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Ancient shark fossil reveals new insights into jaw evolution

The skull of a newly discovered 325-million-year-old shark-like species suggests that early cartilaginous and bony fishes have more to tell us about the early evolution of jawed vertebrates-including humans-than do modern sharks, as was previously thought.




Dartmouth-led study shows air temperature influenced African glacial movements

Changes in air temperature, not precipitation, drove the expansion and contraction of glaciers in Africa's Rwenzori Mountains at the height of the last ice age, according to a Dartmouth-led study funded by the National Geographic Society and the National Science Foundation.

Meteorites Yield Clues to Red Planet's Early Atmosphere

Geologists who analyzed 40 meteorites that fell to Earth from Mars unlocked secrets of the Martian atmosphere hidden in the chemical signatures of these ancient rocks.

Research uncovers DNA looping damage tied to HPV cancer

It's long been known that certain strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause cancer. Now, researchers at The Ohio State University have determined a new way that HPV might spark cancer development - by disrupting the human DNA sequence with repeating loops when the virus is inserted into host-cell DNA as it replicates.

Radiation therapy for cervical cancer increases risk for colorectal cancer

Researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston are the first to recommend that young women treated with radiation for cervical cancer should begin colorectal cancer screening earlier than traditionally recommended.

Significant baseline levels of arsenic found in soil throughout Ohio are due to natural processes

Geologic and soil processes are to blame for significant baseline levels of arsenic in soil throughout Ohio, according to a study published recently in the Journal of Environmental Quality.

Mutant protein in muscle linked to neuromuscular disorder

Sometimes known as Kennedy's disease, spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a rare inherited neuromuscular disorder characterized by slowly progressive muscle weakness and atrophy.

Earliest ancestor of land herbivores discovered

New research from the University of Toronto Mississauga demonstrates how carnivores transitioned into herbivores for the first time on land.

Deaths from viral hepatitis surpasses HIV/AIDS as a preventable cause of deaths in Australia

Deaths from viral Hepatitis B and C have surpassed HIV/AIDS in many countries, including Australia and in Western Europe, according to an analysis of the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study.

Recycling industrial waste water

A research group composed of Dr. Martin Prechtl, Leo Heim and their colleagues at the University of Cologne's Department of Chemistry has discovered a new method of generating hydrogen using water and formaldehyde.

More effective kidney stone treatment, from the macroscopic to the nanoscale

Researchers in France have hit on a novel method to help kidney stone sufferers ensure they receive the correct and most effective treatment possible.

Study provides crucial new information about how the ice ages came about

An international team of scientists has discovered new relationships between deep-sea temperature and ice-volume changes to provide crucial new information about how the ice ages came about.

Shade grown coffee shrinking as a proportion of global coffee production

The proportion of land used to cultivate shade grown coffee, relative to the total land area of coffee cultivation, has fallen by nearly 20 percent globally since 1996, according to a new study by scientists from The University of Texas at Austin and five other institutions.

Banning Chocolate Milk in School Cafeterias Decreases Sales and Increases Waste

For many children eating school lunch, chocolate milk is a favorite choice.

Progress in understanding immune response in severe schistosomiasis

Researchers at the Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences at Tufts and Tufts University School of Medicine (TUSM) have uncovered a mechanism that may help explain the severe forms of schistosomiasis, or snail fever, which is caused by schistosome worms and is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in the world.

New technique detects microscopic diabetes-related eye damage

Indiana University researchers have detected new early-warning signs of the potential loss of sight associated with diabetes.

Cancer drugs block dementia-linked brain inflammation, UCI study finds

A class of drugs developed to treat immune-related conditions and cancer - including one currently in clinical trials for glioblastoma and other tumors - eliminates neural inflammation associated with dementia-linked diseases and brain injuries, according to UC Irvine researchers.

Study shows lasting effects of drought in rainy eastern US

This spring, more than 40 percent of the western U.S. is in a drought that the USDA deems "severe" or "exceptional." The same was true in 2013. In 2012, drought even spread to the humid east.

Two new species of yellow-shouldered bats endemic to the Neotropics

Lying forgotten in museum collections two new species of yellow-shouldered bats have been unearthed by scientists at the American Museum of New York and The Field Museum of Natural History and described in the open access journal ZooKeys.

At the origin of cell division

Droplets of filamentous material enclosed in a lipid membrane: these are the models of a "simplified" cell used by the SISSA physicists Luca Giomi and Antonio DeSimone, who simulated the spontaneous emergence of cell motility and division - that is, features of living material - in inanimate "objects".

Atypical brain connectivity associated with autism spectrum disorder

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adolescents appears to be associated with atypical connectivity in the brain involving the systems that help people infer what others are thinking and understand the meaning of others' actions and emotions.

Preterm births, multiples, and fertility treatment

While it is well known that fertility treatments are the leading cause of increases in multiple gestations and that multiples are at elevated risk of premature birth, these results are not inevitable, concludes an article in Fertility and Sterility.

Information storage for the next generation of plastic computers

Inexpensive computers, cell phones and other systems that substitute flexible plastic for silicon chips may be one step closer to reality, thanks to research published on April 16 in the journal Nature Communications.

High disease load reduces mortality of children

Children who have been conceived during a severe epidemic are more resistant against other pathogens later in life.

Red moon at night; stargazer's delight

Monday night's lunar eclipse proved just as delightful as expected to those able to view it.

Rapid and accurate mRNA detection in plant tissues

Gene expression is the process whereby the genetic information of DNA is used to manufacture functional products, such as proteins, which have numerous different functions in living organisms.

New species discovery sheds light on herbivore evolution

A new fossil may provide evidence that large caseid herbivores, the largest known terrestrial vertebrates of their time, evolved from small non-herbivorous members of that group

How brain structures grow as memory develops

Our ability to store memories improves during childhood, associated with structural changes in the hippocampus and its connections with prefrontal and parietal cortices.

Key milestone for brown fat research with a ground-breaking MRI scan

The first MRI scan to show 'brown fat' in a living adult could prove to be an essential step towards a new wave of therapies to aid the fight against diabetes and obesity.

Stanford biologists help solve fungi mysteries

A new genetic analysis revealing the previously unknown biodiversity and distribution of thousands of fungi in North America might also reveal a previously underappreciated contributor to climate change.

Searching for dark energy with neutrons

All the particles we know to exist make up only about five per cent of the mass and energy of the universe.

Floating nuclear plants could ride out tsunamis

When an earthquake and tsunami struck the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant complex in 2011, neither the quake nor the inundation caused the ensuing contamination.

Ancient sea-levels give new clues on ice ages

International researchers, led by the Australian National University (ANU), have developed a new way to determine sea-level changes and deep-sea temperature variability over the past 5.3 million years.

More research called for into HIV and schistosomiasis coinfection in African children

Researchers from LSTM have called for more research to be carried out into HIV and schistosomiasis coinfection in children in sub-Saharan Africa.

Study finds adverse respiratory outcomes for older people with COPD taking benzodiazepines

A group of drugs commonly prescribed for insomnia, anxiety and breathing issues "significantly increase the risk" that older people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, need to visit a doctor or Emergency Department for respiratory reasons, new research has found.

EU must take urgent action on invasive species

The EU must take urgent action to halt the spread of invasive species that are threatening native plants and animals across Europe, according to a scientist from Queen's University Belfast.

Researchers question emergency water treatment guidelines

The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) recommendations for treating water after a natural disaster or other emergencies call for more chlorine bleach than is necessary to kill disease-causing pathogens and are often impractical to carry out, a new study has found.

Stanford scientists develop 'playbook' for reverse engineering tissue

Consider the marvel of the embryo. It begins as a glob of identical cells that change shape and function as they multiply to become the cells of our lungs, muscles, nerves and all the other specialized tissues of the body.

Sprifermin offers benefit for cartilage loss from knee osteoarthritis

In a new study in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, at 12 months, total femorotibial cartilage thickness loss was reduced in sprifermin (recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 18)-treated knees compared to placebo-treated knees, with effects being significant in the lateral femorotibial compartment but not in the central femorotibial compartment.

Research shows that bacteria survive longer in contact lens cleaning solution than thought

Each year in the UK, bacterial infections cause around 6,000 cases of a severe eye condition known as microbial keratitis - an inflammation and ulceration of the cornea that can lead to loss of vision.

Researchers: Obesity can amplify bone and muscle loss

Florida State University researchers have identified a new syndrome called "osteosarcopenic obesity" that links the deterioration of bone density and muscle mass with obesity.

Sperm meets egg: Protein essential for fertilization discovered

Researchers at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute have discovered interacting proteins on the surface of the sperm and the egg essential to begin mammalian life.

Eavesdropping on brain cell chatter

Everything we do - all of our movements, thoughts and feelings - are the result of neurons talking with one another, and recent studies have suggested that some of the conversations might not be all that private.

Surveillance colonoscopy recommendations for average-risk patients with 1 to 2 small polyps consistent with guidelines

According to a new study, endoscopists' recommendations for timing of surveillance colonoscopy in average-risk patients with one to two small polyps are consistent with guideline recommendations in about 90 percent of cases.

Scientists unlock secrets of protein produced by disease-causing fungus

A team that includes scientists from the School of Medicine at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Johns Hopkins University and St. Mary's University reported the structure of a protein that helps a common fungus to infect the body.

Multiple births don't have to be an inevitable result of fertility treatments

While fertility treatments have helped many people become parents, they commonly result in multiple births, increasing the risk of prematurity, and leading to lifelong complications.

Scientists observe quantum superconductor-metal transition and superconducting glass

The article "Collapse of superconductivity in a hybrid tin-grapheme Josephson junction array'" presents the results of the first experimental study of the graphene-based quantum phase transition of the "superconductor-to-metal" type, i.e. transformation of the system's ground state from superconducting to metallic, upon changing the electron concentration in graphene sheet.

Potential Use of Google Glass in Surgical Settings

An article recently published in the International Journal of Surgery shows the potential applications for Google Glass in the surgical setting, particularly in relation to training.

A greener source of polyester -- cork trees

On the scale of earth-friendly materials, you'd be hard pressed to find two that are farther apart than polyester (not at all) and cork (very).

Researchers track down cause of eye mobility disorder

Imagine you cannot move your eyes up, and you cannot lift your upper eyelid.

Scientists Capture Ultrafast Snapshots of Light-Driven Superconductivity

A new study pins down a major factor behind the appearance of superconductivity-the ability to conduct electricity with 100 percent efficiency-in a promising copper-oxide material.

Progress in the fight against quantum dissipation

Scientists at Yale have confirmed a 50-year-old, previously untested theoretical prediction in physics and improved the energy storage time of a quantum switch by several orders of magnitude.

Scientists find new way to fight Malaria drug resistance

An anti-malarial treatment that lost its status as the leading weapon against the deadly disease could be given a new lease of life, with new research indicating it simply needs to be administered differently.

Adventurous bacteria

The bacterium Bacillus subtilis is quite adaptable. It moves about in liquids and on agar surfaces by means of flagella.

Synapses -- stability in transformation

Synapses are the points of contact at which information is transmitted between neurons. Without them, we would not be able to form thoughts or remember things.

Researchers develop a new drug to combat the measles

A novel antiviral drug may protect people infected with the measles from getting sick and prevent them from spreading the virus to others, an international team of researchers says.

Newlyweds, be careful what you wish for

A statistical analysis of the gift "fulfillments" at several hundred online wedding gift registries suggests that wedding guests are caught between a rock and a hard place when it comes to buying an appropriate gift for the happy couple.

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