Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Early Earth haze may have spurred life, says University of Colorado study

November 07, 2006

Hazy skies on early Earth could have provided a substantial source of organic material useful for emerging life on the planet, according to a new study led by the University of Colorado at Boulder.

In a study published in the Proceedings for the National Academy of Sciences the week of Nov. 6, the research team measured organic particles produced from the kind of atmospheric gases thought to be present on early Earth. The laboratory experiment modeled conditions measured by the Huygens probe on Saturn's moon, Titan, last year during the NASA-European Space Agency's Cassini mission, according to Margaret Tolbert of CU-Boulder's Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, one of the study's authors.

The researchers mimicked Titan's hazy skies by exposing methane gas to an ultraviolet lamp, then added carbon dioxide gas to the mix to see if conditions that were probably present on early Earth would produce a similar organic haze. "It turns out that organic haze can form over a wide range of methane and carbon dioxide concentrations," said Tolbert. "This means that hazy conditions could have been present for many millions or even a billion years on Earth while life was evolving."

According to co-author Melissa Trainer of CU-Boulder's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, the study was the first to measure the chemical properties of aerosols by irradiating methane and carbon dioxide with ultraviolet light. "We found that you can make a lot of organic material virtually out of thin air," said Trainer, who completed her doctoral degree in CU-Boulder's chemistry and biochemistry department at CU in May 2006 under Tolbert.

Scientists believe the atmospheric chemistry of Titan might hold valuable clues to understanding the climate on Earth when life was just forming, said Trainer. Titan is an unusual solar system moon in that it has an atmosphere - in this case one thick with organic aerosol particles that form through photochemical processes when sunlight reacts with methane gas, she said.

According to the study, a similar haze hanging over Earth early in its history could have supplied more than 100 million tons of organic material to the planet's surface each year. "As these particles settled out of the skies, they would have provided a global source of food for living organisms," said Trainer.

Previous efforts to understand early life on Earth have focused on extreme environments like hydrothermal vents, where energy and nutrients are plentiful, said Tolbert. The new study shows that such a high-energy food source could have been produced globally early in Earth's history, possibly expanding the habitable domain for early life, she said.

In addition to serving as a source of organic material, a haze layer over Earth could have shielded living organisms from harmful UV rays and helped to regulate Earth's early climate, according to the study. The haze may have contributed to the geologic record on Earth by depositing organic carbon into some of the planet's most ancient rocks, said Alexander Pavlov, a study co-author and former LASP researcher now at the University of Arizona. Organic carbon is believed by scientists to be of biological origin.

Other authors on the study included LASP's Owen Toon, H. Langley Dewitt and Jose Jimenez of CIRES, and Christopher McKay of NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif.

"It's exciting to see that the early Earth experiments produced so much organic matter," said Carl Pilcher, director of NASA's Astrobiology Institute, headquartered at NASA Ames. "An organic haze produced this way on early Earth could have contributed to the formation and sustenance of life."

University of Colorado at Boulder


Related Haze Current Events and Haze News Articles


Hubble takes Mars portrait near close approach
Bright, frosty polar caps, and clouds above a vivid, rust-colored landscape reveal Mars as a dynamic seasonal planet in this NASA Hubble Space Telescope view taken on May 12, 2016, when Mars was 50 million miles from Earth.

VERITAS detects gamma rays from galaxy halfway across the visible universe
In April 2015, after traveling for about half the age of the universe, a flood of powerful gamma rays from a distant galaxy slammed into Earth's atmosphere.

'Pale orange dot': Early Earth's haze may give clue to habitability elsewhere in space
An atmospheric haze around a faraway planet -- like the one which probably shrouded and cooled the young Earth -- could show that the world is potentially habitable, or even be a sign of life itself.

Public Release: 29-Oct-2015 UW scientists are the first to simulate 3-D exotic clouds on an exoplanet
Scientists have catalogued nearly 2,000 exoplanets around stars near and far. While most of these are giant and inhospitable, improved techniques and spacecraft have uncovered increasingly smaller worlds. The day may soon come when astrophysicists announce our planet's twin around a distant star.

Three months after flyby, New Horizons team publishes first research paper
The New Horizons team described a wide range of findings about the Pluto system in its first research paper, published today.

Haze particles are hard enough to cause abrasive damage on frequently used industrial alloys
Rapid economic growth and urbanization in developing countries are accompanied by serious particulate air pollution, i.e. haze.

NASA simulation indicates ancient flood volcanoes could have altered climate
In June, 1991, Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines exploded, blasting millions of tons of ash and gas over 20 miles high - deep into the stratosphere, a stable layer of our atmosphere above most of the clouds and weather.

L.A. story: Cleaner air, healthier kids
A 20-year study finds that millennial children in Southern California breathe easier than ones who came of age in the '90s, for a reason as clear as the air in Los Angeles today.

VISTA stares right through the Milky Way
As one of its major surveys of the southern sky, the VISTA telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory in Chile is mapping the central regions of the Milky Way in infrared light to search for new and hidden objects.

The tell-tale signs of a galactic merger
The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has captured this striking view of spiral galaxy NGC 7714. This galaxy has drifted too close to another nearby galaxy and the dramatic interaction has twisted its spiral arms out of shape, dragged streams of material out into space, and triggered bright bursts of star formation.
More Haze Current Events and Haze News Articles

HAZE - A Novel

HAZE - A Novel
by Deborah Bladon (Author)


HAZE, a new standalone from New York Times and USA Today Bestselling Author, Deborah Bladon. Standalone Book. No Cliifhanger. Isla Lane is an ambitious violinist, who yearns for the career her grandmother had and had always planned for her. Though determined to make her mark on Manhattan and follow her dreams, she just can't seem to get back on course. Consumed with pain from the loss of her grandmother, Isla thinks that she has found the perfect distraction, but this perfect distraction will challenge her in ways she couldn’t have imagined. Work is the sole focus of Gabriel Foster's life. His family depends on him to chart the course for all of them. He works tirelessly to keep everyone and everything in his life in order. When Isla Lane falls into his path, his entire world is set...

Haze: The Rephaim, Book 2

Haze: The Rephaim, Book 2
by Paula Weston (Author)


Gaby Winters' life used to be pretty normal. She lived with her best friend. She worked in a library. She was slowly getting over the death of her twin brother, Jude. And then Rafa came looking for her.

     With him, her blood-soaked nightmares stopped. But now they are reality. She is one of the Rephaim - a wingless half angel, descended from the Fallen. Demons exist and they are hunting her.

     She knows she's alive when she's meant to be dead. And that means maybe Jude is too. So why isn't she out there looking for him?



Haze

Haze
by L. E. Modesitt (Author)


What lies beneath the millions of orbiting nanotech satellites that shroud the world called Haze? Major Keir Roget’s mission is to make planetfall in secret, find out, and report back to his superiors in the Federation, the Chinese-dominated government that rules Earth and the colonized planets.

For all his effectiveness as a security agent, Roget is troubled by memories of an earlier mission. When he was assigned to covert duty in the Noram backcountry town of St. George, he not only discovered that the long-standing Saint culture was neither as backward nor as harmless as his superiors believed, but he barely emerged with his life and sanity whole. Now, scouting Haze, he finds a culture seemingly familiar, yet frighteningly alien, with hints of a technology far superior to...

Haze

Haze
by Kathy Hoopmann (Author)


Seb is a loner. Brilliant with numbers but hopeless with people, he prefers the company of computers and his only friend, Guzzle. Things change for the better when he makes friends with Kristie, Madeline and Jen, and a new computer teacher - Miss Adonia - arrives. However, Seb is soon caught up in a web of computer fraud and lies and turns to Madeline's mysterious cyber friend for help. Weaving the facts of Asperger Syndrome into the story, this fast-paced book is acclaimed author Kathy Hoopmann's best novel yet and will be a rivetting read for teenagers of all sorts and abilities.

Haze and The Hammer of Darkness

Haze and The Hammer of Darkness
by L. E. Modesitt (Author)


Two amazing science fiction adventures by bestselling author L. E. Modesitt, Jr.!

HazeWhat lies beneath the millions of orbiting nanotech satellites that shroud the world called Haze?Major Keir Roget's mission reveals a culture on Haze seemingly familiar, yet frighteningly alien. But he isn't certain how much of what he sees is real--or how to convey a danger he cannot even prove to his superiors, if he can escape Haze.The Hammer of DarknessMartin Martel is an exile in trouble with the gods."You know about the gods, Martel. The ones like Apollo who can kill with a gesture, manipulate your feelings with a song, throw thunderbolts if they feel like it..."Are the gods really gods? Or men and women with larger-than-life powers playing god over a planet that wasn't really a...

The Haze (The Haze Trilogy Book 1)

The Haze (The Haze Trilogy Book 1)
by Janine Olsson


The legend of the most powerful coven of vampires began in a very unconventional way. Fifteen hundred years ago, a holy man living in Rome was viciously turned inhuman by a blood thirsty vampire. Lucius’ purity was ripped from him and he was left to struggle with his lamentable misfortune, although unknown to him or the evil powers that turned him, fate played a great hand in Lucius’ new found reality.

We all have a purpose in this world and Lucius’ was significant, yet he fought against his fate, against his hunger for human blood, and against the predator that now festered within him.

The fates stepped in again and offered him a skillful advocate. They sent him Sulla, a two thousand year old mystical vampire, who had foreseen Lucius’ purpose in a vision...

Haze

Haze


Freshly graduated from college and ready for a new start, Effie Jacobs leaves small town Michigan and heads to New York City to work in accounting for a major record label—the last thing she ever thought she'd be doing. She's left a world of drama behind her, eager to confront her new reality head on and make it on her own.

After getting over the initial shock of NYC and her new job, Effie's life starts to become more manageable, calmer, simpler. But all of that changes at once when HE steps into the picture, songwriter/performer/producer, Jack Teller.

He's enigmatic, gorgeous, and wealthy, the glowing product of so many years of hard work and limitless natural talent, a man so fantastic that he can have literally any woman he wants. And after a highly unexpected...

TABOO: GLORIOUS GANGING - FORBIDDEN NAUGHTY BRATS, FIRST TIME, HOT GIRL, GROUP, MULTIPLE PARTNERS, MENAGE BUNDLE

TABOO: GLORIOUS GANGING - FORBIDDEN NAUGHTY BRATS, FIRST TIME, HOT GIRL, GROUP, MULTIPLE PARTNERS, MENAGE BUNDLE


5 TABOO STORIES AND 1 BONUS STORY FOR THE PRICE OF ONE!

These dirty girls have been asking for a glorious ganging and we have just the right guys to give it to them. So forbidden, so much taboo but yet they keep coming back for more....

LOOK INSIDE TO FIND OUT NOW!

This collection is only suitable for those above the age of 18.

The Purpose (The Haze Trilogy Book 3)

The Purpose (The Haze Trilogy Book 3)
by Janine Olsson


Natalia, queen of the elite vampires, believes the hardest part of her purpose is behind her. Little does she know she’ll soon be facing an evil unlike any she’s encountered before. He ascended from Hell to ensure she fails, and is determined to destroy all she loves before possessing her.

Natalia needs the support of her sword, shield, and lion now more than ever, but they have their own challenges to bear. Finn faces a heartbreaking revelation that threatens his relationship with Natalia and the purpose, Maddox suffers with his bond to a broken human, and True struggles with his feelings for Natalia and his need to move on.

Will they succumb to the passions and diversions that surround them, or will Natalia’s strength keep them focused on their goal? And...

The Chosen (The Haze Trilogy, Book 2)

The Chosen (The Haze Trilogy, Book 2)
by Janine Olsson


As the new Queen of Hemlee, Natalia is ready to fulfill her purpose and unite the seven island covens as one. Bound and determined, she sets out to convince the elite kings of their universal goal—to rid mankind of evil vampires in hopes of salvation. However, Malice, Hell’s Gatekeeper, has other plans for her. He has been waiting centuries to seek his vengeance on her bonded mate, Finn, and desires more than final death for his foe. He seeks to blacken Finn’s heart by using True as bait to lure Natalia into betraying her beloved. Can their bond survive the demon’s torment? Can she convince the elite kings that her destiny is their destiny?

The Fates have spoken and The Chosen must rise. Evil is imminent. Will they be ready? Or is all hope lost?

© 2016 BrightSurf.com