Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

New blood test for the detection of bovine TB

June 01, 2016

A new blood test to detect Mycobacteria in blood has been developed by a team at The University of Nottingham led by Dr Cath Rees, an expert in microbiology in the School of Biosciences and Dr Ben Swift from the School of Veterinary Medicine and Science.

The researchers have used this new method to show that cattle diagnosed with bovine tuberculosis (bTB) have detectable levels of the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) in their blood which causes this disease.

'Evidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteraemia in intradermal skin test positive cattle detected using phage-RPA' has been published online in the peer reviewed medical journal Virulence.

Dr Rees said: "This test delivers results within 48 hours and the frequency in which viable mycobacteria were detected in the blood of skin test positive animals changes the paradigm of this disease."

This new, simple and inexpensive blood test detects very low levels of mycobacteria in blood using a bacteriophage-based technique developed by The University of Nottingham. The group has patented an improved version of the method that delivers results in just six hours. More recently 'proof of principal' experiments have shown that this is even more sensitive. This is currently licenced to a spin out company, PBD Biotech Ltd.

Bovine TB is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by M. bovis. The UK has struggled to eradicate bTB and control measures continue to be a significant economic burden on the agricultural industry.

Routine testing for Bovine TB uses the Single Intradermal Comparative Cervical Tuberculin (SICCT) skin test for M. bovis infection and all healthy cattle are regularly tested this way. However, it is known that this test is only 90 per cent sensitive at best and misses many infected animals.

Dr Cath Rees said: "The data we are getting has taken the scientific community by surprise. In our paper we show that when blood samples from skin test negative cattle were tested for M. bovis cells, all the samples proved negative. However using just a 2ml blood sample, viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria (MTC) were detected in 66 per cent of samples from skin test positive animals. When the carcasses were inspected, it was found that the highest number of bacteria were detected in the animals with visible TB lesions (VL) and 85 per cent of these VL animals were M. bovis positive.

"More excitingly, using our new more sensitive six-hour method, this figure is even higher - all animals with visible lesions were MTC positive, and even 26 out of 28 animals where the lesions were not yet visible also were positive suggesting that M. bovis is commonly found in the circulating blood of infected animals."

Difficulties in detecting, growing cultures and achieving sensitive detection using the current skin test, which looks for the animal's an immune response, are a major barrier to understanding and diagnosing bTB infection. Early results indicate that M. bovis can be detected before the animal becomes SCCIT-positive.

Dr Rees said: "Using our bacteriophage-based test the hope is that we can help improve herd control by finding animals at the early stages of infection and helping farmers control outbreaks of bTB more rapidly."

Working with the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, the Nottingham group has set up the first animal trial using the blood test to detect M. bovis in the blood of experimentally infected animals to determine exactly how soon this test can detect infection.

Dr Rees said: "The test also offers the potential for new, better tests for other farm animals. We are directly detecting the bacteria and so the method will work using blood samples from any animal species - so far we have detected mycobacteria in the blood of cattle, sheep and horses, but it could also be used for deer, goats or llamas.

"Not only that, we can detect any type of mycobacteria, we have use the same method to detect other diseases, such as Johne's disease, not just bTB."

###

The paper is available online. Alternatively it can be supplied on request.

University of Nottingham


Related Mycobacteria Current Events and Mycobacteria News Articles


Uncovering the secrets of immune system invaders
The human immune system is a powerful and wonderful creation.

New hope in the fight against tuberculosis
According to figures of the World Health Organization, some 8.7 million people contracted tuberculosis in 2012 and this disease is fatal for approximately 1.3 million people throughout the world each year.

An unexpected role for calcium in controlling inflammation during chronic lung infection
Many of us take a healthy immune system for granted. But for certain infants with rare, inherited mutations of certain genes, severe infection and death are stark consequences of their impaired immune responses.

New treatment strategy allows lower doses of toxic tuberculosis drug without compromising potency
While an effective treatment is available for combating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, it carries serious side effects for patients.

Scientists uncover a role for carbon monoxide in battling bacterial infections
The innate immune system serves as the body's specialized armed forces division, comprised of a host of defense mechanisms used to battle bacterial infections.

One gene links susceptibility to rare infections with predisposition to autoimmune disease
The mutations were familiar, but the patients' conditions seemed baffling at first. A team lead by Rockefeller University researchers had linked variations in an immune gene to rare bacterial infections.

New tuberculosis blood test in children is reliable and highly specific
A new blood test provides a fast and accurate tool to diagnose tuberculosis in children, a new proof-of-concept study shows. The newly developed test (TAM-TB assay) is the first reliable immunodiagnostic assay to detect active tuberculosis in children.

Team studies immune response of Asian elephants infected with a human disease
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the organism that causes tuberculosis in humans, also afflicts Asian (and occasionally other) elephants.

New tuberculosis test more than skin deep
A new screening process for tuberculosis (TB) infections in Canadian prisons could mean that more than 50 per cent of those screened won't undergo unnecessary treatment due to false positives.

Researchers discover how soils control atmospheric hydrogen
Researchers at New Zealand's University of Otago are helping to clear up an enduring mystery regarding the composition of the Earth's atmosphere.
More Mycobacteria Current Events and Mycobacteria News Articles

Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, An Issue of Clinics in Chest Medicine, 1e (The Clinics: Internal Medicine)

Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, An Issue of Clinics in Chest Medicine, 1e (The Clinics: Internal Medicine)
by Gwen A. Huitt MD MS (Author)


Drs. Huitt and Daley have assembled an expert panel of authors on the topic of Non-Tuberculosis Mycobacteria. Articles in this issue will include discussions in the following areas: The Pathogenesis of NTM, Epidemiology of NTM, Environmental Sources of NTM, Laboratory Diagnosis of NTM, Medications and Monitoring in NTM infections, Treatment of Rapidly Growing NTM, Treatment of Slow Growing NTM, NTM Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts, Extra Pulmonary NTM Infections, NTM Infections in Cystic Fibrosis, and Surgical Approach to NTM Infections.

Zoonotic Tuberculosis: Mycobacterium bovis and Other Pathogenic Mycobacteria

Zoonotic Tuberculosis: Mycobacterium bovis and Other Pathogenic Mycobacteria
by Charles O. Thoen (Editor), James H. Steele (Editor), John B. Kaneene (Editor)


Zoonotic Tuberculosis: Mycobacterium bovis and Other Pathogenic Mycobacteria, Third Edition is a comprehensive review of the state of the art in the control and elimination of infections caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in animals and humans. This update to the most complete and current reference available on Mycobacterium bovis includes new coverage of the latest molecular techniques; more information on human infection and One Health; updates to the information on the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD), the World Health Organization (WHO), Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), and the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) National Tuberculosis Eradication Program; and coverage of additional African countries. The Third Edition...

Mycobacteria Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology)

Mycobacteria Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology)
by Tanya Parish (Editor), David M. Roberts (Editor)


Updated and revised, this thorough volume provides a selection of the newest methods, as well as some of the basic methods required for a mycobacterial research laboratory. Mycobacteria Protocols, Third Edition guides readers through fractionation and analysis of macromolecules, from nucleic acids to proteins, complex lipids, and metabolites. Detailed and comprehensive protocols are provided for protein and lipid/glycolipid analysis using well-established methods; these are now complemented by a metabolomics chapter in which the complement of metabolites can be profiled. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible...

Mycobacteria: I Basic Aspects (Mycobacteria Vol. 1)

Mycobacteria: I Basic Aspects (Mycobacteria Vol. 1)
by Pattisapu R.J. Gangadharam (Author), P.A. Jenkins (Author)


Mycobacteria is divided into two volumes. The first volume deals with the basic biology of mycobacteria. With its emphasis on the state of the art outlook, this volume includes taxonomy and molecular biology of mycobacteria, modern approaches for detection of mycobacteria, and immunology and immunization against tuberculosis. The second volume covers drug trestments for mycobacteria anad tuberculosis. It outlines trends of discovery and development of chemotherapy, starting from the mid-50's to present day uses of chemotherapy in treating AIDS, drug-resistant tuberculosis, and other non-tuberculosis mycobacterial diseases.

  Clinical Handbook of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria
by Jakko van Ingen MD PhD (Editor), Peter Davies (Editor)


This handbook is designed to provide basic clinical guidance on the diagnosis and treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections. It is a contributed work drawing on the knowledge and experience of global leaders in infectious diseases, microbiology, and respiratory medicine. It is authoritative, concise, and portable, intended for use in a fast-paced clinical setting. Its coverage of both basic science and clinical aspects of NTM, makes it highly useful as a refresher for verifying a specific case or a daily companion for physicians caring for patients with NTM. A first-of-its-kind, it will be the go-to guide for clinicians encountering NTM in practice.

Molecular Genetics of Mycobacteria

Molecular Genetics of Mycobacteria
by Graham F. Hatfull (Editor), William R., Jr. Jacobs (Editor)


A comprehensive collection of perspectives by experts in mycobacterial molecular biology Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes one in four avoidable deaths in the developing world and kills more adults than malaria, AIDS, and all tropical diseases combined. Tuberculosis was named a global health emergency by the World Health Organization, a distinction no other disease has received. Although the study of mycobacterial genetics has expanded dramatically, with new investigations into mycobacterial growth, replication, metabolism, physiology, drug susceptibility, and virulence, most of the problems in tuberculosis control that existed in 2000 remain today. Advances in our understanding of mycobacterial genetics have been reflected in exciting recent developments. New diagnostic approaches can...

Mycobacteria and Human Disease, 2Ed

Mycobacteria and Human Disease, 2Ed
by John Grange (Author)


The mycobacteria cause two of the world's most serious infections: tuberculosis and leprosy; as well as a range of infections which occur particularly in HIV/AIDS patients.



This 2nd edition has been completely revised by John Grange, one of the leading world authorities on the subject, and addresses the major developments in the subject over the last decade: advances in drug treatment of leprosy, tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases; the introduction of monoclonal antibodies; cell cloning techniques, and genetic engineering techniques.



'Mycobacteria and Human Disease' provides a comprehensive review of the mycobacteria, their place in the environment, the way in which they interact with the living host, the nature of the diseases they...

Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases of Man and Animals: The Many Hosts of Mycobacteria

Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases of Man and Animals: The Many Hosts of Mycobacteria
by Harshini Mukundan (Editor), Mark Chambers (Editor), Ray Waters (Editor), Michelle Larsen (Editor)


Mycobacteria are bacterial pathogens which cause diseases in humans and non-human animals. This monograph will primarily cover the most important and widely researched groups of mycobacteria: members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and Mycobacterium leprae, across a wide range of host species. M. tuberculosis and M. bovis are particularly relevant with the increasing drug resistance and co-infection with HIV and the possible cross-infection of badgers and cattle associated with M. bovis. This ideal reference for researchers working in different fields draws together information on different pathogens, and by considering the diseases in a zoonotic context provides a One Health approach to these important groups of diseases.

The Ecology of Mycobacteria

The Ecology of Mycobacteria
by J. Kazda (Author), Jindrich Kazda (Author)


Detailed information dealing with the ecology of mycobacteria is derived from a variety of different scientific fields such as botany, biochemistry, genetics, immunology, microbiology and epidemiology. This is the first attempt to evaluate this information from an ecological point of view and to develop a strategy for the prevention of tuberculosis and other mycobacterioses based on the ecological behavior of mycobacteria, especially the potentially pathogenic species capable of either growth in the environment or provoking disease. Regarding the interests of the developing countries, special attention is paid to the ecology of Mycobacterium leprae and to the supporting effect of accompanying mycobacteria in its pathogenicity.
On a more positive side, environmental...

Mycobacteria Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology)

Mycobacteria Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology)
by Tanya Parish (Editor), Amanda Claire Brown (Editor)


Due to the rising threat of tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections, methods to study the biology of the mycobacteria and to improve diagnostic, therapeutic and preventative reagents are still very much in need.  Mycobacteria Protocols, Second Edition updates and refines the methods of the well-received first edition while adding newly developed methods culled from the most cutting-edge research in the field.  Ranging from the basics of sub-cellular fractionation to advanced methods using specialized growth conditions and whole genome, transcriptome and proteome analysis, the chapters conform to the Methods in Molecular Biology™ series format, providing step-by-step laboratory protocols, lists of necessary materials and reagents, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding...

© 2017 BrightSurf.com