Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Improving cell transplantation after spinal cord injury: When, where and how?

June 01, 2016


Spinal cord injuries are mostly caused by trauma, often incurred in road traffic or sporting incidents, often with devastating and irreversible consequences, and unfortunately having a relatively high prevalence (250,000 patients in the USA; 80% of cases are male). One currently explored approach to restoring function after spinal cord injury is the transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) into the damaged area. The hope is that these will encourage the repair of damaged neurons, but does it work? And if so, how can it be optimized?

According to a systematic analysis of the literature published this week in PLOS Biology, after experimental spinal cord injury, transplanting OECs into the site of damage does indeed significantly improve locomotor performance. To reach this conclusion, Ralf Watzlawick, Jan Schwab, and their colleagues at the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Charit© Universtaetsmedizin Berlin and the CAMARADES consortium (Collaborative Approach to Meta Analysis and Review of Animal Data from Experimental Studies), analyzed 49 studies, published between 1949 and 2014, which included 62 experiments involving 1164 animals.

Restoration of function after spinal cord injury remains one of the most formidable challenges in regenerative medicine, but cell transplantation into the spinal cord represents a promising treatment strategy. OECs are considered particularly suitable for transplantation because they have been shown to be neuro-protective and to promote neuro-regeneration in different settings, and can be extracted from the patient's own nasal cavity, thereby minimizing the chances of graft rejection and avoiding the need for immunosuppressive drugs.

However, reports in the literature about the efficacy of transplantation of OECs for treatment of spinal cord injury have been contradictory. Therefore, to investigate the in vivo evidence for the efficacy of this procedure, the authors implemented a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Importantly, the authors set out to explore the potential influence of variations in experimental approaches and unreported data.

"We felt that after more than two decades since the discovery that OECs elicit effects on neural plasticity in vivo, it was time to test their effects by appropriate methodology beyond reproduction", the authors argued.

The data analysed by the authors justify the use of OECs as a cellular substrate to develop and to optimize minimally invasive and secure protocols for repairing damaged spinal cord. They also identified several aspects of the cell transplantation procedure that could have a significant impact on the size of the therapeutic effect, including: the time-point of application, the use of surgical micro-dissection to "refresh" the scar tissue, the localization of transplanted cells, the number of injections, the injected volume, and the dose of cells administered.

Importantly, by using state-of-the-art statistical methods the authors also found that the impact of publication bias (due to selective failure to report results) was minimal, further supporting the translational potential of this approach.

Despite being focussing on OECs, the findings may be of more general relevance for optimizing the transplantation of other cell types after spinal cord injury.

###

Additional information:

The Collaborative Approach to Meta Analysis and Review of Animal Data from Experimental Studies.

http://www.dcn.ed.ac.uk/camarades/

In your coverage please use this URL to provide access to the freely available article in PLOS Biology: http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002468

Citation: Watzlawick R, Rind J, Sena ES, Brommer B, Zhang T, Kopp MA, et al. (2016) Olfactory Ensheathing Cell Transplantation in Experimental Spinal Cord Injury: Effect size and Reporting Bias of 62 Experimental Treatments: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS Biol 14(5): e1002468. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002468

Funding: RW was sponsored by the "Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes" (#186392). JMS received funding support from the Else-Kroehner-Fresenius Foundation, the Wings-for-Life Spinal Cord Research Foundation (#60-2012), and the W.E. Hunt & C.M. Curtis Endowment. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


PLOS


Related Spinal Cord Injury Current Events and Spinal Cord Injury News Articles


Simple attraction: Researchers control protein release from nanoparticles without encapsulation
A U of T Engineering team has designed a simpler way to keep therapeutic proteins where they are needed for long periods of time. The discovery is a potential game-changer for the treatment of chronic illnesses or injuries that often require multiple injections or daily pills.

Drug used for pain, anxiety may be linked to birth defects
A drug commonly used to treat pain, epilepsy, anxiety and other brain health disorders may be associated with an increased risk of major birth defects, according to a study published in the May 18, 2016, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

Research findings reveal potential to reverse cancer-related nerve pain
A study providing new information about neuropathic pain afflicting some 90 percent of cancer patients who have had nerve damage caused by tumors, surgery, chemotherapy or radiation indicates gene therapy as a possible treatment.

Double-blinded randomized controlled trial of the Xiao procedure in children
Researchers at Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital report the results of a double-blinded randomized controlled trial of the "Xiao procedure" in children with spina bifida.

Researchers find possible treatment for suppressed immunity from spine injuries
Scientists report in Nature Neuroscience they have identified an underlying cause of dangerous immune suppression in people with high level spinal cord injuries and they propose a possible treatment.

Immune cells help the brain to self-heal after a stroke
After a stroke, there is inflammation in the damaged part of the brain.

Natural resilience to major life stressors is not as common as thought
When someone goes through a rough period in their life, say a divorce or losing their job, the common thought has been that this is a test of the person's natural resilience or ability to bounce back.

New research gathers more evidence for innovative stroke treatment
New research has provided more evidence that an innovative treatment strategy may help prevent brain swelling and death in stroke patients.

How a waste product of exercise protects neurons from trauma damage
Researchers led by EPFL have found how lactate, a waste product of glucose metabolism can protect neurons from damage following acute trauma such as stroke or spinal cord injury.

UAB researchers find protein that improves mobility after spinal cord injuries
Spinal cord injuries cause severe functional disabilities in those who sustain them, including paraplegia or tetraplegia, depending on the scale of the injury.
More Spinal Cord Injury Current Events and Spinal Cord Injury News Articles

Spinal Cord Injury: Functional Rehabilitation (3rd Edition)

Spinal Cord Injury: Functional Rehabilitation (3rd Edition)
by Martha Freeman Somers MS PT (Author)


Compltely updated in a new edition, this unique reference is an in-depth examination of the central role of the physical therapist in rehabilitation following spinal cord injury. This book encompasses all of the elements involved in a successful rehabilitation program. It includes a basic understanding of spinal cord injuries and issues relevant to disability, as well as knowledge of the physical skills involved in functional activities and the therapeutic strategies for acquiring these skills. It also presents an approach to the cord-injured person that promotes self-respect and encourages autonomy. Comprehensive information equips readers with a broad foundation of knowledge including topics relevant to spinal cord injury, its pathological repercussions, and medical and rehabilitative...

Don't Call It a Miracle: The Movement to Cure Spinal Cord Injury

Don't Call It a Miracle: The Movement to Cure Spinal Cord Injury


Don't Call It a Miracle is a comprehensive introduction to the world of spinal cord injury research. It provides the basic information advocates need to push effectively for faster cures.

The Spinal Cord Injury Handbook: For Patients and Families

The Spinal Cord Injury Handbook: For Patients and Families
by Richard C. Senelick MD (Author)


Education is the lifeline that can help spinal cord injured patients return to productive, healthful lives—or begin life anew. Inside the Spinal Cord Injury Handbook, patients, family members, healthcare providers and attorneys learn the six major arenas that make up optimum health and rehabilitation success. These include mobility, skin care, sexuality and myths that pervade society.

ISCoS Text Book on Comprehensive Management of Spinal Cord Injuries

ISCoS Text Book on Comprehensive Management of Spinal Cord Injuries
by Mr. H S Chhabra (Author)




Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation (Contemporary Perspectives in Rehabilitation)

Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation (Contemporary Perspectives in Rehabilitation)
by Edelle Field-Fote PT PhD (Author)


One of the world’s leading authorities in spinal cord injury, and a participant in the Human Brain Project brings you an evidenced-based guide to the state-of-the-art in spinal cord rehabilitation. She has assembled an expert team of clinicians, each with expertise in the content areas they address. Their work encompasses all of the new scientific knowledge and technological advances practitioners need to know to determine the most effective rehabilitation interventions for each patient and to attain maximum restoration of function in individuals with SCI.

Spinal Cord Medicine

Spinal Cord Medicine
by Denise I. Campagnolo MD (Editor), Steven Kirshblum MD (Editor), Mark S. Nash PhD FACSM (Editor), Robert F. Heary MD (Editor), Peter H. Gorman MD (Editor)


Spinal Cord Medicine is the perfect resource for the medical specialist treating persons with spinal cord injuries.  This comprehensive and practical resource provides detail about all aspects of spinal cord injury and disease.  The initial seven chapters present the history, anatomy, imaging, epidemiology, and general acute management of spinal cord injury. The next eleven chapters deal with medical aspects of spinal cord damage, such as pulmonary management and the neurogenic bladder. Chapters on rehabilitation are followed by nine chapters dealing with diseases that cause non-traumatic spinal cord injury. A comprehensive imaging chapter is included with 30 figures which provide the reader with an excellent resource to understand the complex issues of imaging the spine and spinal...

Spinal Cord Injury

Spinal Cord Injury
by Anders Holtz MD PhD (Author), Richard Levi MD PhD (Author)


Spinal cord injuries typically strike young, previously healthy persons, and leaves the individual with a severe, life-lasting impairment affecting all organ systems. Without adequate management, the risk of severe morbidity and mortality is very high. In contrast state-of-the-art management makes it possible for most persons with SCI to lead long, fulfilling, and autonomous lives despite neurological impairment. This book covers all medical and surgical aspects of modern SCI management from the scene of the accident through rehabilitation to the life-long follow up.


Essentials of Spinal Cord Medicine

Essentials of Spinal Cord Medicine
by Sunil Sabharwal MD (Author)


"From the first to the last page, this book is so full of information that as a person working in the world of spinal cord injury, I found myself in an unfamiliar situation. Never had I read a book related to my profession that I didnÌt have trouble putting down. IÌm not saying that such books are boring by any means however, they are not the captivating fictional reads that keep people up late on work nights thinking 'just one more chapter.' Essentials of Spinal Cord Medicine was that type of book for me!... Overall, I thought this book was nothing short of fantastic... it was so full of information that makes me feel more confident as a technologist, and more compassionate as a human. I would highly recommend this for any practitioner working in the field where they may...

Across The Street From Hell: My Spinal Cord Injury Recovery

Across The Street From Hell: My Spinal Cord Injury Recovery
by Mark Anthony Hall (Author)


On his way to work the morning of August 8th 2007 Mark Hall was ejected from his vehicle during a rollover accident breaking his neck and leaving him paralyzed from the neck down. Follow him on his journey from his life as an Ironworker & Musician, through the accident, then tackling the daily obstacles of rehabilitation and his new life as a C-4, 5, 6 quadriplegic. What follows is an honest, raw and candid insight into the challenges of also being a Husband, Father to his three young daughters and his unrelenting (and successful) quest to prove wrong all the doctors and skeptics who said he’d never walk, live a normal life, or even eat and breathe on his own ever again.

Mayo Clinic Guide to Living with a Spinal Cord Injury: Moving Ahead with Your Life

Mayo Clinic Guide to Living with a Spinal Cord Injury: Moving Ahead with Your Life
by Mayo Clinic (Author)


"This indispenable guide offers a complete picture of the road to recovery, and the specifics to move ahead with your life. When possible it encourages readers to resume their favorite hobbies, participate in athletic activities and return to the workplace.For the first time, leading medical specialists at the world-renowned Mayo Clinic offer their expert advice on everything from emotional adjustments, to skin care, to home and car modifications, to quality-of-life improvements. Easy-to-read, illustrated, and well organized, Mayo Clinic Guide to Living with A Spinal Cord Inury provides the "how-to" regarding the day-to-day challenges faced by anyone who has a spinal cord injury."

© 2017 BrightSurf.com