Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Newly identified enzymes help plants sense elevated CO2 and could lead to water-wise crops

December 14, 2009
Biologists have identified plant enzymes that may help to engineer plants that take advantage of elevated carbon dioxide to use water more efficiently. The finding could help to engineer crops that take advantage of rising greenhouse gases.

Plants take in the carbon dioxide they need for photosynthesis through microscopic breathing pores in the surface of leaves. But for each molecule of the gas gained, they lose hundreds of water molecules through these same openings. The pores can tighten to save water when CO2 is abundant, but scientists didn't know how that worked until now.

A team led by Julian Schroeder, professor of biology at the University of California, San Diego, has identified the protein sensors that control the response. Enzymes that react with CO2 cause cells surrounding the opening of the pores to close down they report in the journal Nature Cell Biology online December 13.

The discovery could help to boost the response in plants that do not take full advantage of elevated levels of the gas, Schroeder says. "A lot of plants have a very weak response to CO2. So even though atmospheric CO2 is much higher than it was before the industrial age and is continuing to increase, there are plants that are not capitalizing on that. They're not narrowing their pores, which would allow them to take in CO2, while losing less water," he said. "It could be that with these enzymes, you can improve how efficiently plants use water, while taking in CO2 for photosynthesis. Our data in the lab suggest that the CO2 response can be cranked up."

Plants lose 95 percent of the water they take in to evaporation through these pores, also called stoma. Modifying crops to be more responsive to CO2 could help farmers meet demand for food as competition for water increases. In California, for example, 79 percent of water diverted from streams and rivers or pumped from the ground is used for agriculture according to the California Department of Water Resources.

Schroeder's team identified a pair of proteins that are required for the CO2 response in Arabidopsis, a plant commonly used for genetic analysis. The proteins, enzymes called carbonic anhydrases, split CO2 into bicarbonate and protons. Plants with disabled genes for the enzymes fail to respond to increased CO2 concentrations in the air, losing out on the opportunity to conserve water.

Several types of cells in plant leaves contain carbonic anhydrases, including those responsible for photosynthesis, but Schroeder's team showed that the enzymes work directly within a pair of cells, called guard cells, that control the opening of each breathing pore. By adding normal carbonic anhydrase genes designed to work only in guard cells they were able to restore the CO2-triggered pore-tightening response in mutant plants.

Adding extra copies of the genes to the guard cells actually improved water efficiency, the researchers found. "The guard cells respond to CO2 more vigorously," said Honghong Hu, a post doctoral researcher in Schroeder's lab and co-first author of the report. "For every molecule of CO2 they take in, they lose 44 percent less water."

The action of carbonic anhydrases is specific to changes in CO2, the researchers found. Mutant plants still open their pores in response to blue light, a sign that photosynthesis can begin. And their pores also shut when water is scarce, a response mediated by a plant drought-stress hormone.

Photosynthesis continued normally in the mutants as well, suggesting that altering CO2 sensitivity wouldn't stunt growth - good news if the goal is to engineer drought-resistant crops with robust yields.

But saving water and surviving heat involves a tradeoff for plants: Evaporation of water through the pores also cools the plant, just like sweat cools human beings. If future growing conditions are hotter and drier, as they are predicted to be in some parts of the world, then modifications to the CO2 response will need to be carefully calibrated.

University of California - San Diego


Related Enzymes Current Events and Enzymes News Articles


Tracking DNA helps scientists trace origins of genetic errors
Scientists have shed light on how naturally occurring mutations can be introduced into our DNA.

Infant failure to thrive linked to lysosome dysfunction
Neonatal intestinal disorders that prevent infants from getting the nutrients they need may be caused by defects in the lysosomal system that occur before weaning, according to a new Northwestern Medicine study.

Researchers identify efficient methylating enzyme for cancer development
A recent study may help begin to explain how cancer develops though the abnormal turning on and off of genes.

Diaper compound may expand power of microscopes
Pour, mix, set, add water and voila: highly detailed images of the inside of cells. A study, partially funded by the National Institutes of Health, showed that a modified form of the superabsorbent chemical used in disposable diapers can expand brain structures to four and a half times their original size.

Insights into a rare genetic disease
Recently, a grassroots effort initiated by families and clinicians led to the discovery of a human genetic disorder with severe consequences that is linked to a mutation in the human NGLY1 gene.

M6P deficiency leaves B cells out of sorts
A group of white blood cells known as B cells, which play a key role in the human immune response, need a protein-targeting signal called mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) in order to proliferate, differentiate, and present immune cell-activating antigens, according to a study in The Journal of Cell Biology.

CNIO scientists discover a novel molecular mechanism involved in the formation of the skin
The formation of human skin involves a cascade of biochemical signals, which are not well understood. However, they are very important since their failure may cause diseases, such as Atopic Dermatitis and skin cancers, which affect more than 25% of the human population.

Coenzyme A plays leading role in nitric oxide function so essential to cell metabolism
Case Western Reserve and University Hospitals (UH) Case Medical Center researchers and physicians have discovered that the molecule known as coenzyme A plays a key role in cell metabolism by regulating the actions of nitric oxide.

Alzheimer's plaques reduced by targeting sugar attachment to the BACE1 enzyme
Researchers at the RIKEN-Max Planck Joint Research Center in Japan have demonstrated that hallmark symptoms of Alzheimer's disease can be reduced when sugars are prevented from binding to one of the key enzymes implicated in the disease.

Epigenetics: The epigenetic switchboard
Epigenetic signals help determine which genes are activated at which time in a given cell. A novel analytical method enables systematic characterization of the relevant epigenetic tags, and reveals that the system adapts to the loss of single epigenetic writer and eraser enzymes.
More Enzymes Current Events and Enzymes News Articles

The Enzyme Factor

The Enzyme Factor
by Hiromi Shinya MD (Author)


In The Enzyme Factor, Dr. Hiromi Shinya presents his research, grounded in his 45 years of medical practice in the United States and Japan. This research supports the idea of a miracle enzyme out of which all the enzymes the body needs are produced. He suggests cancer and other diseases occur when this key enzyme is depleted and cannot properly do its job. In this book he clearly shows how what we eat affects that key. Dr. Shinya's science is clearly explained and easy to understand. The suggestions for diet and lifestyle based on this science are simple and easy to follow. Even those who think they know everything about how to eat right will be surprised when they discover what is really healthy.



This simple health regime has led hundreds of his patients, many suffering...

Enzymes: The Key to Health, Vol. 1 (The Fundamentals)

Enzymes: The Key to Health, Vol. 1 (The Fundamentals)
by Howard F., Jr. Loomis (Author)


Book annotation not available for this title.
Title: Enzymes
Author: Loomis, Howard F., Jr.
Publisher: Enzyme Formulations Inc
Publication Date: 2005/08/01
Number of Pages: 192
Binding Type: PAPERBACK
Library of Congress: oc2007036246

Enzyme Nutrition

Enzyme Nutrition
by Dr. Edward Howell (Author)


Why is eating food in its natural state, unprocessed and unrefined, so vital to the maintenance of good health? What is lacking in our modern diet that makes us so susceptible to degenerative disease? What natural elements in food may play a key role in unlocking the secrets of life extension? These fascinating questions, and many more, are answered in Enzyme Nutrition.
Written by one of America’s pioneering biochemists and nutrition researchers, Dr. Edward Howell, Enzyme Nutrition presents the most vital nutritional discovery since that of vitamins and minerals—food enzymes. Our digestive organs produce some enzymes internally, however food enzymes are necessary for optimal health and must come from uncooked foods such as fresh fruits and vegetables, raw sprouted grains,...

Enzymes: What the Experts Know

Enzymes: What the Experts Know
by Tom Bohager (Author)


This book throughly describes the role of Enzymes Therapy in restoring, promoting and maintaing optimal health. The topics covered in depth are as follows; Definition of what an Enzyme is, the 4 types, the history of enzyme therapy, animal vs plant-based enzyme therapy, the digestive system, the use of therapeutic enzymes, specific enzymes in therapy, determining enzyme potency, proper pH, the microlflora (bacteria) connection, the immune system, physical fitness, choosing the correct supplement, enzyme deficiency testing, proteases and their effect on probiotics and a discussion of glucoreductase

Enzymes: The Missing Link to Health

Enzymes: The Missing Link to Health
by Susan M. Lark M.D. (Author)


Do you want relief from colds and flus, allergies, autoimmune disease, heart disease and many other major health issues? Would you like to enjoy a high level of energy and vitality and great resistance to disease? Then Enzymes: The Missing Link to Health is a must read book for you. Written by Susan M. Lark, M.D., one of the most renowned women’s alternative medicine experts, this comprehensive guide will help to support and restore your own enzyme production for excellent health. Abundant enzyme production plays a crucial role in protecting and helping us recover from inflammatory diseases, infections, autoimmune conditions, injuries, heart disease and even cancer. It is also essential in helping us recover from accidents, injuries and even surgical and dental procedures. Not only...

The Rejuvenation Enzyme: Reverse Ageing, Revitalize Cells, Restore Vigor

The Rejuvenation Enzyme: Reverse Ageing, Revitalize Cells, Restore Vigor
by Hiromi Shinya (Author)


In Dr. Shinya's groundbreaking book The Enzyme Factor, he introduces his theory of stem enzymes and how they effect health and longevity. In The Rejuvenation Enzyme Dr. Shinya introduces the idea of a new category of enzyme, capable of reversing the damage done in aging by cleaning up senescent or "zombie" cells .

In this ground breaking book learn:
how rejuvenation enzymes destroy zombie cells.
why purple food improves your eyesight and your memory.
all about the "cancer switch."
how cells know what to do.
Also included is a full Rejuvenation Weekend plan for switching on your rejuvenation enzyme and revitalizing your health.

The Complete Book of Enzyme Therapy: A Complete and Up-to-Date Reference to Effective Remedies

The Complete Book of Enzyme Therapy: A Complete and Up-to-Date Reference to Effective Remedies
by Anthony J. Cichoke (Author)


The Complete Book of Enzyme Therapy gives a clear picture of enzymes -what they are, what they do, and how they can be depleted in the body. It then explains how you can begin an enzyme-rich diet, and when, why, and how enzyme supplements may be taken. Also provided are enzyme treatments for more than 150 conditions.

Enzyme Factor 2

Enzyme Factor 2
by Hiromi Shinya (Author)


In The Enzyme Factor 2 Dr Hiromi Shinya again turns his visionary genius to the power of enzymes to cure and restore. He provides compelling evidence for ways to obtain a healthy heart and youthful body. In Enzyme Factor 2 Dr Shinya tells how to reverse again, stop Alzheimers, and prevent diabetes. He explains how to rejuvenate your sex life naturally.

Everything You Need to Know About Enzymes: A Simple Guide to Using Enzymes to Treat Everything from Digestive Problems and Allergies to Migraines and Arthritis

Everything You Need to Know About Enzymes: A Simple Guide to Using Enzymes to Treat Everything from Digestive Problems and Allergies to Migraines and Arthritis
by Tom Bohager (Author)


We all know that better health doesn't come from one magical, cure-all pill. But what you should know is that it can come from readily available, over-the-counter enzyme supplements. Tom Bohager's Everything You Need to Know About Enzymes offers simple, natural methods for improving your health dramatically without dramatic changes in lifestyle. Bohager's quick course explains how to use enzymes for general god health and to treat specific ailments. As health care costs in the United States soar, more and more people are interested in improving their health through safe, affordable, noninvasive, nonprescription remedies. Enzymes in particular are gaining popularity because of their proven effectiveness and ease of use. For readers interested in improving digestion, strengthening the...

Micro Miracles: Discover the Healing Power of Enzymes

Micro Miracles: Discover the Healing Power of Enzymes
by Ellen W. Cutler (Author), Jeremy E. Kaslow (Author)


The only definitive resource on enzyme therapy by the nation's leading expert, a pioneering medical doctor who has used enzymes to treat allergies, asthma, fatigue, chronic pain, and many other ailments-with astonishing success!

The scientific evidence continues to mount, pointing to enzyme deficiencies as the cause of a vast majority of health problems. In this important, groundbreaking book, Dr. Ellen Cutler-who has been prescribing enzymes to her patients, and taking them herself for more than 20 years-shows readers how to assess their bodies' unique enzyme needs and create totally personalized enzyme regimens.

MicroMiracles also explains how enzyme supplements:
- Reduce food cravings and promote significant weight loss
-·Sharpen memory and mental...

© 2015 BrightSurf.com