Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Trial Seeks 'Genetic Fingerprint' for Predicting Drug Effectiveness

October 04, 2007
Cincinnati-University of Cincinnati (UC) physician-scientists believe identifying a genetic "fingerprint" could help predict which specific therapies will be most effective for patients with gastric cancer.

Syed Ahmad, MD, is leading a national, phase-2 trial to test the effectiveness of combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy given to patients with gastric cancer before surgery. His team will also collect biological samples in an attempt to obtain genetic data that could be used to formulate targeted therapies.

Previous studies have established that either chemotherapy or radiation therapy after surgery can improve patient survival compared with surgery alone. Overall survival rates, however, remain low-with 20 to 30 percent of American patients surviving more than five years after treatment.

"Everyone agrees that without surgery, gastric cancer in not curable, and numerous studies have shown a benefit to follow-­up therapy with either chemotherapy or radiation therapy," says Ahmad, assistant professor of surgery at UC and principal investigator of the trial.

"The problem is you can't give both radiation therapy and chemotherapy after surgery-it's too toxic and patients can't tolerate it," he says. "But you can give it before surgery when patients are healthiest."

This trial addresses what Ahmad calls the "future of cancer therapy": targeted drug regimens, based on the characteristics of a patient's specific tumor.

His goal is to identify a genetic "fingerprint" that could help predict whether patients will respond to therapy, and then identify drugs to address the specific molecular characteristics of that patient's tumor.

"Right now treatment is based on the assumption that site-based cancers are all the same, so every patient who has stage-3 gastric cancer will get the same chemotherapy drugs," Ahmad explains. "But the reality is that every cancer has a different expression of hormones, growth factors and genetic factors that must be addressed individually."

The UC-led national team is looking for about 70 patients across the United States with up to stage-3 gastric cancer to participate in the trial.

Prior to surgery, all study participants will have a biopsy to set baseline standards for genetic testing to determine which patients have a complete response to the multi-treatment therapy. Participants will receive daily doses of the platinum-containing drug oxaliplatin (ox-AL'-ih-plah-tin, marketed as Eloxatin) for six to eight weeks.

Approved by the Food and Drug Administration, oxaliplatin is currently used to treat advanced colorectal cancer. Studies have shown the drug has fewer toxicity complications compared with other therapies.

After six weeks of chemotherapy, the patient will get five consecutive days of three-dimensional, external-beam radiation therapy. Patients will be reevaluated two to three weeks after radiation to determine if they are eligible for surgery. Those who are suitable will have another tissue biopsy after surgery.

Researchers will compare pre- and post-surgery tissue samples to obtain the genetic data necessary to establish associations between molecular markers and drug resistance, with the goal of reducing toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic agents and improving patient survival.

University of Cincinnati


Related Chemotherapy Current Events and Chemotherapy News Articles


Keeping the Kraken asleep
Despite enormous progress in cancer therapy, many patients still relapse because their treatment addresses the symptoms of the disease rather than the cause, the so-called stem cells.

Drug combo suppresses growth of late-stage prostate cancer tumors
Low doses of metformin, a widely used diabetes medication, and a gene inhibitor known as BI2536 can successfully halt the growth of late-stage prostate cancer tumors, a Purdue University study finds.

Cell mechanism discovered that may cause pancreatic cancer
Researchers at Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at the University of Utah have found that defects in how cells are squeezed out of overcrowded tissue to die, a process called extrusion, may be a mechanism by which pancreatic cancer begins.

New method for identifying most aggressive childhood cancers
A research group at Lund University in Sweden has found a new way to identify the most malignant tumours in children.

How cancer turns good cells to the dark side
Cancer uses a little-understood element of cell signaling to hijack the communication process and spread, according to Rice University researchers.

Major study links gene to drug resistance in testicular cancer
A major research study has uncovered several new genetic mutations that could drive testicular cancer - and also identified a gene which may contribute to tumours becoming resistant to current treatments.

TGen-led study of rare ovarian cancer featured in ASCO 'Cancer Advances' annual report
A groundbreaking TGen-led discovery of the likely genetic cause of an ovarian cancer that strikes young women and girls is featured today in the annual report of the American Society of Cancer Oncology (ASCO).

Drug targets identified through cell line to potentially treat rare pediatric cancer
A team of investigators at the Cumming School of Medicine have made key new findings about an extremely rare childhood cancer called neurocutaneous melanocytosis (NCM).

MD Anderson study finds patients with metastatic colorectal cancer having less surgery
With the dawn of the modern era of new chemotherapeutic and biologic agents available for managing their disease, patients with metastatic colorectal cancer are undergoing less surgery for the removal of their primary tumors, according to research from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

Clinical trial shows benefits of animal-assisted therapy in adult cancer patients undergoing complex cancer treatment with chemotherapy and radiation therapy
Therapy dogs may improve the emotional well-being of some cancer patients, according to results of a clinical study, the first to document the benefits of animal-assisted therapy in adult cancer patients.
More Chemotherapy Current Events and Chemotherapy News Articles

Chemo: Secrets to Thriving: From someone who's been there.

Chemo: Secrets to Thriving: From someone who's been there.
by Roxanne Brown (Author), Barbara Mastej (Contributor), John S. Link M.D. (Contributor)


The thought of chemotherapy can be overwhelming, but getting through it doesn’t have to be. Chemo: Secrets to Thriving helps lighten the load. In chronological order, step-by- step, you learn what might occur, why it happens, what you can do (with your doc’s approval), and who to contact for help. Chemo: Secrets to Thriving will be your friend, companion, and guide, giving you the resources to handle possible side effects and better manage your life during chemotherapy. Once you know the secrets in this book you may find yourself still able to enjoy life—and even thrive—while going through chemotherapy. Our endorsements aren’t from the usual celebrities, but from our celebrities: medical teams, fellow chemo travelers, and the people and places that support them.

Chemotherapy and Biotherapy Guidelines and Recommendations for Practice

Chemotherapy and Biotherapy Guidelines and Recommendations for Practice
by Martha Polovich (Author), MiKeala Olsen (Author), Kris Lefebvre (Author)


Order your copy of the fourth edition of the best-selling resource used by more than 101,000 healthcare professionals since 2009 and keep up-to-date on the latest chemotherapy, biotherapy, and targeted agents. This new edition of the Chemotherapy and Biotherapy Guidelines and Recommendations for Practice has been revised and updated to reflect the current procedures and practices in your specialty. You'll find that this latest edition incorporates a number of significant changes. To help you find the content and information that you need quickly and easily, the text has been reorganized and is now divided into 11 chapters ranging from an overview of cancer and cancer treatment and principles of antineoplastic therapy to post-treatment care and competencies in chemotherapy administration....

The Chemotherapy Survival Guide: Everything You Need to Know to Get Through Treatment

The Chemotherapy Survival Guide: Everything You Need to Know to Get Through Treatment
by Judith McKay (Author), Tammy Schacher RN OCN MSN (Author)


When you're facing cancer treatment, it's easy to feel overwhelmed and alone. Between the hospital or clinic environment and the medical terminology used by doctors and health care professionals, you may feel as though you've entered a foreign country.Written by two experienced oncology nurses, this compassionate and comprehensive guide explains in plain English everything you need to know about your treatment, including what you can expect at each stage of chemotherapy and what you can do to prevent or minimize side effects. Packed with practical suggestions, nutritional advice, relaxation skills, and other techniques to help strengthen your body and calm your mind, The Chemotherapy Survival Guide is a must-have resource for anyone navigating this difficult...

Healthy Eating During Chemotherapy

Healthy Eating During Chemotherapy
by Jose van Mil (Author), Christina Mackenzie-Archer (Author)


People undergoing chemotherapy often experience changes in appetite and taste. Similar problems frequently arise during radiotherapy, Another common side effect is a sore mouth, making it painful to eat. At the same time, it is vital for their recovery that patients keep their body weight up. This unique cookbook is the first of its kind, offering nutritional advice and delicious recipes to help cancer patients keep on enjoying food while fighting to get better. Devised by a chef and based on medical research, the first section of the book discusses which foods are good to eat and which are not. The second part of the book contains over 160 recipes that have been created to soothe the palate. With chapter titles like Smooth, Crispy, and Soft with a Bite, the recipes focus on the...

Chemotherapy and Radiation For Dummies

Chemotherapy and Radiation For Dummies
by Alan P. Lyss MD (Author), Humberto Fagundes MD (Author), Patricia Corrigan (Author)


An informative, compassionate guide for cancer patients and their loved ones Each year, more than 1 million people get treated for cancer, and most of these will undergo chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or both. This reassuring, optimistic guide helps people get a handle on treatment options and explains in plain English how chemotherapy and radiation therapy really work. It offers detailed advice on how to alleviate and cope with side effects-which range from hair loss to nausea to anemia-and describes how good nutrition, meditation, support groups, and other techniques and resources can help in the recovery process.

Physicians' Cancer Chemotherapy Drug Manual 2015

Physicians' Cancer Chemotherapy Drug Manual 2015
by Edward Chu (Author), Vincent T. DeVita Jr. (Author)


Completely revised and updated for 2015, the Physicians’ Cancer Chemotherapy Drug Manual is an up-to-date guide to the latest information on standard therapy and recent advances in the field. Written by world-class experts in clinical cancer therapeutics, this essential reference provides a complete, easy-to-use catalogue of over 100 drugs and commonly used drug regimens—both on- and off-label—for the treatment of all the major cancers. SPECIAL FEATURES: • Revised to reflect rapid advances in the field, incorporating treatment strategies and new drugs like afatinib, ceritinib, ibrutinib, idelalisib, obinutuzumab, and ramucirumab. • A specific chapter focused on profiling antiemetic drugs and antiemetic treatment regimens. • Diagrams of drug structures and pathways for many of...

Handbook of Cancer Chemotherapy (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Handbook Series)

Handbook of Cancer Chemotherapy (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Handbook Series)
by Roland T. Skeel (Author), Samir N. Khlief (Author)


Skeel's Handbook of Cancer Chemotherapy combines in one place the most current rationale and specific details necessary to administer chemotherapy for most adult cancers. The handbook is a practical, diseased-focused pocket reference that emphasizes the best current medical practice as it relates to the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs. By focusing on specific plans for treatment, the book is an invaluable resource for the daily care of cancer patients.

Physicians' Cancer Chemotherapy Drug Manual 2014 (Jones and Bartlett Series in Oncology(Physician's Cancer Chemotherapy Drug Manual))

Physicians' Cancer Chemotherapy Drug Manual 2014 (Jones and Bartlett Series in Oncology(Physician's Cancer Chemotherapy Drug Manual))
by Edward Chu (Author), Vincent T. DeVita Jr. (Author)


Completely revised and updated for 2014, the Physicians’ Cancer Chemotherapy Drug Manual 2014 is an up-to-date guide to the latest information on standard therapy and recent advances in the field. Written by world-class experts in clinical cancer therapeutics, this essential reference provides a complete, easy-to-use catalog of over 100 drugs and commonly used drug regimens—both on- and off-label—for the treatment of all the major cancers. Special features: • Revised to reflect rapid advances in the field • A specific chapter focused on profiling antiemetic drug and antiemetic treatment regimens. • Diagrams of drug structures and pathways for many of the agents. • Offers a comprehensive discussion of clinical pharmacology, special considerations, indications, and dosages....

Chemotherapy and Biotherapy Guidelines and Recommendations for Practice

Chemotherapy and Biotherapy Guidelines and Recommendations for Practice
by Julie M. Whitford (Editor), Mikaela M. Olsen (Editor), Martha Polovich (Editor)


Edited by Martha Polovich, Julie M. Whitford, and MiKaela Olsen, this new edition has been revised and updated to reflect the current procedures and practices in your specialty. Featured are sections detailing principles of antineoplastic therapy, cancer therapy goals and response, fundamentals of administration, pre-treatment, treatment and post-treatment care, side effects of cancer therapy, immediate complications of cytotoxic therapy, and more. Also included are treatment schedules, including dose category and determination, as well as nursing and chemotherapy flow charts, information on safe management of chemotherapy in the home, clinical practicum and evaluations, and much, much more.

Questioning Chemotherapy

Questioning Chemotherapy
by Ralph W. Moss (Author)


A revealing critique of chemotherapy, this book looks objectively at chemo's successes and failures.

© 2015 BrightSurf.com