Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Nicotine: The link between cigarette smoking and kidney disease progression?

January 30, 2007

(BETHESDA, MD) — Cigarette smoke (CS) is the most preventable cause of death and chronic disease in the United States. In addition to being a risk factor for atherosclerosis and cancer, recent epidemiologic studies suggest that cigarette smoke promotes the progression of kidney disease.

The mechanisms by which cigarette smoke may accelerate some types of chronic kidney disease are currently unknown. A new study, being published by the American Physiological Society (http://www.the-aps.org/), demonstrates for the first time that human mesangial cells (MC) - cells in the blood vessels of the kidneys - are endowed with nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) á4, á5, á7, â2, â3, â4 and â5 (cells that interact with the nicotine in tobacco) and may play an active role in the development of certain kidney diseases.

The Study

The study, "Nicotine: The Link Between Cigarette Smoking and the Progression of Renal Injury?," was conducted by Edgar A. Jaimes, MD, Run-Xia Tian, MD, and Leopoldo Raij, MD, all of the Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL. It appears in the Articles in Press Section of the American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology (http://ajpheart.physiology.org/), one of 11-peer reviewed journals published by the APS.

Overview of Methodology

Human mesangial cells were grown in CSC-Complete media, supplemented with 10 percent fetal calf serum. Cells were passed by trypsinization when confluent and used between the third and ninth passages. 3H-thymidine was used as an index of cell proliferation and cells were fasted for 72 hours in Maintenance Media and stimulated for 24 hours with nicotine (10-10 M to 10-7 M) or platelet derived growth factor.

Western blots were performed after the cells fasted and had been stimulated for 24 hours with nicotine (10-7). Cell homogenates were washed and thereafter centrifuged for 30 minutes. Blots were incubated overnight with one of nine antibodies, which included mouse anti-á2-nAChR mAb's, anti-á3-nAChR mAb's, or anti-á4-nAChR mAb's. Fibronectin mRNA expression was determined by real time PCR and protein expression was measured by western blot. Flow cytometry measurement was generated for reactive oxygen species.

Data were expressed as mean ± SEM. For statistical comparisons involving two groups, an unpaired Student t test was used. For comparisons involving more than two groups, ANOVA was used. Significance was considered when P<0.05.

Highlights of Results

Highlights of the results include the following:

- Human mesangial cells express nAChRs: The researchers were able to detect strong expression of several nAChRs subunits in the cultured human mesangial cells. They detected the presence of the nAChRs subunits á4, á5, á7, â2, â3, and â4 in these cells. They were not, however, able to detect significant expression of the á2 or á3 nAChR subunits.

- Nicotine increases mesangial cell proliferation via nAChRs activation: Nicotine stimulation of the cells resulted in a dose dependent increase in mesangial cell proliferation. One concentration found in the plasma of active smokers found that nicotine-induced MC proliferation was 1,328 for controls vs. 2,761 for nicotine.

- Nicotine increases fibronectin production: To determine whether transcriptional mechanisms were involved, the researchers measured the gene expression of fibronectin using real time exposure to nicotine. They found that nicotine induced a five-fold increase in fibronectin mRNA expression.

Summary and Conclusions

These studies are believed to be the first of their kind to:

(1) identify the presence of functionally active nAChRs in human mesangial cells; and

(2) demonstrate that nicotine, at concentrations similar to those found in the plasma of smokers, promotes mesangial cell proliferation and spurs on critical molecules that are involved in the extracellular matrix production.

Recent epidemiologic studies demonstrate that cigarette smoking increases the risk for progressive chronic kidney disease, but the role of smoking in primary renal diseases is less known. The results of this research, coupled with earlier findings, reveal previously unrecognized mechanisms showing nicotine - a component of cigarette smoke - as an agent that may accelerate and promote the progression of chronic kidney disease.

American Physiological Society


Related Cigarette Smoke Current Events and Cigarette Smoke News Articles


Screening for COPD not recommended
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) does not recommend screening for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in persons who do not have symptoms suggestive of COPD. The report appears in the April 5 issue of JAMA.

Maternal smoking during pregnancy leaves its lasting mark on the child's genetic make-up
Maternal smoking during pregnancy is harmful to the unborn child as well as the mother.

Precision medicine brings new hope to those with advanced urothelial cancer
Five of six patients with advanced metastatic urothelial cancer and at least one of two specific genetic abnormalities, responded to treatment with afatinib, which was approved in 2013 by the Food and Drug Administration for patients with lung cancer, researchers report online in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Breastfeeding, vaccinations help reduce ear infection rates in babies
In what would be considered good news for many parents a new study from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston finds the rates of ear infections during a baby's first year have declined; the investigators suggested that higher rates of breastfeeding, use of vaccinations and lower rates of smoking may be the major contributors.

Hubble directly measures rotation of cloudy 'super-Jupiter'
Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have measured the rotation rate of an extreme exoplanet by observing the varied brightness in its atmosphere. This is the first measurement of the rotation of a massive exoplanet using direct imaging.

Unraveling the gene-environment interaction
A special issue of the journal Child Development reports on studies that take important new steps in understanding how genes and the environment interact in shaping child behavior.

E-cigarette vapor boosts superbugs and dampens immune system
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System report data suggesting that e-cigarettes are toxic to human airway cells, suppress immune defenses and alter inflammation, while at the same time boosting bacterial virulence.

Poverty linked to childhood depression, changes in brain connectivity
Many negative consequences are linked to growing up poor, and researchers at Washington University St. Louis have identified one more: altered brain connectivity.

Blood from small children 'remembers' prenatal smoking exposure
New Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health-led research finds that blood taken from children up to the age of five contains molecular evidence about whether their mothers smoked during pregnancy.

Side stream emissions from 'heated tobacco' products similar to secondhand cigarette smoke
A new study published in the Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry today found that, despite claims made by some manufacturers, next generation 'heated' tobacco devices produce side-stream emissions similar to secondhand cigarette smoke.
More Cigarette Smoke Current Events and Cigarette Smoke News Articles

Cigarette Smoke and Oxidative Stress

Cigarette Smoke and Oxidative Stress
by Barry B. Halliwell (Editor), Henrik E. Poulsen (Editor)


The mechanism by which cigarette smoke causes or contributes to inflammatory diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer remains unclear. Recent developments in our knowledge of cellular signaling suggest that cigarette smoke may cause oxidative stress in cellular systems. The assessment, consequences and possible modulation of these effects are discussed in this book which will interest oncologists and researchers in Biochemistry.

Cigarettes: Anatomy of an Industry from Seed to Smoke

Cigarettes: Anatomy of an Industry from Seed to Smoke
by Tara Parker-Pope (Author)


An entertaining and revealing exploration of the biggest business success story of the century, by a Wall Street Journal reporter. "I'll tell you why I like the cigarette business. It costs a penny to make. Sell it for a dollar. It's addictive. And there's fantastic brand loyalty."-Warren Buffett, investor Cigarettes are the most conspicuous consumer product on the planet and arguably the biggest business success story of the twentieth century. Here in one accessible book is the seed-to-smoke story of this $48 billion industry. With a keen eye for both the revealing anecdote and the larger story, Wall Street Journal reporter Tara Parker-Pope presents the clearest picture yet of this most fascinating and controversial product. She shows how tobacco leaves are picked, processed, and...

Cigarette Smoke Toxicity: Linking Individual Chemicals to Human Diseases

Cigarette Smoke Toxicity: Linking Individual Chemicals to Human Diseases
by David Bernhard (Editor)


Smoking causes and contributes to a large number of human diseases, yet due to the large number of potentially hazardous compounds in cigarette smoke -- almost 5,000 chemicals have been identified, establishing the link between smoking and disease has often proved difficult.
This unbiased and scientifically accurate overview of current knowledge begins with an overview of the chemical constituents in cigarette smoke, their fate in the human body, and their documented toxic effects on various cells and tissues. Recent results detailing the many ways components of cigarette smoke adversely affect human health are also presented, highlighting the role of smoking in cardiovascular, respiratory, infectious and other diseases. A final chapter discusses current strategies for the treatment...

Smoke Gets in Your Eyes: Branding and Design in Cigarette Packaging

Smoke Gets in Your Eyes: Branding and Design in Cigarette Packaging
by Michael Thibodeau (Author), Jana Martin (Author)


With more than 300 examples of cigarette pack designs, this is an exploration of how designers have used words, pictures and eye-catching graphic design to make smoking irresistible. Complementing the striking images is a text that examines the changing ways in which specific cigarette brands have been promoted over the years. What factors distinguish a successful brand from a flop? Why did the industry market both uptown and downtown brands simultaneously? What makes certain symbols popular across far-flung national boundaries - Tiger cigarettes, for example, pop up from Latin America to Indonesia. And how has the packaging contributed to the fact that cigarettes are still consumed with fervour by people all around the world, regardless of class, culture and the well-known health risks?

Wrestling With Tar Baby: How To Smoke Cigarettes Or Not

Wrestling With Tar Baby: How To Smoke Cigarettes Or Not
by PhD Jerry M. Jesseph (Author)


Wrestling With Tar Baby is for smokers and for anyone who wants to better understand smoking and smokers. As a "smoker in remission" himself, Dr. Jesseph provides a simple, witty and compassionate explanation of the many confusions and challenges surrounding smoking. This is the talk that we wish our doctors had the time and understanding to give to us. This is a book we should all read with our children.

Where There's Smoke...: Musings of a Cigarette Smoking Man

Where There's Smoke...: Musings of a Cigarette Smoking Man
by William B Davis (Author)


One of the most iconic villains in the history of television, the enigmatic Cigarette Smoking Man fascinated legions of fans of the 1990s’ hit TV series, The X-Files. Best known as “Cancerman,” he was voted Television’s Favourite Villain by the readers of TV Guide. The man behind the villain, William B. Davis, is a Canadian actor and director, whose revelations in this memoir will entertain and intrigue the millions of X-Files aficionados worldwide. But there is more to Davis’s story than just The X-Files. Davis’s extensive acting experience began when he was a child in Ontario in the 1950s, and grew to encompass radio, theatre, film, and television. At the University of Toronto, where he graduated with a degree in philosophy, he turned his hand to directing, a move that...

Cigarette Smoke/ Toabacco Rob Me No More.

Cigarette Smoke/ Toabacco Rob Me No More.
by Jerome Moore


Cigarette Smoke/ Tobacco Rob Me No More is a self-help biograghy geared in helping indivduals to fight cigarette addictions.

Smoke the Donkey: A Marineâs Unlikely Friend

Smoke the Donkey: A Marine’s Unlikely Friend
by Cate Folsom (Author), Robert R. Ruark (Foreword)


On a U.S. military base near Fallujah in war-torn Iraq, Col. John Folsom woke up one morning to the sound of a small, scruffy donkey tied up outside his quarters. He was charmed by this scrawny animal with a plaintive expression. Folsom and his fellow Marines took in the donkey, built him a corral and shelter, and escorted him on daily walks. One night, hanging out with the Marines as they relaxed after work, the donkey snatched someone’s lit cigarette and gobbled it up, to the laughter of all. Suddenly, the donkey had a name: Smoke. More than a conversation topic for troops connecting with families back home, Smoke served as mascot, ambassador, and battle buddy.
 
Smoke the Donkey recounts the strong friendship between Colonel Folsom and this stray donkey and the massive...

Smoke Signals: A Social History of Marijuana - Medical, Recreational and Scientific

Smoke Signals: A Social History of Marijuana - Medical, Recreational and Scientific
by Martin A. Lee (Author)


“Hallelujah and glory be to Smoke Signals, Martin Lee’s bodacious new book…Lee chronicles everything and everyone worth chronicling in the annals of marijuana” (High Times).

This is the great American pot story, a dramatic social exploration of a plant that sits at the nexus of political, legal, medical, and scientific discourse. From its ancient origins, to its cutting-edge therapeutic benefits, to its role in a culture war that has never ceased, marijuana has evolved beyond its own illicit subculture into a dynamic, multibillion-dollar industry. Since 1996, when California voters approved Proposition 215, dozens of state and local governments across the country have circumvented federal authority to legalize marijuana for medical purposes. Mining the plant’s rich...

Be A Quitter! Guide to be Smoke Free: How to quit once and for all. No tension, No anxiety, Just Pure Ease

Be A Quitter! Guide to be Smoke Free: How to quit once and for all. No tension, No anxiety, Just Pure Ease
by Adam H. Goldberg


Are you fed up with smoking?
Are you confident enough to declare yourself to be stronger than cigarettes?
How serious are you about quitting?

To quit smoking you will need EVERY help you can get. This book will serve as a guide to help you battle the habit.

As they said, better late than never!

© 2016 BrightSurf.com