Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Sex differences in brain may underlie neurodevelopmental disorders more common in males

December 14, 2015

Many early-onset neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, are more common in males than females. The origin of this gender bias is not understood, partially due to a major gap in research on sex differences regarding how the brain typically develops. According to a new study presented today at the annual meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, female infants have larger volumes of gray matter around the temporal-parietal junction of the brain than males at the time of birth. The temporal-parietal junction, or TP, which is found under the temporal bones near the ears, integrates the processing of social information as expressed in others' faces and voices, a function that is impaired in those with autism spectrum disorders. Sex differences in this area of the brain may be a clue as to why males are at higher risk for certain forms of autism spectrum disorders. Dr. Rebecca Knickmeyer's group at the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill has been characterizing sex differences in brain development in a group of over 800 normal newborns, who are assessed until they are 2 years old, using brain imaging and measures of sex hormones in saliva.

Another main finding in Dr. Knickmeyer's work is that by the age of two, myelination of long fiber tracks in the brain is more developed in males than in females. Myelination is the development of an insulating myelin sheath around nerves so that they are able to transmit information more quickly. Dr. Knickmeyer has also shown that a genetic disorder that only occurs in females - Turner Syndrome, which is marked by the partial or complete loss of one of the two X sex chromosomes that females have, also involves a significant decrease in brain volume in inferior parietal lobes (just above the TPJ). This suggests that inferior parietal lobe volume can be influenced, at least in females, by sex chromosomes.

###

This work was supported by NIMH and Pfizer

American College of Neuropsychopharmacology


Related Autism Spectrum Disorders Current Events and Autism Spectrum Disorders News Articles


Antipsychotic prescribing trends in youths with autism and intellectual disability
About one in ten youths treated with an antipsychotic are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder or intellectual disability.

Autism care improved, diagnosis time shortened by new MU program
Wait lists for a specialist to confirm an autism diagnosis can be agonizing and last months. As the prevalence of autism and autism spectrum disorders increase, so does the demand for a health care system that is fully equipped to respond to the complex needs associated with autism.

'Baby talk' can help songbirds learn their tunes
Adult songbirds modify their vocalizations when singing to juveniles in the same way that humans alter their speech when talking to babies.

'Virtual partner' elicits emotional responses from a human partner in real-time
Can machines think? That's what renowned mathematician Alan Turing sought to understand back in the 1950s when he created an imitation game to find out if a human interrogator could tell a human from a machine based solely on conversation deprived of physical cues.

One-third of autistic children likely to wander, disappear
A review of data on 1,420 children ages 6 to 17 with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) found that more than one-third had wandered away from a safe environment within the past 12 months, according to findings from two studies reported at the Pediatric Academic Societies meeting in Baltimore.

Cohen Children's Medical Center study: Children on autism spectrum more likely to wander, disappear
A new study by researchers at Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York (CCMC) suggests that more than one-quarter million school-age children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or other developmental disorders wander away from adult supervision each year.

New drug target for Rett syndrome
Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) researchers have identified a faulty signaling pathway that, when corrected, in mice ameliorates the symptoms of Rett syndrome, a devastating neurological condition.

Discovery of a new drug target could lead to novel treatment for severe autism
Penn State University scientists have discovered a novel drug target and have rescued functional deficits in human nerve cells derived from patients with Rett Syndrome, a severe form of autism-spectrum disorder.

Link between PCOS in the mother and autism in the child
Children born to mothers with polycystic ovarian syndrome, PCOS, are at an increased risk of developing autism spectrum disorders, according to a new epidemiological study from Sweden's Karolinska Institutet.

UTSW-led study establishes biomarkers to help diagnose, treat psychosis
In a groundbreaking study led by UT Southwestern Medical Center, a comprehensive set of empirical biomarkers has been established to aid in diagnosis and treatment of psychosis.
More Autism Spectrum Disorders Current Events and Autism Spectrum Disorders News Articles

A Parent's Guide to High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder, Second Edition: How to Meet the Challenges and Help Your Child Thrive

A Parent's Guide to High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder, Second Edition: How to Meet the Challenges and Help Your Child Thrive
by Sally Ozonoff PhD (Author), Geraldine Dawson PhD (Author), James C. McPartland PhD (Author)


Many tens of thousands of parents have found the facts they need about high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including Asperger syndrome, in this indispensable guide. Leading experts show how you can work with your child's unique impairments--and harness his or her capabilities. Vivid stories and real-world examples illustrate ways to help kids with ASD relate more comfortably to peers, learn the rules of appropriate behavior, and succeed in school. You'll learn how ASD is diagnosed and what treatments and educational supports really work. Updated with the latest research and resources, the second edition clearly explains the implications of the DSM-5 diagnostic changes.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (revised): The Complete Guide to Understanding Autism

Autism Spectrum Disorder (revised): The Complete Guide to Understanding Autism
by Chantal Sicile-Kira (Author)


Newly revised and updated, this award-winning guide covers every aspect of understanding and living with autism today

Comprehensive and authoritative, Autism Spectrum Disorders explains all aspects of the condition, and is written for parents, educators, caregivers, and others looking for accurate information and expert insight. Newly updated to reflect the latest research, treatment methods, and DSM-V criteria, this invaluable book covers:

• The causes of autism spectrum disorders
• Getting an accurate diagnosis
• Treatments based on behavioral, psychological, and biomedical interventions
• Coping strategies for families and education needs and programs
• Living and working conditions for adults with ASD
• Community interaction and teaching...

Autism Spectrum Disorders: Foundations, Characteristics, and Effective Strategies, Pearson eText with Loose-Leaf Version -- Access Card Package (2nd Edition) (What's New in Special Education)

Autism Spectrum Disorders: Foundations, Characteristics, and Effective Strategies, Pearson eText with Loose-Leaf Version -- Access Card Package (2nd Edition) (What's New in Special Education)
by E. Amanda Boutot (Author)


This title is only available as a loose-leaf version with Pearson eText.   Autism Spectrum Disorders provides teachers of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or other developmental disabilities with important background information, historical context, etiological underpinnings, and characteristics of ASD that may impact learning. Written in an easy-to-follow format, the book focuses on evidence-based practices and approaches that have empirical bases for use. The book identifies current trends in research and practice and includes special Research, Diversity, and Trends and Issues boxes to clarify the concepts. Each chapter begins with real life scenarios depicting key information and concepts found in that chapter and include key terms, chapter objectives,...

Autism Spectrum Disorders: From Theory to Practice (2nd Edition)

Autism Spectrum Disorders: From Theory to Practice (2nd Edition)
by Laura J. Hall (Author)


Written by an established author, the second edition of Autism Spectrum Disorders: From Theory to Practice, helps educators implement the best evidence-based practices in their classroom, community and home. With a solid emphasis on research, the text offers a practical approach to teaching students with Autism Spectrum Disorders, providing a step-by-step guide for assessment and progress monitoring, and outlining a variety of evidence-based practices organized by major theoretical perspective.   Hall devotes a complete chapter to cultural and linguistic diversity and addresses ASD across the lifespan, including preschool, school-age and transitions. Updated with the latest research and strategies, this edition includes a new chapter on transitions, references to DSM-v, and...

The Survival Guide for Kids with Autism Spectrum Disorders (And Their Parents)

The Survival Guide for Kids with Autism Spectrum Disorders (And Their Parents)
by Elizabeth Verdick (Author), Elizabeth Reeve M.D. (Author)


This positive, straightforward book offers kids with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) their own comprehensive resource for both understanding their condition and finding tools to cope with the challenges they face every day. Some children with ASDs are gifted; others struggle academically. Some are more introverted, while others try to be social. Some get "stuck" on things, have limited interests, or experience repeated motor movements like flapping or pacing ("stims"). The Survival Guide for Kids with Autism Spectrum Disorders covers all of these areas, with an emphasis on helping children gain new self-understanding and self-acceptance. Meant to be read with a parent, the book addresses questions ("What’s an ASD?" "Why me?") and provides strategies for communicating, making and...

The Autism Activities Handbook: Activities to Help Kids Communicate, Make Friends, and Learn Life Skills (Autism Spectrum Disorder, Autism Books)

The Autism Activities Handbook: Activities to Help Kids Communicate, Make Friends, and Learn Life Skills (Autism Spectrum Disorder, Autism Books)
by Catherine Pascuas (Author), Cara Koscinski (Foreword)


A treasure of practical, playful and engaging activities for kids on the spectrum The Autism Activities Handbook offers strategies and ideas to enrich the lives of children through meaningful activity. More than 30 games and activities help the child on the spectrum: follow directions, stay focused, and strengthen motor skills; interact with peers and develop social skills needed for playdates; build vocabulary, expand communication, and answer questions. Features illustrations by an artist on the autism spectrum. "Another in the long line of books I wish I had at my disposal when my daughter was growing up!" -Hackie Reitman, MD, neurodiversity advocate, author of Aspertools and father of a young woman on the spectrum. "Ms Pascuas has her finger on the pulse of the autism...

Autism Spectrum Disorders: What Every Parent Needs to Know

Autism Spectrum Disorders: What Every Parent Needs to Know
by Alan I. Rosenblatt (Editor), Paul S. Carbone (Editor)


Autism Spectrum Disorders: What Every Parent Needs to Know is an invaluable resource for parents and caregivers of children who have been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Prepared under the editorial direction of 2 distinguished pediatricians who are autism experts—one of whom is also the parent of a son with autism—this book helps you understand how ASDs are defined and diagnosed and provides you with information on the most current types of behavioral and developmental therapies. It also helps parents understand what they can do to help promote a smooth transition from adolescence through the teen years and into adulthood.

Topics include
• Symptoms, frequency, and types of ASDs
• Accessing care
• Services in the community
• Tapping into...

Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Inclusive Classroom, 2nd Edition: How to Reach & Teach Students with ASD

Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Inclusive Classroom, 2nd Edition: How to Reach & Teach Students with ASD
by Barbara L. Boroson (Author)


With 1 in 68 children now being diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder, every teacher needs to be ready to teach children with ASD. This engaging and informative book—now completely revised and updated to reflect the latest statistics and research—will both help you understand your students on the autism spectrum and provide strategies to help them succeed in school. Drawing on 25 years of experience working with students with ASD, Barbara Boroson guides you to create a classroom community that is attuned to the needs of children with ASD and allows all of your students to learn and grow.

Autism Spectrum Disorders: Foundations, Characteristics, and Effective Strategies

Autism Spectrum Disorders: Foundations, Characteristics, and Effective Strategies
by E. Amanda Boutot (Author), Brenda Smith Myles (Author)


Responding to the increasing numbers of students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in schools, and the need for all teachers to be prepared with research-based strategies to instruct these students, this new book provides a comprehensive overview of what autism spectrum disorders are, their identification, and treatment approaches; specific information on diagnosis, learning behavioral, cognitive, and sensory characteristics, and etiology; and evidence-based practices for instruction, including social skills, communication, and academics. Other featured concepts include: a model for determining appropriate, individualized practices; assessment and planning including environmental planning; information to support teachers as they develop programs and learning environments;...

Autism Spectrum Disorders Through the Life Span

Autism Spectrum Disorders Through the Life Span
by Digby Tantam (Author)


This professional text covers every aspect of Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD), from science to services, from the most disabling Kanner's syndrome to the most high-functioning Asperger syndrome, and from birth to old age. The book contains the latest research on the assessment, diagnosis, treatment, intervention and support of individuals with ASD, and examines their implications at various stages of life. A wide range of neurological, genetic, psychological, developmental, social, and emotional issues are covered, and the author also includes less accessible information on the diagnosis and treatment of associated psychiatric and medical conditions, the overlap between the ASDs and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and the management of behavioural and forensic problems. The...

© 2017 BrightSurf.com