Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Black holes, galaxies young and old visible in massive mapping of the night sky

October 04, 2007

Pitt researcher part of core group behind survey of 10 billion years

PITTSBURGH-Color images documenting the past 10 billion years of galactic evolution were distributed online this week as part of the first public release of data from a massive project to map a distant region of the universe that combines the efforts of nearly 100 researchers from around the world, including the University of Pittsburgh.

Researchers in the All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey, or AEGIS, observed the same small region of sky using all available wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum--from X-rays to ultraviolet, visible, infrared, and radio waves. The survey focused on the Extended Groth Strip, an area the width of four full moons near the "handle" of the Big Dipper constellation. Four color images from four different satellite telescopes, as well as numerous data catalogs tabulating the properties of and distances to tens of thousands of galaxies, are now available on both the AEGIS Web site and Google Sky, a downloadable program that allows home computer users to explore these distant galaxies up close and in sharp detail.

Pitt physics and astronomy professor Jeffrey Newman is a key member of the AEGIS project's core team, the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe, or DEEP2 team. That team measured optical spectra-detailed breakdowns of the amount of light of a given color we see--for 50,000 galaxies, including 14,000 galaxies in the Extended Groth Strip. These spectra tie together all of the AEGIS datasets by allowing the team to determine each galaxy's distance from Earth. Once the distance is known, astronomers know how far back in time light left a galaxy and, thus, its age. The most distant galaxies in the survey-up to 9 billion light years away-appear as they were only a few billion years after the Big Bang.

Newman then worked directly with Google's Pittsburgh office to convert data from AEGIS into color images for Google Sky and share the information with the general public. Google Sky users can view and explore the Groth Strip in ultraviolet, visible, infrared, or X-ray light--or combine perspectives. "Each wavelength provides unique information about the characteristics of distant galaxies," Newman said.

Newman also worked on the team that created the most detailed of the four color images being released: A visible-light mosaic of 63 separate snapshots from the Hubble Space Telescope. It is the largest unbroken color mosaic ever made with Hubble images and provides images of approximately 50,000 faraway galaxies, including infant and adolescent galaxies just taking on their mature forms.

AEGIS' second image shows the same galaxies through the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). Young stars produce ultraviolet light in abundance; GALEX brightness therefore provides a measure of the rate at which each galaxy is forming stars. Galaxies that contain relatively few young stars or are obscured by dust or intergalactic gas will appear redder in the GALEX image.

The brightness of galaxies in the third image, taken with the Infrared Array Camera on NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, is closely related to the total amount of stars they have formed. The colors of a galaxy as seen through infrared eyes reveal information on both its contents (stars and dust) and its distance from us.

The fourth image, produced with data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, reveals the highly energetic X-ray radiation produced when gas spirals into a supermassive black hole, like those believed to lie at the center of almost every galaxy. Many of the X-ray-emitting objects lie buried within otherwise normal-looking galaxies. In the X-ray images, the bluest objects are the ones most obscured by gas within their host galaxies.

University of Pittsburgh


Related Galaxy Current Events and Galaxy News Articles


Scientists discover how supermassive black holes keep galaxies turned off
An international team of scientists has identified a common phenomenon in galaxies that could explain why huge numbers of them turn into cosmic graveyards.

Supermassive black holes in 'red geyser' galaxies cause galactic warming
An international team of scientists, including the University of Kentucky's Renbin Yan, have uncovered a new class of galaxies, called "red geysers," with supermassive black hole winds so hot and energetic that stars can't form.

Supermassive black hole wind can stop new stars from forming
Scientists have uncovered a new class of galaxies with supermassive black hole winds that are energetic enough to suppress future star formation.

OU astrophysicists detect most luminous diffuse gamma-ray emission from Arp 220
A University of Oklahoma team has detected for the first time the most luminous gamma-ray emission from a galaxy--the merging galaxy Arp 220 is the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxy to Earth, and it reveals the hidden extreme energetic processes in galaxies.

The dark side of the fluffiest galaxies
Galaxies, in all their forms from spirals to ellipticals from giants to dwarfs have been widely studied over the past Century.

Astronomers confirm faintest early-universe galaxy ever seen
An international team of scientists, including two professors and three graduate students from UCLA, has detected and confirmed the faintest early-universe galaxy ever. Using the W. M. Keck Observatory on the summit on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, the researchers detected the galaxy as it was 13 billion years ago.

NASA super pressure balloon begins globetrotting journey
NASA successfully launched a super pressure balloon (SPB) from Wanaka Airport, New Zealand, at 11:35 a.m. Tuesday, May 17, 2016 (7:35 p.m. EDT Monday, May 16, 2016) on a potentially record-breaking, around-the-world test flight.

A beautiful instance of stellar ornamentation
In this image from ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), light from blazing blue stars energises the gas left over from the stars' recent formation.

Hubble spies a spiral snowflake
Together with irregular galaxies, spiral galaxies make up approximately 60 percent of the galaxies in the local universe.

Four synchronized planets reveal clues to how planets form
The search for planets orbiting other stars in our galaxy has revealed an extraordinary family of planets whose orbits are so carefully timed that they provide long-term stability for their planetary system.
More Galaxy Current Events and Galaxy News Articles

The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy

The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
by Douglas Adams (Author)


"IRRESISTIBLE!"
--The Boston Globe
Seconds before the Earth is demolished to make way for a galactic freeway, Arthur Dent is plucked off the planet by his friend Ford Prefect, a researcher for the revised edition of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy who, for the last fifteen years, has been posing as an out-of-work actor.
Together this dynamic pair begin a journey through space aided by quotes from The Hitchhiker's Guide ("A towel is about the most massively useful thing an interstellar hitchhiker can have") and a galaxy-full of fellow travelers: Zaphod Beeblebrox--the two-headed, three-armed ex-hippie and totally out-to-lunch president of the galaxy; Trillian, Zaphod's girlfriend (formally Tricia McMillan), whom Arthur tried to pick up at a cocktail party once upon a time...

The Ultimate Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy

The Ultimate Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
by Douglas Adams (Author), Neil Gaiman (Introduction)


At last in paperback in one complete volume, here are the five classic novels from Douglas Adams’s beloved Hitchiker series.

The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy
Seconds before the Earth is demolished for a galactic freeway, Arthur Dent is saved by Ford Prefect, a researcher for the revised Guide. Together they stick out their thumbs to the stars and begin a wild journey through time and space.

The Restaurant at the End of the Universe
Facing annihilation at the hands of warmongers is a curious time to crave tea. It could only happen to the cosmically displaced Arthur Dent and his comrades as they hurtle across the galaxy in a desperate search for a place to eat.

Life, the Universe and Everything
The unhappy inhabitants of planet Krikkit are sick of...

Galaxy: Mapping the Cosmos

Galaxy: Mapping the Cosmos
by James Geach (Author)


Each night, we are able to gaze up at the night sky and look at the thousands of stars that stretch to the end of our individual horizons. But the stars we see are only those that make up our own Milky Way galaxy—but one of hundreds of billions in the whole of the universe, each separated  by inconceivably huge tracts of empty space. In this book, astronomer James Geach tells the rich stories of both the evolution of galaxies and our ability to observe them, offering a fascinating history of how we’ve come to realize humanity’s tiny place in the vast universe.
           
Taking us on a compelling tour of the state-of-the-art science involved in mapping the infinite, Geach offers a first-hand account of both the science itself and how it is done, describing what...

Galaxy S7: The Complete User Guide And Manual - Learn Everything You Need To Know About Best Smartphone Ever! (S7 Edge, Android, Smartphone)

Galaxy S7: The Complete User Guide And Manual - Learn Everything You Need To Know About Best Smartphone Ever! (S7 Edge, Android, Smartphone)


Galaxy S7 (FREE BONUS INCLUDED)

The Complete User Guide And Manual - Learn Everything You Need To Know About Best Smartphone Ever!

The Galaxy is back - and it’s better than ever before.

The S7 comes with a heap of neat new features: The micro SD card has been reintroduced, while the camera is the best phone camera ever invented so far.

Minimal, sleek and water-resistant, it’s arguably the best handheld device on the market.

Galaxy S7: The Comple User Guide And Manual - Learn Everything You Need To Know About Best Smartphone Ever! covers this awesome new phone. Stuffed with time-saving tips, tricks and hacks that ensure you get the most out of your Galaxy S7, the book also highlights the most common problems - and shows...

Space Camp (Galaxy Zack)

Space Camp (Galaxy Zack)
by Ray O'Ryan (Author), Jason Kraft (Illustrator)


Zack and his friends are off to space camp on a new planet in the fourteenth Galaxy Zack adventure.

Camp Among the Stars!

Summer vacation is finally here and Zack is pumped for space camp! He can’t wait to play galactic games, tell scary stories, and go on crazy camping adventures with new friends. But when there’s trouble between his cabin mates, it’s up to Zack to bring everyone together. Will he be able to find a solution before the entire summer is ruined?

With easy-to-read language and illustrations on almost every page, the Galaxy Zack chapter books are perfect for beginning readers.

Science Fair Disaster! (Galaxy Zack)

Science Fair Disaster! (Galaxy Zack)
by Ray O'Ryan (Author), Jason Kraft (Illustrator)


Zack has his work cut out for him as he prepares for the Intergalactic Science Fair in the thirteenth Galaxy Zack adventure.

When the Intergalactic Science Fair returns to Nebulon, the pressure is on for Sprockets Academy’s students to uphold their winning streak. Zack is sure he can win. But when his project malfunctions, will he be able to get things under control before disaster erupts?

With easy-to-read language and illustrations on almost every page, the Galaxy Zack chapter books are perfect for beginning readers!

Galaxy's Edge Magazine - Omnibus Magazine 1: Complete Contents from Issues 1, 2, and 3. Edited by Mike Resnick. (Series: GE Omnibus)

Galaxy's Edge Magazine - Omnibus Magazine 1: Complete Contents from Issues 1, 2, and 3. Edited by Mike Resnick. (Series: GE Omnibus)
by Phoenix Pick


The complete contents of the Hugo nominated Galaxy’s Edge magazine, issues 1 through 3. More than 250k words of fine fiction and non-fiction by authors like Mercedes Lackey, Robert Silverberg, Gregory Benford, Robert J. Sawyer, Jack McDevitt and many, many more for less than the typical price of a trade paperback.

Online content and subscriptions at:
http://www.GalaxysEdge.com

Complete Contents:

Issue 1

THE EDITOR’S WORD by Mike Resnick
THE SHOULDERS OF GIANTS by Robert J. Sawyer
SCHRÖDINGER’S CATHOUSE by Kij Johnson
CREATOR OF THE COSMOS JOB INTERVIEW TODAY by Nick DiChario
FROM THE HEART’S BASEMENT (column) by Barry Malzberg
JUST A SECOND by Lou J. Berger
ACT OF GOD by Jack...

The Galaxy Chronicles (The Future Chronicles)

The Galaxy Chronicles (The Future Chronicles)
by Windrift Books


Space. Some call it the ultimate frontier. Humans are the verge of breaking its bonds with Earth and reaching other planets, other worlds, other galaxies. And when we do, will we go forth in peace? Or take with us our conflicts, our battles, our wars?

In this latest title in the acclaimed 'Future Chronicles' series of speculative fiction anthologies, twelve authors take us on that incredible journey with adventurers, colonists, and space marines as they push the boundaries against the unknown, against alien empires, and themselves.

"The Galaxy Chronicles" features stories by USA Today and Amazon bestselling authors Nick Webb (Constitution), Raymond L. Weil (The Lost Fleet), Jasper T. Scott (Dark Space), plus nine more of today's top authors in speculative and...

Star Wars The Force Awakens: Tales From a Galaxy Far, Far Away

Star Wars The Force Awakens: Tales From a Galaxy Far, Far Away
by Landry Q. Walker (Author), Jason P Wojtowicz (Designer)


The worlds of Star Wars are full of countless alien species, each stranger and more fascinating than the last. Here you'll find six stories for kids about just some of the amazing aliens who appear in the smash-hit movie Star Wars: The Force Awakens. Featuring a dashing tale of piracy and double crosses, the story of a wise Jakku constable and an unfortunate droid, and a mystery that can be solved only by the gruff cook at Maz Kanata's castle, this collection will bring thrills and chills as it takes you deep into the corners of your favorite galaxy far, far away. . . .
Constable Zuvio must get to the bottom of things when a faithful droid commits a bank robbery in "High Noon on Jakku."The Frigosian cryptosurgeons of Takodana give a criminal on the run just what she asks for in "The...

Three's a Crowd! (Galaxy Zack)

Three's a Crowd! (Galaxy Zack)
by Ray O'Ryan (Author), Colin Jack (Illustrator)


Zack finds out that two best friends are better than one in this chapter book adventure.

Zack is thrilled when he finds out that his best friend on Earth, Bert Jones, is going to visit him on Nebulon. Zack can’t wait to show Bert around the new planet, as well as his new school. But when Bert meets Drake, Zack’s best friend on Nebulon, some jealousy starts to brew. Drake feels left out when Zack and Bert tell stories from Earth and share inside jokes. And he feels even more left out when the three boys go to an amusement park on the planet Cisnos and Zack and Bert go on all the rides...without Drake. When Zack finally realizes how out-of-place Drake feels, he, Drake, and Bert decide to all have fun together. Because, of course, two best friends are even better than one!
...

© 2016 BrightSurf.com