Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Trial Seeks 'Genetic Fingerprint' for Predicting Drug Effectiveness

October 04, 2007
Cincinnati-University of Cincinnati (UC) physician-scientists believe identifying a genetic "fingerprint" could help predict which specific therapies will be most effective for patients with gastric cancer.

Syed Ahmad, MD, is leading a national, phase-2 trial to test the effectiveness of combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy given to patients with gastric cancer before surgery. His team will also collect biological samples in an attempt to obtain genetic data that could be used to formulate targeted therapies.

Previous studies have established that either chemotherapy or radiation therapy after surgery can improve patient survival compared with surgery alone. Overall survival rates, however, remain low-with 20 to 30 percent of American patients surviving more than five years after treatment.

"Everyone agrees that without surgery, gastric cancer in not curable, and numerous studies have shown a benefit to follow-­up therapy with either chemotherapy or radiation therapy," says Ahmad, assistant professor of surgery at UC and principal investigator of the trial.

"The problem is you can't give both radiation therapy and chemotherapy after surgery-it's too toxic and patients can't tolerate it," he says. "But you can give it before surgery when patients are healthiest."

This trial addresses what Ahmad calls the "future of cancer therapy": targeted drug regimens, based on the characteristics of a patient's specific tumor.

His goal is to identify a genetic "fingerprint" that could help predict whether patients will respond to therapy, and then identify drugs to address the specific molecular characteristics of that patient's tumor.

"Right now treatment is based on the assumption that site-based cancers are all the same, so every patient who has stage-3 gastric cancer will get the same chemotherapy drugs," Ahmad explains. "But the reality is that every cancer has a different expression of hormones, growth factors and genetic factors that must be addressed individually."

The UC-led national team is looking for about 70 patients across the United States with up to stage-3 gastric cancer to participate in the trial.

Prior to surgery, all study participants will have a biopsy to set baseline standards for genetic testing to determine which patients have a complete response to the multi-treatment therapy. Participants will receive daily doses of the platinum-containing drug oxaliplatin (ox-AL'-ih-plah-tin, marketed as Eloxatin) for six to eight weeks.

Approved by the Food and Drug Administration, oxaliplatin is currently used to treat advanced colorectal cancer. Studies have shown the drug has fewer toxicity complications compared with other therapies.

After six weeks of chemotherapy, the patient will get five consecutive days of three-dimensional, external-beam radiation therapy. Patients will be reevaluated two to three weeks after radiation to determine if they are eligible for surgery. Those who are suitable will have another tissue biopsy after surgery.

Researchers will compare pre- and post-surgery tissue samples to obtain the genetic data necessary to establish associations between molecular markers and drug resistance, with the goal of reducing toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic agents and improving patient survival.

University of Cincinnati


Related Chemotherapy Current Events and Chemotherapy News Articles


Study illuminates role of cancer drug decitabine in repairing damaged cells
A Purdue University study sheds light on how cell damage is reversed by the cancer drug decitabine and identifies a potential biomarker that could indicate a patient's stage of cancer and response to treatment.

Penn study identifies molecular link between DNA damage and premature aging
Like a beloved pair of jeans, human DNA accumulates damage over time, and older people's bodies can't repair it as well. Many scientists believe a build up of damage can cause cells to enter an irreversible dormant state known as senescence.

The past, present and future of pancreatic cancer research and treatment
The oncologists Manuel Hidalgo, Director of the Clinical Research Programme of the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), and Ignacio Garrido-Laguna, member of the Experimental Therapeutics Program at Huntsman Cancer Institute of the University of Utah (USA), have recently published a review of state-of-the-art clinical treatments for pancreatic cancer -- including the most current therapies and innovative research -- in the prestigious scientific journal Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology.

New therapeutic target for a type of colorectal cancer with poor prognosis has been identified
Researchers at the Institut Hospital del Mar d'Investigacions Mîdiques (IMIM) have identified a new way of treating colorectal cancer.

New breast cancer screening analysis confirms biennial interval optimal for average risk women
Results from a second comprehensive analysis of mammography screening, this time using data from digital mammography, confirms findings from a 2009 analysis of film mammography: biennial (every two years) screening offers a favorable balance of benefits to harm for women ages 50 to 74 who have an average risk of developing breast cancer.

Cancer and chemobrain: Cancer diagnosis affects cognitive function
Breast cancer patients often display mild cognitive defects even before the initiation of chemotherapy. A new study by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researchers now attributes the syndrome to post-traumatic stress induced by diagnosis of the disease.

New genetic mutation could signal start of malaria drug resistance in Africa
Early indicators of the malaria parasite in Africa developing resistance to the most effective drug available have been confirmed, according to new research published in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

New combo of immunotherapy drugs is safe, shrinks tumors in metastatic melanoma patients
Once again, researchers at Penn's Abramson Cancer Center have extended the reach of the immune system in the fight against metastatic melanoma, this time by combining the checkpoint inhibitor tremelimumab with an anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody drug.

Penn Medicine: Immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab shows promise for mesothelioma patients
The PD-1 inhibitor pembrolizumab, a cancer immunotherapy drug, shrank or halted growth of tumors in 76 percent of patients with pleural mesothelioma, a rare and deadly form of cancer that arises in the outer lining of the lungs and internal chest wall, according to a new study from researchers in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

Seeking new targets for ovarian cancer treatment
Identifying molecular changes that occur in tissue after chemotherapy could be crucial in advancing treatments for ovarian cancer, according to research from Magee-Womens Research Institute and Foundation (MWRIF) and the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI), partner with UPMC CancerCenter, presented today at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting 2015.
More Chemotherapy Current Events and Chemotherapy News Articles

The Chemotherapy Survival Guide: Everything You Need to Know to Get Through Treatment

The Chemotherapy Survival Guide: Everything You Need to Know to Get Through Treatment
by Judith McKay (Author), Tammy Schacher RN OCN MSN (Author)


When you're facing cancer treatment, it's easy to feel overwhelmed and alone. Between the hospital or clinic environment and the medical terminology used by doctors and health care professionals, you may feel as though you've entered a foreign country.Written by two experienced oncology nurses, this compassionate and comprehensive guide explains in plain English everything you need to know about your treatment, including what you can expect at each stage of chemotherapy and what you can do to prevent or minimize side effects. Packed with practical suggestions, nutritional advice, relaxation skills, and other techniques to help strengthen your body and calm your mind, The Chemotherapy Survival Guide is a must-have resource for anyone navigating this difficult...

Chemo: Secrets to Thriving: From someone who's been there.

Chemo: Secrets to Thriving: From someone who's been there.
by Roxanne Brown (Author), Barbara Mastej (Contributor), John S. Link M.D. (Contributor)


The thought of chemotherapy can be overwhelming, but getting through it doesn’t have to be. Chemo: Secrets to Thriving helps lighten the load. In chronological order, step-by- step, you learn what might occur, why it happens, what you can do (with your doc’s approval), and who to contact for help. Chemo: Secrets to Thriving will be your friend, companion, and guide, giving you the resources to handle possible side effects and better manage your life during chemotherapy. Once you know the secrets in this book you may find yourself still able to enjoy life—and even thrive—while going through chemotherapy. Our endorsements aren’t from the usual celebrities, but from our celebrities: medical teams, fellow chemo travelers, and the people and places that support them.

Chemotherapy and Biotherapy Guidelines and Recommendations for Practice

Chemotherapy and Biotherapy Guidelines and Recommendations for Practice
by Martha Polovich (Author), MiKeala Olsen (Author), Kris Lefebvre (Author)


Order your copy of the fourth edition of the best-selling resource used by more than 101,000 healthcare professionals since 2009 and keep up-to-date on the latest chemotherapy, biotherapy, and targeted agents. This new edition of the Chemotherapy and Biotherapy Guidelines and Recommendations for Practice has been revised and updated to reflect the current procedures and practices in your specialty. You'll find that this latest edition incorporates a number of significant changes. To help you find the content and information that you need quickly and easily, the text has been reorganized and is now divided into 11 chapters ranging from an overview of cancer and cancer treatment and principles of antineoplastic therapy to post-treatment care and competencies in chemotherapy administration....

Physicians' Cancer Chemotherapy Drug Manual 2015

Physicians' Cancer Chemotherapy Drug Manual 2015
by Edward Chu (Author), Vincent T. DeVita Jr. (Author)


Completely revised and updated for 2015, the Physicians’ Cancer Chemotherapy Drug Manual is an up-to-date guide to the latest information on standard therapy and recent advances in the field. Written by world-class experts in clinical cancer therapeutics, this essential reference provides a complete, easy-to-use catalogue of over 100 drugs and commonly used drug regimens―both on- and off-label―for the treatment of all the major cancers. SPECIAL FEATURES: • Revised to reflect rapid advances in the field, incorporating treatment strategies and new drugs like afatinib, ceritinib, ibrutinib, idelalisib, obinutuzumab, and ramucirumab. • A specific chapter focused on profiling antiemetic drugs and antiemetic treatment regimens. • Diagrams of drug structures and pathways for many of...

Healthy Eating During Chemotherapy

Healthy Eating During Chemotherapy
by Jose van Mil (Author), Christina Mackenzie-Archer (Author)


People undergoing chemotherapy often experience changes in appetite and taste. Similar problems frequently arise during radiotherapy, Another common side effect is a sore mouth, making it painful to eat. At the same time, it is vital for their recovery that patients keep their body weight up. This unique cookbook is the first of its kind, offering nutritional advice and delicious recipes to help cancer patients keep on enjoying food while fighting to get better. Devised by a chef and based on medical research, the first section of the book discusses which foods are good to eat and which are not. The second part of the book contains over 160 recipes that have been created to soothe the palate. With chapter titles like Smooth, Crispy, and Soft with a Bite, the recipes focus on the...

The Chemotherapy Diet: 5 Steps to Staying Healthy During Cancer Treatment

The Chemotherapy Diet: 5 Steps to Staying Healthy During Cancer Treatment
by Mike Herbert ND (Author), Joseph Dispenza (Contributor)


During cancer treatment, it is vitally important to stay healthy. The best way of doing that is to work with the body's own natural healing abilities. And that means, in the first place to eat right.

The Chemotherapy Diet is a practical guide to feeling good during chemo... and beyond with 100+ simple recipes, menu planning guide, and more, presented in a simple 5-step program:

Change your thinking and develop an attitude focused on healing. Detoxify with therapeutic baths to promote healing from the inside out. Eat the best foods to create a healing chemistry in your body. Supplement your diet to support the healing momentum. Exercise and rest to speed the healing process.

Questioning Chemotherapy

Questioning Chemotherapy
by Ralph W. Moss (Author)


A revealing critique of chemotherapy, this book looks objectively at chemo's successes and failures.

Chemotherapy and Radiation For Dummies

Chemotherapy and Radiation For Dummies
by Alan P. Lyss (Author), Humberto Fagundes (Author), Patricia Corrigan (Author)


An informative, compassionate guide for cancer patients and their loved ones Each year, more than 1 million people get treated for cancer, and most of these will undergo chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or both. This reassuring, optimistic guide helps people get a handle on treatment options and explains in plain English how chemotherapy and radiation therapy really work. It offers detailed advice on how to alleviate and cope with side effects-which range from hair loss to nausea to anemia-and describes how good nutrition, meditation, support groups, and other techniques and resources can help in the recovery process.

What to Eat During Cancer Treatment: 100 Great-Tasting, Family-Friendly Recipes to Help You Cope

What to Eat During Cancer Treatment: 100 Great-Tasting, Family-Friendly Recipes to Help You Cope
by Jeanne Besser (Author), Kristina Ratley (Author), Sheri Knecht (Author), Michele Szafranski (Author)


This cookbook contains 100 fast, flavorful recipes to help both patient and caregiver prepare satisfying meals to combat some of the side effects of treatment. Recipes are organized by side effects and include Brie and Apple Grilled Cheese to deal with nausea, Lemon Egg-Drop Soup for diarrhea, Blueberry-Peach Crisp for constipation, a Sherbet Shake for sore mouth, and Honey-Teriyaki Salmon for taste alterations.

Handbook of Cancer Chemotherapy (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Handbook Series)

Handbook of Cancer Chemotherapy (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Handbook Series)
by Roland T. Skeel (Author), Samir N. Khlief (Author)


Skeel's Handbook of Cancer Chemotherapy combines in one place the most current rationale and specific details necessary to administer chemotherapy for most adult cancers. The handbook is a practical, diseased-focused pocket reference that emphasizes the best current medical practice as it relates to the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs. By focusing on specific plans for treatment, the book is an invaluable resource for the daily care of cancer patients.

© 2015 BrightSurf.com