Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Wild gorillas carriers of a SIV virus close to the AIDS virus

November 14, 2006
In 2005, 40.3 million people in the world, including 25.8 million in Sub-Saharan Africa, were living with HIV. The question of the origin of HIV-1, responsible for the AIDS pandemic, has been stimulating the scientific community for many years.

Some months ago, the team of Martine Peeters, director of research at IRD, and Eric Delaporte, director of the mixed research unit UMR 145 jointly involving the IRD and the University of Montpellier 1, showed the chimpanzee subspecies living in the Congo Basin (2) to be the reservoir of HIV-1 virus group M, the source of the world pandemic and that of another, very rare variant, HIV-1 group N. However, the reservoir of the third HIV-1 group, group O which infects humans (3), remained unidentified up to now.

This team announces, in an article in the journal Nature, the discovery of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in wild gorillas. Samples of faeces collected from different communities of gorillas found in the remotest areas of the Cameroon tropical forest were found to contain antibodies against this virus, called SIVgor. The genetic characteristics of the virus were present again in three gorillas living more than 400 km apart. Phylogenetic analysis of SIVgor showed it to be related to HIV-1 group O found in humans, essentially in Cameroon and in neighbouring countries.

This discovery of an HIV-1 related virus in wild gorillas does not, however, call into question the fact that chimpanzees are the primary reservoir of SIV/HIV viruses that crop up again in gorillas and in humans. As Martine Peeters of the IRD says, "the viruses of groups M and N are, very clearly, the consequence of inter-species transmission from chimpanzee to humans, whereas the origin of HIV-1 group O is less apparent. It cannot be excluded that chimpanzees infected by HIV-1 group O might have contaminated humans and the gorilla independently, or that the gorilla, having been contaminated by the chimpanzee, might have contaminated humans".

This work thus opens up a Pandora's box on the questions and speculations concerning the ability of these viruses to cross over from one species to another. The main challenges facing these teams for future work will be determination of the prevalence, the geographical distribution and biology of SIV infections in these great apes, not forgetting the question of how the gorillas were contaminated. This last point remains a mystery,considered as rare.

1. UMR 145: Fran Van Heuverswijn, Cecile Neel, Florian Liegeois, Christelle Butel, Eric Delaporte and Martine Peeters jointly involving the IRD and the University of Montpellier1 University of Alabama (Beatrice Hahn and her colleagues), University of Nottingham (Paul Sharp and his colleagues) PRESICA Project of Cameroon headed by Eitel Mpoudi-Ngole.

2. Keele BF, Van Heuverswyn F, Li Y, Bailes E, Takehisa J, Santiago ML, Bibollet-Ruche F, Chen Y, Wain LV, Liegeois F, Loul S, Mpoudi Ngole E, Bienvenue Y, Delaporte E, Brookfield JF, Sharp PM, Shaw GM, Peeters M, Hahn BH. Chimpanzee Reservoirs of Pandemic and Nonpandemic HIV-1. Science. 2006 , 313 : 523-6

3. Scientists have known for a long time that the Aids virus shows a very strong genetic variability. Two main types of the virus exist: HIV 1 and HIV 2. HIV 1, the most widely spread in the world, embraces three groups (M, N,O) which manifest different genetic characteristics. Within group M, the most frequent, still 9 further subtypes can be distinguished (A, B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K), genetically close yet distinct.

Institut de Recherche Pour le Développement


Related Hiv-1 Current Events and Hiv-1 News Articles


Researchers turn computers into powerful allies in the fight against AIDS
The battle against AIDS cannot be won in the laboratory alone. To fight the potentially deadly virus that 34 million people are suffering from we need help from computers. Now research fron University of Southern Denmark turns computers into powerful allies in the battle.

HIV pandemic's origins located
The HIV pandemic with us today is almost certain to have begun its global spread from Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), according to a new study.

Longstanding bottleneck in crystal structure prediction solved
Two years after its release, the HIV-1 drug Ritonavir was pulled from the market. Scientists discovered that the drug had crystallized into a slightly different form-called a polymorph-that was less soluble and made it ineffective as a treatment.

Antibodies, together with viral 'inducers,' found to control HIV in mice
Although HIV can now be effectively suppressed using anti-retroviral drugs, it still comes surging back the moment the flow of drugs is stopped. Latent reservoirs of HIV-infected cells, invisible to the body's immune system and unreachable by pharmaceuticals, ensure that the infection will rebound after therapy is terminated.

New research offers hope for HIV vaccine development
In a scientific discovery that has significant implications for HIV vaccine development, collaborators at the Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) and Duke University School of Medicine have uncovered novel properties of special HIV antibodies.

New HIV prevention recommendations combine biomedical and behavioral approaches
In an innovative approach to HIV prevention, an interdisciplinary group of experts has come together for the first time to lay out a framework of best practices to optimize the role of the clinician in achieving an AIDS-free generation.

Hepatitis C cured in co-infected HIV patients
A multicenter team of researchers report that in a phase III clinical trial, a combination drug therapy cures chronic hepatitis C in the majority of patients co-infected with both HIV and hepatitis C.

New findings show strikingly early seeding of HIV viral reservoir
The most critical barrier for curing HIV-1 infection is the presence of the viral reservoir, the cells in which the HIV virus can lie dormant for many years and avoid elimination by antiretroviral drugs.

GW Researcher Unlocks Next Step in Creating HIV-1 Immunotherapy Using Fossil Virus
The road to finding a cure for HIV-1 is not without obstacles. However, thanks to cutting-edge research by Douglas Nixon, M.D., Ph.D., and colleagues, performed at the George Washington University (GW), Oregon Health & Science University, the University of Rochester, and UC San Francisco, the scientific community is one step closer to finding a viable immunotherapy option for HIV-1, using an immune attack against a fossil virus buried in the genome.

New monkey model for AIDS offers promise for medical research
HIV-1, the virus responsible for most cases of AIDS, is a very selective virus. It does not readily infect species other than its usual hosts - humans and chimpanzees.
More Hiv-1 Current Events and Hiv-1 News Articles

HIV Won't Kill Me: Encouragement eBook (Josh Fights HIV Stigma 1)

HIV Won't Kill Me: Encouragement eBook (Josh Fights HIV Stigma 1)
by imstilljosh.com


Learning you are HIV-positive is a pretty scary time in a person's life. Josh Robbins found out that he was living with HIV in the beginning of 2012 and started an online journey encouraging others that are living with the virus to keep their mind and spirit in a good place. His main method of offering that encouragement? By sharing images. This coffee-table formatted book shares the images that Josh Robbins of imstilljosh.com uses to fight HIV stigma.

HIV-1 Integrase: Mechanism and Inhibitor Design

HIV-1 Integrase: Mechanism and Inhibitor Design
by Nouri Neamati (Editor), Binghe Wang (Editor)


This book comprehensively covers the mechanisms of action and inhibitor design for HIV-1 integrase. It serves as a resource for scientists facing challenging drug design issues and researchers in antiviral drug discovery. Despite numerous review articles and isolated book chapters dealing with HIV-1 integrase, there has not been a single source for those working to devise anti-AIDS drugs against this promising target. But this book fills that gap and offers a valuable introduction to the field for the interdisciplinary scientists who will need to work together to design drugs that target HIV-1 integrase.

Living With HIV and AIDS: Prevention, Healing Symptoms, the Newest Treatments, and Possible Cures (Health Book 1)

Living With HIV and AIDS: Prevention, Healing Symptoms, the Newest Treatments, and Possible Cures (Health Book 1)


The Definitive Guide To HIV/AIDS
Living with HIV or AIDS can be extremely difficult, not only because of the stigma but because of the medical treatments which, while they are advancing every day, have a ways to go. This book tells you everything to know about HIV/AIDS, including everything from infection to the different stages of the disease to the innovative new treatments that are starting to become available (some as new as March 2014!).

"It is bad enough that people are dying of AIDS, but no one should die of ignorance." - Elizabeth Taylor

Here Is A Preview Of What You'll Learn...
How HIV and AIDS work in the bodyHow infection occurs, and several strategies at preventionManaging symptoms of HIV, and preventing it from turning into AIDSModern...

"You're the First One I've Told": New Faces of HIV in the South

"You're the First One I've Told": New Faces of HIV in the South
by Kathryn Whetten-Goldstein (Author), Trang Quyen Nguyen (Author)


In the second wave of the HIV epidemic, those with the disease are more likely than ever to be female, younger, heterosexual, a racial minority, and rural-living. Vital to the development of user-friendly health care systems is an understanding of the vastly different lives of this second wave of HIV-infected persons. "You're the First One I've Told" offers a view into the lives of men and women infected with HIV. The experiences of twenty-five people living with this disease in rural eastern North Carolina serve as the foundation of this book, which also draws upon unique HIV/AIDS survey data collected by the authors and statistics from the Southeastern United States. This combination of qualitative and quantitative information provides readers with a vivid description of how people live...

The First Year: HIV: An Essential Guide for the Newly Diagnosed

The First Year: HIV: An Essential Guide for the Newly Diagnosed
by Brett Grodeck (Author), M.D. Daniel S. Berger M.D. (Foreword)


This supportive resource explores the next generation of HIV/AIDS drugs and also includes new research on HIV and crystal meth, as well as new insights for the hardest hit population — African Americans.

HIV and Psychiatry (WPA Series in Evidence & Experience in Psychiatry)

HIV and Psychiatry (WPA Series in Evidence & Experience in Psychiatry)
by John A. Joska (Editor), Dan J. Stein (Editor), Igor Grant (Editor)


Editors

John A. Joska
Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town

Dan J. Stein
Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town

Igor Grant
Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego

Mental health and HIV/AIDS are closely interlinked.  Mental disorders, including substance-use disorders, are associated with increased risk of HIV infection and affect adherence to and efficacy of antiretroviral treatments.  Conversely, HIV infection can increase risk for neuropsychiatric complications including stress, mood, and neurocognitive disorders. 

This book provides clinicians with a comprehensive evidenced-based and practical approach to the management of patients...

HIV-1: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis: Viral Mechanisms, 2nd Edition (Advances in Pharmacology, Vol. 55)

HIV-1: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis: Viral Mechanisms, 2nd Edition (Advances in Pharmacology, Vol. 55)
by Kuan-Teh Jeang (Editor), J. Thomas August (Editor), Ferid Murad (Editor)


This volume covers the latest advances in the mechanisms of pathogenesis of the HIV-1 virus on target cells. Its companion volume, Advances in Pharmacology 56, shows how new developments in understanding the virus translate to the clinical setting.

First Aid Q&A for the USMLE Step 1, Third Edition (First Aid USMLE)

First Aid Q&A for the USMLE Step 1, Third Edition (First Aid USMLE)
by Tao Le (Author), James A. Feinstein (Author), Mark W. Ball (Author), Annie Dude (Author), Rebecca L. Hoffman (Author), Mark Robert Jensen (Author), Kimberly Kallianos (Author), Cesar Raudel Padilla (Author), Lauren Rothkopf (Author), James Yeh (Author)


1,000 questions and answers prepare you for the USMLE Step 1! The only comprehensive Q&A review for the USMLE Step directly linked to high-yield facts from Dr. Le's First Aid for the USMLE Step 1, this essential study guide offers 1000 board-style questions and answers, easy-to-navigate, high yield explanations for correct and incorrect answers, and more than 350 accompanying images. Features:
1000 board-style questions and answers -- reviewed and approved -- by students who just aced the exam Detailed explanations for both right and wrong answers - with letter options in boldface for at-a-glance review Chapters keyed to Dr. Le's First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 so you can simultaneously review questions and high-yield facts 130+ high-yield images, diagrams, and tables One...

HIV Essentials 2014

HIV Essentials 2014
by Paul E. Sax (Author), Calvin J. Cohen (Author), Daniel R. Kuritzkes (Author)


The world's leading experts provide all the 'essentials' needed to manage HIV patients in the office, on the ward, and in the ICU. Completely revised and updated, HIV Essentials 2014 incorporates the latest clinical guidelines into a step-by-step guide to the diagnosis, evaluation, management, and prevention of HIV infection and its complications. Topics include: opportunistic infections and other HIV complications, treatment of HIV and pregnancy, antiretroviral drug summaries, post-exposure prophylaxis, as well as commercially available dosage forms for all ARVs.

© 2014 BrightSurf.com