, physicists, and planetary scientists can use this state-of-the-art book for both research and teaching.

This Second Edition features extensive new material, including expanded treatment of new meteorite classes, spacecraft findings from Mars Pathfinder through Mars Odyssey 2001, recent reflections on brown dwarfs, and descriptions of planned NASA, ESA, and Japanese planetary missions.

* New edition features expanded treatment of new meteorite classes, the latest spacecraft findings from Mars, information about 100+ new discoveries of planets and stars, planned lunar and planetary missions, more end-of-chapter exercises, and more
* Includes extensive new material and is amply illustrated throughout
* Reviews each major planetary body, asteroids, comets, and other small orbitals



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