Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Early Earth haze may have spurred life, says University of Colorado study

November 07, 2006
Hazy skies on early Earth could have provided a substantial source of organic material useful for emerging life on the planet, according to a new study led by the University of Colorado at Boulder.

In a study published in the Proceedings for the National Academy of Sciences the week of Nov. 6, the research team measured organic particles produced from the kind of atmospheric gases thought to be present on early Earth. The laboratory experiment modeled conditions measured by the Huygens probe on Saturn's moon, Titan, last year during the NASA-European Space Agency's Cassini mission, according to Margaret Tolbert of CU-Boulder's Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, one of the study's authors.

The researchers mimicked Titan's hazy skies by exposing methane gas to an ultraviolet lamp, then added carbon dioxide gas to the mix to see if conditions that were probably present on early Earth would produce a similar organic haze. "It turns out that organic haze can form over a wide range of methane and carbon dioxide concentrations," said Tolbert. "This means that hazy conditions could have been present for many millions or even a billion years on Earth while life was evolving."

According to co-author Melissa Trainer of CU-Boulder's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, the study was the first to measure the chemical properties of aerosols by irradiating methane and carbon dioxide with ultraviolet light. "We found that you can make a lot of organic material virtually out of thin air," said Trainer, who completed her doctoral degree in CU-Boulder's chemistry and biochemistry department at CU in May 2006 under Tolbert.

Scientists believe the atmospheric chemistry of Titan might hold valuable clues to understanding the climate on Earth when life was just forming, said Trainer. Titan is an unusual solar system moon in that it has an atmosphere - in this case one thick with organic aerosol particles that form through photochemical processes when sunlight reacts with methane gas, she said.

According to the study, a similar haze hanging over Earth early in its history could have supplied more than 100 million tons of organic material to the planet's surface each year. "As these particles settled out of the skies, they would have provided a global source of food for living organisms," said Trainer.

Previous efforts to understand early life on Earth have focused on extreme environments like hydrothermal vents, where energy and nutrients are plentiful, said Tolbert. The new study shows that such a high-energy food source could have been produced globally early in Earth's history, possibly expanding the habitable domain for early life, she said.

In addition to serving as a source of organic material, a haze layer over Earth could have shielded living organisms from harmful UV rays and helped to regulate Earth's early climate, according to the study. The haze may have contributed to the geologic record on Earth by depositing organic carbon into some of the planet's most ancient rocks, said Alexander Pavlov, a study co-author and former LASP researcher now at the University of Arizona. Organic carbon is believed by scientists to be of biological origin.

Other authors on the study included LASP's Owen Toon, H. Langley Dewitt and Jose Jimenez of CIRES, and Christopher McKay of NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif.

"It's exciting to see that the early Earth experiments produced so much organic matter," said Carl Pilcher, director of NASA's Astrobiology Institute, headquartered at NASA Ames. "An organic haze produced this way on early Earth could have contributed to the formation and sustenance of life."

University of Colorado at Boulder


Related Haze Current Events and Haze News Articles


NASA Experiments Recreate Aromatic Flavors of Titan
NASA scientists have created a new recipe that captures key flavors of the brownish-orange atmosphere around Saturn's largest moon, Titan.

Geologists Confirm Oxygen Levels of Ancient Oceans
Zunli Lu and Xiaoli Zhou, an assistant professor and Ph.D. student, respectively, in the Department of Earth Sciences, are part of an international team of researchers whose findings have been published by the journal Geology (Geological Society of America, 2014).

Urgent need to study the impacts of biomass burning and haze on marine ecosystems
Researchers are highlighting the urgent need to understand impacts of biomass burning and haze on Southeast Asian marine ecosystems in a paper published in the journal Global Change Biology on 6 March 2014.

Why soil changes color in air
According to the results of a recent study, soil color changes in the atmosphere basically through the oxidation of chemical substances in the soil.

Northern Sumatra Dealing With Smoke From Fires
On February 27, 2014, the Wall Street Journal and Southeast Asia Realtime reported that: "the plantation-rich province of Riau on Indonesia's Sumatra Island has declared a state of emergency as fires set for land clearing have sent pollution levels soaring and smoke made breathing difficult for thousands."

Cooperative SO2 and NOx aerosol formation in haze pollution
Air pollution in China has exhibited noticeable changes over the past 30 years, shifting from point-source pollution (around factories and industrial plants) in the 1980s to urban pollution in the 1990s.

To curb China's haze and air pollution, use water
A new idea to cut back on air pollution: spray water into the atmosphere from sprinklers atop tall buildings and towers, similar to watering a garden.

High-resolution 3-D imaging draws new picture of Golgi's whereabouts during cell division
Resolving a fundamental question in cell biology and showing off the powers of new high-resolution 3-D imaging, NIH scientists have discovered where the Golgi apparatus, which sorts newly synthesized proteins for transport inside and outside the cell, goes when it disassembles during cell division.

Hubble Traces Subtle Signals of Water on Hazy Worlds
Using the powerful­ eye of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, two teams of scientists have found faint signatures of water in the atmospheres of five distant planets.

Massive storm pulls water and ammonia ices from Saturn's depths
Once every 30 years or so, or roughly one Saturnian year, a monster storm rips across the northern hemisphere of the ringed planet.
More Haze Current Events and Haze News Articles

Haze

Haze
by L. E. Modesitt (Author)


What lies beneath the fog of the millions of orbiting nanotech satellites that shroud the world called Haze?  Major Keir Roget’s mission is to make planetfall in secret, find out, and report back to his superiors in the Federation, the Chinese-dominated government that rules Earth and the colonized planets. 

Now, scouting Haze, he finds a culture both seemingly familiar, yet frighteningly alien, with hints of a technology far superior to that of the Federation.  Yet he is not quite certain how much of what he sees is real–or how to convey a danger he cannot even prove to his superiors, if he can escape the planet...

Haze

Haze


An Amazon Hot 100 New Release!

Freshly graduated from college and ready for a new start, Effie Jacobs leaves small town Michigan and heads to New York City to work in accounting for a major record label--the last thing she ever thought she'd be doing. She's left a world of drama behind her, eager to confront her new reality head on and make it on her own.

After getting over the initial shock of NYC and her new job, Effie's life starts to become more manageable, calmer, simpler. But all of that changes at once when HE steps into the picture, songwriter/performer/producer, Jack Teller.

He's enigmatic, gorgeous, and wealthy, the glowing product of so many years of hard work and limitless natural talent, a man so fantastic that he can have literally any woman...

Haze

Haze
by Kathy Hoopmann (Author)


Seb is a loner. Brilliant with numbers but hopeless with people, he prefers the company of computers and his only friend, Guzzle. Things change for the better when he makes friends with Kristie, Madeline and Jen, and a new computer teacher - Miss Adonia - arrives. However, Seb is soon caught up in a web of computer fraud and lies and turns to Madeline's mysterious cyber friend for help. Weaving the facts of Asperger Syndrome into the story, this fast-paced book is acclaimed author Kathy Hoopmann's best novel yet and will be a rivetting read for teenagers of all sorts and abilities.

Haze: The Rephaim, Book 2

Haze: The Rephaim, Book 2
by Tundra Books


Gaby Winters' life used to be pretty normal. She lived with her best friend. She worked in a library. She was slowly getting over the death of her twin brother, Jude. And then Rafa came looking for her.

     With him, her blood-soaked nightmares stopped. But now they are reality. She is one of the Rephaim - a wingless half angel, descended from the Fallen. Demons exist and they are hunting her.

     She knows she's alive when she's meant to be dead. And that means maybe Jude is too. So why isn't she out there looking for him?

The Haze

The Haze
by Janine Olsson


The legend of the most powerful coven of vampires began in a very unconventional way. Fifteen hundred years ago, a holy man living in Rome was viciously turned inhuman by a blood thirsty vampire. Lucius’ purity was ripped from him and he was left to struggle with his lamentable misfortune, although unknown to him or the evil powers that turned him, fate played a great hand in Lucius’ new found reality.

We all have a purpose in this world and Lucius’ was significant, yet he fought against his fate, against his hunger for human blood, and against the predator that now festered within him.

The fates stepped in again and offered him a skillful advocate. They sent him Sulla, a two thousand year old mystical vampire, who had foreseen Lucius’ purpose in a vision...

What He Desires (Luna, #2)

What He Desires (Luna, #2)
by Stoked Publishing House


Note: This erotic romance is a novella (roughly 70 pages) and book 2 of 3. Not all situations are resolved. Ages 16-18+ depending on your location. Please read "For The Night (Luna, #1)" first!

A complex proposal…

His offer could save everything I’ve worked for. In exchange, he wants me in every way possible.

An inescapable passion…

His determination to win me over is undeniable. My desire to resist may not be enough to protect my heart.

A connection that is more than it seems…

He knows something I don’t. And when the dreams come, I’m left wondering if I’ve made the biggest mistake of my life.

HAZES OF HISTORY: GYPSIES AND SLAVES IN BRAZIL

HAZES OF HISTORY: GYPSIES AND SLAVES IN BRAZIL


The book in final analysis, is touching, moving, is a sincere and convincing report, in defense of the gypsy people, principally of those who lived in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Never before a book like this was written, with such this approach. We have exploited a new course, that of the innocence of gypsies, concerning the trade of Negroes slaves.

Games To Play in Bed: Fun ways to get off, To the land of sleep and nod

Games To Play in Bed: Fun ways to get off, To the land of sleep and nod
by Tom Haze (Author)


It's not what you think! Or maybe it is! It's a book for occasional insomniacs. Games to play when you're awaiting a visit from the sandman and he's been delayed. Play with a partner or if not refer to the Solo section. We can't give a guarantee that you'll enter blissful sleep within minutes of activating one of the carefully chosen games but all the same - it's great fun!

Luna: The Complete Collection

Luna: The Complete Collection
by Stoked Publishing House


Jocelyn Bates, local diner owner, spends her evenings out as Luna, a woman who only sleeps with a man once before saying goodbye. Spending a night with Tobias Giles-Blackburn throws her for a loop, however, and she gives up on going out as Luna for good.

When she runs from him, Tobias isn't willing to let her get away that easy, and soon, their lives are intertwined in a way Jocelyn never could've imagined.

When secrets, followed by more secrets, come to light, will Jocelyn accept that Tobias is her one and only...or will his deception be the end of them forever?

*Contains erotic romance series "For The Night", "What He Desires", and "All Our Lives" along with a sample of Violet's new series "Loving My Angel: Part One."*

Fateful Reunion (BWWM Romance)

Fateful Reunion (BWWM Romance)
by PWP Romance


Wanted: Weekend getaway. Seeking date for ten year class reunion.

Sex therapist Dr. Mandy Sanders needs a date and fast. Going to her class reunion solo isn’t an option especially when her ex and the woman who stole him away are coordinating the festivities. What she doesn’t expect is the blue-eyed Spaniard, Dante Perez, instead of the Mandingo Warrior who responded to the ad.

Dante Perez can’t resist filling in for his down and out houseguest when he sees the beautiful sex therapist on the computer screen. He’s determined to find out why a beautiful woman would be so desperate. What he isn't expecting is the immediate sexual attraction and chemistry to the uptight woman.

Once they meet passions fly and Dr. Sanders finally gets to explore...

© 2014 BrightSurf.com