Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

New Studies Confirm Chest Compressions Alone are Life-saving for Cardiac Arrest

December 26, 2007
Life-saving technique developed at The University of Arizona

Two large-scale studies published in the Dec. 18 issue of the American Heart Association's medical journal, Circulation, report that the chances of surviving cardiac arrest are no better - and may be worse - when bystanders perform mouth-to-mouth breathing than if they press on the chest without interruption.

In part because of the hesitance of bystanders to initiate CPR, survival rates following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest have remained dismal and virtually unchanged despite several changes of the CPR guidelines over the past four decades. In the two latest studies, research groups from Sweden and Japan compared survival rates of cardiac arrest victims after bystanders used either traditional CPR with mouth-to-mouth breathing or Chest-Compression-Only CPR.

Both studies found no statistically significant difference in survival rates. The Swedish study, led by Katarina Bohm, RN, of the South General Hospital in Stockholm, analyzed outcomes of nearly 10,000 cases, while a team led by Taku Iwami, MD, at Japan's National Cardiovascular Center in Suita, Japan, looked at the outcomes of 4,900 cases of witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Robert Berg, MD, professor of pediatrics at the UA College of Medicine and a member of the Sarver Heart Center Resuscitation Research Group, co-authored the latter study.

"These independent findings confirm what our Resuscitation Research Group and others have found," says Gordon A. Ewy, MD, director of The University of Arizona Sarver Heart Center, where Continuous-Chest-Compression CPR without mouth-to-mouth breathing was pioneered. "To rescue someone who suddenly collapses for no apparent reason, mouth-to-mouth breathing makes no sense."

Shortly before the two latest observational studies were published, Dr. Ewy and his colleagues reported the results of a laboratory study suggesting that cardiac arrest patients face better odds of survival if they receive continuous chest compressions than if treated with standard CPR, in which chest compressions are interrupted by mouth-to-mouth breaths.

"Studies have shown over and over again that four out of five bystanders would not do CPR because of the mouth-to-mouth part," says Dr. Ewy, who has commented on the two new studies in an invited editorial published in the same issue of Circulation. "If people don't have to worry about the so-called rescue breathing, they are much more likely to actually do CPR on someone who needs it. This fact alone is the key to saving more lives. If someone calls the emergency medical services and does nothing, the individual has almost no chance of surviving."

Earlier this year, the then-largest study comparing survival rates of cardiac arrest victims in the light of the kind of rescue efforts performed by bystanders concluded that chances of leaving the hospital alive were actually higher for patients who received Continuous-Chest-Compression CPR (Cardiopulmonary resuscitation by bystanders with chest compression only (SOS-KANTO): an observational study; Lancet 2007:369:920-926).

Dr. Ewy says, "It is interesting that Continuous-Chest-Compression CPR, a technique that has not been advocated or taught and is most often performed by individuals not trained in CPR, results in similar survival as the guidelines-advocated approach, on which millions of hours and millions of dollars have been spent teaching and advocating."

He adds that mouth-to-mouth ventilation is disadvantageous in cases of sudden cardiac arrest for three primary reasons. "A person whose heart suddenly stops, for example because of a heart attack, was breathing normally only seconds earlier so there is plenty of oxygen in the blood. The important thing is to move the blood around, and this is only possible by uninterrupted chest compressions. During CPR, blood flow to the brain and the heart is so marginal that stopping for anything, including ventilation, is harmful to the brain. In addition, research has shown that forced ventilation, including mouth-to-mouth breathing, increases the pressure in the patient's chest, which in turn inhibits blood flow back to the heart."

University of Arizona Health Sciences Center


Related Cardiac Arrest Current Events and Cardiac Arrest News Articles


Adrenaline does little to increase patient's survival after cardiac arrest
Giving patients adrenaline after they suffer a cardiac arrest outside of a hospital does not increase their prospects of surviving long-term, according to new research conducted at St. Michael's Hospital.

Lifespan researcher develops first blood test to predict risk of sudden cardiac death
A researcher at the Cardiovascular Institute (CVI) at Rhode Island, The Miriam and Newport hospitals has found that a simple blood test can predict a person's risk for sudden cardiac death, enabling physicians to more quickly and accurately assess a patient's need for an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD).

Clonidine doesn't reduce deaths or heart attack after non-cardiac surgery
Clonidine - a drug that reduces blood pressure and heart rate - increased rates of clinically concerning hypotension and non-fatal cardiac arrest after noncardiac surgery, according to the POISE-2 trial presented at the American College of Cardiology's 63rd Annual Scientific Session.

Clusters of 'broken hearts' may be linked to massive natural disasters
Dramatic spikes in cases of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also called broken heart syndrome, were found in two states after major natural disasters, suggesting the stress of disasters as a likely trigger.

Marathon training could help the heart
Marathon training is associated with improved risk factors related to cardiovascular disease among middle-aged recreational male runners, suggesting that race preparation may be an effective strategy for reducing heart disease risk.

Cardiovascular Institute researcher: Cancer drug may lower sudden cardiac death risk
A researcher at the Cardiovascular Institute (CVI) at Rhode Island, The Miriam and Newport hospitals has found that a new class of drugs, originally developed to treat cancer, reduces sudden cardiac death risk after a heart attack.

Stanford, NOAA scientists discover mechanism of crude oil heart toxicity
Scientists from Stanford University and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have discovered that crude oil interferes with fish heart cells. The toxic consequence is a slowed heart rate, reduced cardiac contractility and irregular heartbeats that can lead to cardiac arrest and sudden cardiac death.

Survival rates of kids suffering cardiac arrest improve with new training approach
Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford have found a new way to boost the survival of pediatric patients whose hearts stop while they are hospitalized.

Some families would consider terminal sedation for kin in a permanent vegetative state
The families of some very severely brain injured patients believe that once all treatment options are exhausted, allowing their relatives to die with the help of terminal sedation would be a humane and compassionate option, research carried out by the University of York and Cardiff University has revealed.

South African Trauma Center Launches Portable Electronic Trauma Health Record Application
Electronic health records (EHRs) have become standard practice throughout hospitals in North America, but in countries with fewer resources many front-line clinicians are still collecting data on paper, if they are collecting it at all.
More Cardiac Arrest Current Events and Cardiac Arrest News Articles

Cardiac Arrest (A Short Story)

Cardiac Arrest (A Short Story)


Cardiac Arrest (A Short Story)
By K.K. Chalmers

What happens when a cop can't escape the pressures of the job?
A short story of psychological suspense.
(3,260 words)

Cardiac Arrest: The Science and Practice of Resuscitation Medicine, 2nd Edition

Cardiac Arrest: The Science and Practice of Resuscitation Medicine, 2nd Edition
by Norman A. Paradis (Editor), Henry R. Halperin (Editor), Karl B. Kern (Editor), Volker Wenzel (Editor), Douglas A. Chamberlain (Editor)


Cardiac Arrest is the definitive and most comprehensive reference volume in advanced life support and resuscitation medicine. This new edition brings the reader completely up-to-date with developments in the field, focusing on practical issues of decision making, clinical management and prevention, as well as providing explanations of the science informing the practice. This volume is essential reading for all those involved in the emergency care of cardiac patients, either in the pre-hospital or hospital setting.

Cardiac Arrest

Cardiac Arrest


Ella Marley's world is shattered when a botched robbery costs her beloved older brother his life. She must try to move on while enduring a murder investigation that twists her emotions.
Detective Cory McCray couldn't help but be drawn to her the first time he set eyes on her in the hospital. He struggles to keep his feelings in check - he has a case to solve. But as the pieces come together, he wonders where she fits in - and if he is thinking with his head or his heart.
Cardiac Arrest is a quick, romantic read with a touch of mystery.

Every Beat of My Heart: An ABC Journalist's Journey From Death by Cardiac Arrest to Complete Recovery

Every Beat of My Heart: An ABC Journalist's Journey From Death by Cardiac Arrest to Complete Recovery
by ABC Books


One ordinary evening, Jeff Waters suffered a cataclysmic cardiac arrest that killed him instantly. He was clinically dead for one hour, so how did he live to tell the tale? A miraculous story of survival and courage. One ordinary weekday evening, Jeff Waters had just gone to bed in his Melbourne home when pain began in his left arm and chest. He mentioned it casually to his wife, a GP, but dismissed her evident alarm - after all, he ate healthily, he swam regularly, he wasn't overweight or diabetic, and he was only 43. What did he have to worry about? Seconds later 'a dark curtain fell' and he was dead. A huge cardiac arrest stopped his heart completely. His wife was already calling the ambulance as he fell to the ground and, until the ambulance arrived, she straddled his chest and...

A Heart Too Good to Die: A Shocking Story of Sudden Cardiac Arrest

A Heart Too Good to Die: A Shocking Story of Sudden Cardiac Arrest
by Jeremy Whitehead (Author)


A must read for heart patients. The lessons of this compelling and amazing story apply to every community in the United States. It offers a poignant, touching glimpse of the inner workings of a family impacted by cardiac arrest.

Manual of Perioperative Care in Adult Cardiac Surgery

Manual of Perioperative Care in Adult Cardiac Surgery
by Robert M. Bojar (Author)


The fifth edition of Bojar's Manual of Perioperative Care in Adult Cardiac Surgery remains the gold standard for management of adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery.The easily referenced outline format allows health practitioners of all levels to understand and apply basic concepts to patient care--perfect for cardiothoracic and general surgery residents, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, cardiologists, medical students, and critical care nurses involved in the care of both routine and complex cardiac surgery patients.This comprehensive guide features:Detailed presentation addressing all aspects of perioperative care for adult cardiac surgery patientsOutline format allowing quick access to informationChronological approach to patient care starting with diagnostic tests then...

Cardiac Surgery Essentials For Critical Care Nursing (Hardin, Cardiac Surgery Essentials for Critical Care Nursing)

Cardiac Surgery Essentials For Critical Care Nursing (Hardin, Cardiac Surgery Essentials for Critical Care Nursing)
by Sonya R. Hardin (Author), Roberta Kaplow (Author)


Cardiac Surgery Essentials for Critical Care Nursing is a comprehensive reference that provides a foundation for all cardiac nurses. It is designed to prepare the nurse who is first learning to care for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. It addresses significant changes in cardiac surgery and the nursing responsibilities to meet the needs of these acutely ill patients. Second, the book provides advanced knowledge and a scientific basis for nurses who have mastered the essential knowledge and skills necessary to care for this patient population who now seek more in-depth knowledge base about advances in this dynamic field and strategies to optimize patient outcomes. The emphasis throughout the book is providing an evidence-based foundation for care of the patient during the vulnerable...

Proof of Heaven: A Neurosurgeon's Journey into the Afterlife

Proof of Heaven: A Neurosurgeon's Journey into the Afterlife
by Eben Alexander (Author)


A SCIENTIST’S CASE FOR THE AFTERLIFE

Thousands of people have had near-death experiences, but scientists have argued that they are impossible. Dr. Eben Alexander was one of those scientists. A highly trained neurosurgeon, Alexander knew that NDEs feel real, but are simply fantasies produced by brains under extreme stress.

Then, Dr. Alexander’s own brain was attacked by a rare illness. The part of the brain that controls thought and emotion—and in essence makes us human—shut down completely. For seven days he lay in a coma. Then, as his doctors considered stopping treatment, Alexander’s eyes popped open. He had come back.

Alexander’s recovery is a medical miracle. But the real miracle of his story lies elsewhere. While his body lay in coma, Alexander...

Cardiac Vascular Nursing Review and Resource Manual

Cardiac Vascular Nursing Review and Resource Manual
by Linda Baas (Author), Barbara "Bobbi" Leeper (Contributor)


Written by cardiac vascular nursing experts, this book provides a clinical reference tool. This manual helps readers enhance critical thinking skills and identify strengths and weaknesses. We are unable to accept returns for this manual. Please double-check your order before submitting. Contact hours are no longer available for this manual.

Eat to Live: The Amazing Nutrient-Rich Program for Fast and Sustained Weight Loss, Revised Edition

Eat to Live: The Amazing Nutrient-Rich Program for Fast and Sustained Weight Loss, Revised Edition
by Joel Fuhrman (Author)


The Eat To Live 2011 revised edition includes updated scientific research supporting Dr. Fuhrman's revolutionary six-week plan and a brand new chapter highlighting Dr. Fuhrman's discovery of toxic hunger and the role of food addiction in weight issues.  This new chapter provides novel and important insights into weight gain. It explains how and why eating the wrong foods causes toxic hunger and the desire to over consume calories; whereas a diet of high micronutrient quality causes true hunger which decreases the sensations leading to food cravings and overeating behaviors.  It instructs readers on how to leave behind the discomfort of toxic hunger, cravings, and addictions to unhealthy foods.

New recipes and menus are included as well as new and updated Frequently...

© 2014 BrightSurf.com