Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Trial Seeks 'Genetic Fingerprint' for Predicting Drug Effectiveness

October 04, 2007
Cincinnati-University of Cincinnati (UC) physician-scientists believe identifying a genetic "fingerprint" could help predict which specific therapies will be most effective for patients with gastric cancer.

Syed Ahmad, MD, is leading a national, phase-2 trial to test the effectiveness of combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy given to patients with gastric cancer before surgery. His team will also collect biological samples in an attempt to obtain genetic data that could be used to formulate targeted therapies.

Previous studies have established that either chemotherapy or radiation therapy after surgery can improve patient survival compared with surgery alone. Overall survival rates, however, remain low-with 20 to 30 percent of American patients surviving more than five years after treatment.

"Everyone agrees that without surgery, gastric cancer in not curable, and numerous studies have shown a benefit to follow-­up therapy with either chemotherapy or radiation therapy," says Ahmad, assistant professor of surgery at UC and principal investigator of the trial.

"The problem is you can't give both radiation therapy and chemotherapy after surgery-it's too toxic and patients can't tolerate it," he says. "But you can give it before surgery when patients are healthiest."

This trial addresses what Ahmad calls the "future of cancer therapy": targeted drug regimens, based on the characteristics of a patient's specific tumor.

His goal is to identify a genetic "fingerprint" that could help predict whether patients will respond to therapy, and then identify drugs to address the specific molecular characteristics of that patient's tumor.

"Right now treatment is based on the assumption that site-based cancers are all the same, so every patient who has stage-3 gastric cancer will get the same chemotherapy drugs," Ahmad explains. "But the reality is that every cancer has a different expression of hormones, growth factors and genetic factors that must be addressed individually."

The UC-led national team is looking for about 70 patients across the United States with up to stage-3 gastric cancer to participate in the trial.

Prior to surgery, all study participants will have a biopsy to set baseline standards for genetic testing to determine which patients have a complete response to the multi-treatment therapy. Participants will receive daily doses of the platinum-containing drug oxaliplatin (ox-AL'-ih-plah-tin, marketed as Eloxatin) for six to eight weeks.

Approved by the Food and Drug Administration, oxaliplatin is currently used to treat advanced colorectal cancer. Studies have shown the drug has fewer toxicity complications compared with other therapies.

After six weeks of chemotherapy, the patient will get five consecutive days of three-dimensional, external-beam radiation therapy. Patients will be reevaluated two to three weeks after radiation to determine if they are eligible for surgery. Those who are suitable will have another tissue biopsy after surgery.

Researchers will compare pre- and post-surgery tissue samples to obtain the genetic data necessary to establish associations between molecular markers and drug resistance, with the goal of reducing toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic agents and improving patient survival.

University of Cincinnati


Related Chemotherapy Current Events and Chemotherapy News Articles


Temple study suggests a novel approach for treating non-cardiac chest pain
Chest pain doesn't necessarily come from the heart. An estimated 200,000 Americans each year experience non-cardiac chest pain, which in addition to pain can involve painful swallowing, discomfort and anxiety.

Silencing the speech gene FOXP2 causes breast cancer cells to metastasize
It is an intricate network of activity that enables breast cancer cells to move from the primary breast tumor and set up new growths in other parts of the body, a process known as metastasis.

New study demonstrates advances in creating treatment for common childhood blood cancer
Researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center conclude new drug in development may offer first alternative to standard chemotherapy for T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Patients treated with radiation therapy who have tumors in left breast have comparable overall survival to those with tumors in the right breast
Tumor laterality (left-side vs. right-side) does not impact overall survival in breast cancer patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant external beam radiation therapy, according to a study published in the October 1, 2014 issue of the International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics (Red Journal), the official scientific journal of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO).

Findings point to an 'off switch' for drug resistance in cancer
Like a colony of bacteria or species of animals, cancer cells within a tumor must evolve to survive.

Trastuzumab continues to show life for HER2-positve early stage breast cancer
After following breast cancer patients for an average of eight-plus years, researchers say that adding trastuzumab (Herceptin) to chemotherapy significantly improved the overall and disease-free survival of women with early stage HER2-positive breast cancer.

Many older people have mutations linked to leukemia, lymphoma in their blood cells
At least 2 percent of people over age 40 and 5 percent of people over 70 have mutations linked to leukemia and lymphoma in their blood cells, according to new research at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.

Biomarkers uPA/PAI-1 in breast cancer: benefit and harm of the test unclear
To make a decision for or against adjuvant chemotherapy, a test to measure the concentrations of the biomarkers uPA and PAI-1 in the tumour tissue is available for breast cancer patients.

Researchers develop personalized ovarian cancer vaccines
Researchers at the University of Connecticut have found a new way to identify protein mutations in cancer cells. The novel method is being used to develop personalized vaccines to treat patients with ovarian cancer.

Tuning light to kill deep cancer tumors
An international group of scientists led by Gang Han, PhD, at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, has combined a new type of nanoparticle with an FDA-approved photodynamic therapy to effectively kill deep-set cancer cells in vivo with minimal damage to surrounding tissue and fewer side effects than chemotherapy.
More Chemotherapy Current Events and Chemotherapy News Articles

Chemo: Secrets to Thriving: From someone who's been there.

Chemo: Secrets to Thriving: From someone who's been there.
by Roxanne Brown (Author), Barbara Mastej (Contributor), John S. Link M.D. (Contributor)


The thought of chemotherapy can be overwhelming, but getting through it doesn’t have to be. Chemo: Secrets to Thriving helps lighten the load. In chronological order, step-by- step, you learn what might occur, why it happens, what you can do (with your doc’s approval), and who to contact for help. Chemo: Secrets to Thriving will be your friend, companion, and guide, giving you the resources to handle possible side effects and better manage your life during chemotherapy. Once you know the secrets in this book you may find yourself still able to enjoy life—and even thrive—while going through chemotherapy. Our endorsements aren’t from the usual celebrities, but from our celebrities: medical teams, fellow chemo travelers, and the people and places that support them.

Chemotherapy and Biotherapy Guidelines and Recommendations for Practice

Chemotherapy and Biotherapy Guidelines and Recommendations for Practice
by Martha Polovich (Author), MiKeala Olsen (Author), Kris Lefebvre (Author)


Order your copy of the fourth edition of the best-selling resource used by more than 101,000 healthcare professionals since 2009 and keep up-to-date on the latest chemotherapy, biotherapy, and targeted agents. This new edition of the Chemotherapy and Biotherapy Guidelines and Recommendations for Practice has been revised and updated to reflect the current procedures and practices in your specialty. You'll find that this latest edition incorporates a number of significant changes. To help you find the content and information that you need quickly and easily, the text has been reorganized and is now divided into 11 chapters ranging from an overview of cancer and cancer treatment and principles of antineoplastic therapy to post-treatment care and competencies in chemotherapy administration....

The Chemotherapy Survival Guide: Everything You Need to Know to Get Through Treatment

The Chemotherapy Survival Guide: Everything You Need to Know to Get Through Treatment
by Judith McKay (Author), Tammy Schacher RN OCN MSN (Author)


When you're facing cancer treatment, it's easy to feel overwhelmed and alone. Between the hospital or clinic environment and the medical terminology used by doctors and health care professionals, you may feel as though you've entered a foreign country.Written by two experienced oncology nurses, this compassionate and comprehensive guide explains in plain English everything you need to know about your treatment, including what you can expect at each stage of chemotherapy and what you can do to prevent or minimize side effects. Packed with practical suggestions, nutritional advice, relaxation skills, and other techniques to help strengthen your body and calm your mind, The Chemotherapy Survival Guide is a must-have resource for anyone navigating this difficult...

Physicians' Cancer Chemotherapy Drug Manual 2014 (Jones and Bartlett Series in Oncology(Physician's Cancer Chemotherapy Drug Manual))

Physicians' Cancer Chemotherapy Drug Manual 2014 (Jones and Bartlett Series in Oncology(Physician's Cancer Chemotherapy Drug Manual))
by Edward Chu (Author), Vincent T. DeVita Jr. (Author)


Completely revised and updated for 2014, the Physicians’ Cancer Chemotherapy Drug Manual 2014 is an up-to-date guide to the latest information on standard therapy and recent advances in the field. Written by world-class experts in clinical cancer therapeutics, this essential reference provides a complete, easy-to-use catalog of over 100 drugs and commonly used drug regimens—both on- and off-label—for the treatment of all the major cancers. Special features: • Revised to reflect rapid advances in the field • A specific chapter focused on profiling antiemetic drug and antiemetic treatment regimens. • Diagrams of drug structures and pathways for many of the agents. • Offers a comprehensive discussion of clinical pharmacology, special considerations, indications, and dosages....

The Chemotherapy Diet: 5 Steps to Staying Healthy During Cancer Treatment

The Chemotherapy Diet: 5 Steps to Staying Healthy During Cancer Treatment
by Mike Herbert ND (Author), Joseph Dispenza (Contributor)


During cancer treatment, it is vitally important to stay healthy. The best way of doing that is to work with the body's own natural healing abilities. And that means, in the first place to eat right.

The Chemotherapy Diet is a practical guide to feeling good during chemo... and beyond with 100+ simple recipes, menu planning guide, and more, presented in a simple 5-step program:

Change your thinking and develop an attitude focused on healing. Detoxify with therapeutic baths to promote healing from the inside out. Eat the best foods to create a healing chemistry in your body. Supplement your diet to support the healing momentum. Exercise and rest to speed the healing process.

Handbook of Cancer Chemotherapy (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Handbook Series)

Handbook of Cancer Chemotherapy (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Handbook Series)
by Roland T. Skeel (Author), Samir N. Khlief (Author)


Skeel's Handbook of Cancer Chemotherapy combines in one place the most current rationale and specific details necessary to administer chemotherapy for most adult cancers. The handbook is a practical, diseased-focused pocket reference that emphasizes the best current medical practice as it relates to the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs. By focusing on specific plans for treatment, the book is an invaluable resource for the daily care of cancer patients.

Chemotherapy and Biotherapy Guidelines and Recommendations for Practice

Chemotherapy and Biotherapy Guidelines and Recommendations for Practice
by Julie M. Whitford (Editor), Mikaela M. Olsen (Editor), Martha Polovich (Editor)


Edited by Martha Polovich, Julie M. Whitford, and MiKaela Olsen, this new edition has been revised and updated to reflect the current procedures and practices in your specialty. Featured are sections detailing principles of antineoplastic therapy, cancer therapy goals and response, fundamentals of administration, pre-treatment, treatment and post-treatment care, side effects of cancer therapy, immediate complications of cytotoxic therapy, and more. Also included are treatment schedules, including dose category and determination, as well as nursing and chemotherapy flow charts, information on safe management of chemotherapy in the home, clinical practicum and evaluations, and much, much more.

Chemotherapy and Radiation For Dummies

Chemotherapy and Radiation For Dummies
by Alan P. Lyss MD (Author), Humberto Fagundes MD (Author), Patricia Corrigan (Author)


An informative, compassionate guide for cancer patients and their loved onesEach year, more than 1 million people get treated for cancer, and most of these will undergo chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or both. This reassuring, optimistic guide helps people get a handle on treatment options and explains in plain English how chemotherapy and radiation therapy really work. It offers detailed advice on how to alleviate and cope with side effects-which range from hair loss to nausea to anemia-and describes how good nutrition, meditation, support groups, and other techniques and resources can help in the recovery process.

Pocket Guide To Chemotherapy Protocols

Pocket Guide To Chemotherapy Protocols
by Edward Chu (Author)


Newly updated for 2012, the Pocket Guide to Chemotherapy Protocols, Seventh Edition, is a spiral-bound quick-reference guide arranged alphabetically by cancer type. This handy, practical pocket guide contains combination, as well as selected single-agent regimens for solid tumor and hematologic malignancies. In each case, the regimens selected are based on published literature and are used in clinical practice in the medical oncology community. The Seventh Edition of the bestselling pocket guide is completely revised and updated and continues the success of previous editions by offering cancer care professionals complete, authoritative information in a convenient format. Pocket Guide to Chemotherapy Protocols is a must-have quick reference guide for physicians, nurses, and other health...

An Inconvenient Year

An Inconvenient Year
by Original Writing


It is a book that deals with the social side of cancer, as a parent, a lover and a friend. It is a story of coping with uncertainty, the reactions of others and living with them too. It documents the total shock and utter fear that a diagnosis brings and the hopelessness of surrendering to a treatment that brings its own baggage yet ultimately insures life. It talks about confronting hair loss along with discovering the more covert assault on all things feminine. Yet at the very root of the book, ahead of the fear and anger, there is humour and laughter. Though the story of cancer has been told before, it has not been told like this"

© 2014 BrightSurf.com