Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Wild gorillas carriers of a SIV virus close to the AIDS virus

November 14, 2006
In 2005, 40.3 million people in the world, including 25.8 million in Sub-Saharan Africa, were living with HIV. The question of the origin of HIV-1, responsible for the AIDS pandemic, has been stimulating the scientific community for many years.

Some months ago, the team of Martine Peeters, director of research at IRD, and Eric Delaporte, director of the mixed research unit UMR 145 jointly involving the IRD and the University of Montpellier 1, showed the chimpanzee subspecies living in the Congo Basin (2) to be the reservoir of HIV-1 virus group M, the source of the world pandemic and that of another, very rare variant, HIV-1 group N. However, the reservoir of the third HIV-1 group, group O which infects humans (3), remained unidentified up to now.

This team announces, in an article in the journal Nature, the discovery of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in wild gorillas. Samples of faeces collected from different communities of gorillas found in the remotest areas of the Cameroon tropical forest were found to contain antibodies against this virus, called SIVgor. The genetic characteristics of the virus were present again in three gorillas living more than 400 km apart. Phylogenetic analysis of SIVgor showed it to be related to HIV-1 group O found in humans, essentially in Cameroon and in neighbouring countries.

This discovery of an HIV-1 related virus in wild gorillas does not, however, call into question the fact that chimpanzees are the primary reservoir of SIV/HIV viruses that crop up again in gorillas and in humans. As Martine Peeters of the IRD says, "the viruses of groups M and N are, very clearly, the consequence of inter-species transmission from chimpanzee to humans, whereas the origin of HIV-1 group O is less apparent. It cannot be excluded that chimpanzees infected by HIV-1 group O might have contaminated humans and the gorilla independently, or that the gorilla, having been contaminated by the chimpanzee, might have contaminated humans".

This work thus opens up a Pandora's box on the questions and speculations concerning the ability of these viruses to cross over from one species to another. The main challenges facing these teams for future work will be determination of the prevalence, the geographical distribution and biology of SIV infections in these great apes, not forgetting the question of how the gorillas were contaminated. This last point remains a mystery,considered as rare.

1. UMR 145: Fran Van Heuverswijn, Cecile Neel, Florian Liegeois, Christelle Butel, Eric Delaporte and Martine Peeters jointly involving the IRD and the University of Montpellier1 University of Alabama (Beatrice Hahn and her colleagues), University of Nottingham (Paul Sharp and his colleagues) PRESICA Project of Cameroon headed by Eitel Mpoudi-Ngole.

2. Keele BF, Van Heuverswyn F, Li Y, Bailes E, Takehisa J, Santiago ML, Bibollet-Ruche F, Chen Y, Wain LV, Liegeois F, Loul S, Mpoudi Ngole E, Bienvenue Y, Delaporte E, Brookfield JF, Sharp PM, Shaw GM, Peeters M, Hahn BH. Chimpanzee Reservoirs of Pandemic and Nonpandemic HIV-1. Science. 2006 , 313 : 523-6

3. Scientists have known for a long time that the Aids virus shows a very strong genetic variability. Two main types of the virus exist: HIV 1 and HIV 2. HIV 1, the most widely spread in the world, embraces three groups (M, N,O) which manifest different genetic characteristics. Within group M, the most frequent, still 9 further subtypes can be distinguished (A, B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K), genetically close yet distinct.

Institut de Recherche Pour le Développement


Related Hiv-1 Current Events and Hiv-1 News Articles


New HIV prevention recommendations combine biomedical and behavioral approaches
In an innovative approach to HIV prevention, an interdisciplinary group of experts has come together for the first time to lay out a framework of best practices to optimize the role of the clinician in achieving an AIDS-free generation.

Hepatitis C cured in co-infected HIV patients
A multicenter team of researchers report that in a phase III clinical trial, a combination drug therapy cures chronic hepatitis C in the majority of patients co-infected with both HIV and hepatitis C.

New findings show strikingly early seeding of HIV viral reservoir
The most critical barrier for curing HIV-1 infection is the presence of the viral reservoir, the cells in which the HIV virus can lie dormant for many years and avoid elimination by antiretroviral drugs.

GW Researcher Unlocks Next Step in Creating HIV-1 Immunotherapy Using Fossil Virus
The road to finding a cure for HIV-1 is not without obstacles. However, thanks to cutting-edge research by Douglas Nixon, M.D., Ph.D., and colleagues, performed at the George Washington University (GW), Oregon Health & Science University, the University of Rochester, and UC San Francisco, the scientific community is one step closer to finding a viable immunotherapy option for HIV-1, using an immune attack against a fossil virus buried in the genome.

New monkey model for AIDS offers promise for medical research
HIV-1, the virus responsible for most cases of AIDS, is a very selective virus. It does not readily infect species other than its usual hosts - humans and chimpanzees.

HIV transmission networks mapped to reduce infection rate
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have mapped the transmission network of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in San Diego.

Dolutegravir in HIV-1 infection: added benefit in adult patients
Dolutegravir has been approved since January 2014 in combination with other antiretroviral drugs for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected adults and adolescents above 12 years of age.

Novel stapled peptide nanoparticle combination prevents RSV infection, study finds
New therapies are needed to prevent and treat respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) - a potentially lethal respiratory infection that can severely affect infants, young children and the elderly.

Rilpivirine combination product in HIV-1 patients with previous antiretroviral treatment: added benefit not proven
The German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) reassessed the antiviral drug combination rilpivirine/emtricitabine/tenofovir.

Two studies advance HIV prevention options for women
Two early clinical studies of novel HIV prevention products for women - the first combination antiretroviral (ARV) vaginal ring and a vaginal film - show the products to be safe and open the door to product improvements that could expand options for women-initiated prevention tools.
More Hiv-1 Current Events and Hiv-1 News Articles

HIV Won't Kill Me: Encouragement eBook (Josh Fights HIV Stigma 1)

HIV Won't Kill Me: Encouragement eBook (Josh Fights HIV Stigma 1)
by imstilljosh.com


Learning you are HIV-positive is a pretty scary time in a person's life. Josh Robbins found out that he was living with HIV in the beginning of 2012 and started an online journey encouraging others that are living with the virus to keep their mind and spirit in a good place. His main method of offering that encouragement? By sharing images. This coffee-table formatted book shares the images that Josh Robbins of imstilljosh.com uses to fight HIV stigma.

HIV-1 Integrase: Mechanism and Inhibitor Design

HIV-1 Integrase: Mechanism and Inhibitor Design
by Nouri Neamati (Editor), Binghe Wang (Editor)


This book comprehensively covers the mechanisms of action and inhibitor design for HIV-1 integrase. It serves as a resource for scientists facing challenging drug design issues and researchers in antiviral drug discovery. Despite numerous review articles and isolated book chapters dealing with HIV-1 integrase, there has not been a single source for those working to devise anti-AIDS drugs against this promising target. But this book fills that gap and offers a valuable introduction to the field for the interdisciplinary scientists who will need to work together to design drugs that target HIV-1 integrase.

The First Year: HIV: An Essential Guide for the Newly Diagnosed

The First Year: HIV: An Essential Guide for the Newly Diagnosed
by Brett Grodeck (Author), M.D. Daniel S. Berger M.D. (Foreword)


This supportive resource explores the next generation of HIV/AIDS drugs and also includes new research on HIV and crystal meth, as well as new insights for the hardest hit population — African Americans.

AIDS HIV (ACRN and AACRN) Certification Review (Certification in HIV Nursing Book 1)

AIDS HIV (ACRN and AACRN) Certification Review (Certification in HIV Nursing Book 1)
by Knowledge Testing, Inc.


AIDS Certified Registered Nurse (ACRN) and Advanced AIDS Certified Registered Nurse (AACRN) Certification Review, 700 multiple choice questions.

Provides key information you need to know to pass the board and certification exam.

All questions have explanations with keywords linked to additional online references.

Correct answer is on the next page after the question with explanations and links to further research the key point(s) covered in each question.

HIV/AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions)

HIV/AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions)
by Alan Whiteside (Author)


HIV/AIDS is without doubt the worst epidemic to hit humankind since the Black Death. As of 2004 an estimated 40 million people were living with the disease, and about 20 million had died. Despite rapid scientific advances there is still no cure and the drugs are expensive and toxic. In the developing world, especially in parts of Africa, life expectancy has plummeted to below 35 years, causing a serious decline in economic growth, a sharp increase in orphans, and the imminent collapse of health care systems. The news is not all bleak though. There have been unprecedented breakthroughs in understanding diseases and developing drugs. Because the disease is so closely linked to sexual activity and drug use, the need to understand and change behavior has caused us to reassess what it means...

There Is No Me Without You: One Woman's Odyssey to Rescue Her Country's Children

There Is No Me Without You: One Woman's Odyssey to Rescue Her Country's Children
by Melissa Fay Greene (Author)


Two-time National Book Award nominee Melissa Fay Greene puts a human face on the African AIDS crisis with this powerful story of one woman working to save her country's children. After losing her husband and daughter, Haregewoin Teferra, an Ethiopian woman of modest means, opened her home to some of the thousands of children in Addis Ababa who have been left as orphans. There Is No Me Without You is the story of how Haregewoin transformed her home into an orphanage and day-care center and began facilitating adoptions to homes all over the world, written by a star of literary nonfiction who is herself an adoptive parent. At heart, it is a book about children and parents, wherever they may be, however they may find each other. Winner of Elle magazine's 2006 readers' award in nonfiction....

HIV-1: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis: Viral Mechanisms, 2nd Edition (Advances in Pharmacology, Vol. 55)

HIV-1: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis: Viral Mechanisms, 2nd Edition (Advances in Pharmacology, Vol. 55)
by Kuan-Teh Jeang (Editor), J. Thomas August (Editor), Ferid Murad (Editor)


This volume covers the latest advances in the mechanisms of pathogenesis of the HIV-1 virus on target cells. Its companion volume, Advances in Pharmacology 56, shows how new developments in understanding the virus translate to the clinical setting.

First Aid Q&A for the USMLE Step 1, Third Edition (First Aid USMLE)

First Aid Q&A for the USMLE Step 1, Third Edition (First Aid USMLE)
by Tao Le (Author), James A. Feinstein (Author), Mark W. Ball (Author), Annie Dude (Author), Rebecca L. Hoffman (Author), Mark Robert Jensen (Author), Kimberly Kallianos (Author), Cesar Raudel Padilla (Author), Lauren Rothkopf (Author), James Yeh (Author)


1,000 questions and answers prepare you for the USMLE Step 1! The only comprehensive Q&A review for the USMLE Step directly linked to high-yield facts from Dr. Le's First Aid for the USMLE Step 1, this essential study guide offers 1000 board-style questions and answers, easy-to-navigate, high yield explanations for correct and incorrect answers, and more than 350 accompanying images. Features:
1000 board-style questions and answers -- reviewed and approved -- by students who just aced the exam Detailed explanations for both right and wrong answers - with letter options in boldface for at-a-glance review Chapters keyed to Dr. Le's First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 so you can simultaneously review questions and high-yield facts 130+ high-yield images, diagrams, and tables One...

HIV and AIDS in Africa: Beyond Epidemiology

HIV and AIDS in Africa: Beyond Epidemiology
by Ezekiel Kalipeni (Editor), Susan Craddock (Editor), Joseph R. Oppong (Editor), Jayati Ghosh (Editor)


HIV and AIDS in Africa: Beyond Epidemiology is a collection that seeks to further our understanding of AIDS by shifting the predominant understandings generated by biomedical and epidemiological research.

Brings together international contributors---including often overlooked African scholars and activists---from across the social sciences to examine HIV and AIDS from angles previously unexplored.
By presenting on-the-ground evidence and ethnographic cases, emphasizes that HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa is a complex and regionally specific phenomenon rooted in local economies, deepening poverty, migration, gender, war, global economies, and cultural politics.
Recognizes that AIDS in Africa cannot be stemmed until social, gender, and economic inequities are...

© 2014 BrightSurf.com