Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

How Grass Buffers Keep Agricultural Herbicides at Bay

April 26, 2010

Grass buffer strips are commonly used in crop production to reduce herbicide runoff. These practices are encouraged through incentives, regulations or laws, and are effective at lowering herbicide concentration in runoff. However, subsurface filtration (under the buffer strips) is not as well documented, and neither are the effects of trees integrated into buffer strips with grasses.

Understanding these effects is crucial as agriculture producers continue to adopt these strategies.

Researchers studied the impact of grass and grass/tree buffer strips on three herbicides commonly used in agriculture. The scientists studied the transport of the herbicides in both surface runoff and subsurface infiltration during two growing seasons.
Vegetative barriers reduce herbicide concentrations in runoff, but movement of herbicides through subsurface filtration actually increased. Total export of herbicides was reduced through the use of grass and grass/tree barriers. The research was conducted by Emmanuelle Caron, Pierre Lafrance, Jean-Christian Auclair of the University of Quebec, and Marc Duchemin of the Institute of Research and Development in Agri-Environment.

The results are reported in the March/April 2010 edition of the Journal of Environmental Quality, published by the American Society of Agronomy, the Crop Soil Science Society of America, and the Soil Science Society of America.

The results for the first year showed a 35% reduction in herbicide concentration in grass and grass/tree buffer strips than with no buffer. Herbicide concentrations in subsurface filtration increased 800-1200-% with buffer strips, although total overall concentration was reduced 40-60%. In 2005, total herbicide concentration exported through the buffer strips was 75-95% less than without the buffers. The findings indicate that grass barriers decrease surface water runoff while increasing subsurface infiltration, resulting in an overall loss of herbicides before reaching bodies of water.

Integrating trees into the barriers did not result in any significant differences. This was possible due to the fact that the trees were only two years old at the beginning of the study, and their root systems were not yet developed enough to demonstrate any impact. Further research is needed to determine the effects of long-established trees in buffer strips. Local meteorological conditions also play an important role in the efficiency of buffer strips, and the two years of the study experienced a wide range of variability that future long term research should address.

The American Society of Agronomy (ASA)


Related Herbicides Current Events and Herbicides News Articles


Ecologists advise an increase in prescribed grassland burning to maintain ecosystem
Kansas State University researchers have found a three-year absence of fire is the tipping point for the tallgrass prairie ecosystem and advise an increase in burning.

Mechanism for herbicide resistance in Palmer amaranth identified
Corn and soybean farmers might as well be soldiers locked in an ever-escalating war against the weeds that threaten their crops. New weapons -- herbicides -- only work for so long before the enemy retaliates by developing resistance and refusing to die.

UD researchers examine ways to break down, track synthetic compound in herbicides
To examine the fate and persistence of glyphosate, one of the most common commercial herbicides used for agricultural and urban applications, and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), a major byproduct of glyphosate, in soils and other environments, researchers at the University of Delaware have used isotopic signatures as a method of source tracking.

Engineered gene drives and the future
Engineered gene drives, which have the potential to spread desirable genes throughout wild populations or to suppress harmful species, have received a lot of recent attention because of their potential to control organisms, such as mosquitoes that carry diseases such as Zika virus, malaria and dengue fever.

Dicamba drift affects non-target plants and pollinators
Dicamba herbicide drift onto plants growing adjacent to farm fields causes significant delays in flowering, as well as reduced flowering, of those plants, and results in decreased visitation by honey bees, according to researchers at Penn State and the Pennsylvania Association for Sustainable Agriculture.

Researchers identify genes connecting endocrine disruption to genital malformations
University of Florida Health researchers have identified genes that are disrupted by abnormal hormone signaling at crucial points during development, a finding that may lead to a better understanding of how the most common male genital birth defects arise in humans.

Safeguarding the greater good
Gene drives are genetic elements - found naturally in the genomes of most of the world's organisms - that increase the chance of the gene they carry being passed on to all offspring, and thus, they can quickly spread through populations.

Nanometric sensor designed to detect herbicides can help diagnose multiple sclerosis
The early diagnosis of certain types of cancer, as well as nervous system diseases such as multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica, may soon be facilitated by the use of a nanometric sensor capable of identifying biomarkers of these pathological conditions.

Study uses farm data to aid in slowing evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds
The widespread evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds is costing farmers, especially through decreases in productivity and profitability. Although researchers and industry personnel have made recommendations to slow this evolution, an understanding of the patterns and causes of the resistance has been limited.

Oregon researchers detail new insights on arsenic cycling
University of Oregon geologist Qusheng Jin initially labeled his theory "A Wild Hypothesis." Now his study of arsenic cycling in a southern Willamette Valley aquifer is splashing with potential significance for arsenic-compromised aquifers around the world.
More Herbicides Current Events and Herbicides News Articles

Herbicides and Plant Physiology

Herbicides and Plant Physiology
by Andrew H. Cobb (Author), John P. H. Reade (Author)


Herbicides continue to make a spectacular contribution to modern safe crop production. It is essential to understand how these compounds work in plants and their surroundings to properly facilitate the development of more effective and safer agrochemicals. This book provides that information in a succinct and user-friendly way. The second edition of this very well-received and highly thought of book has been fully up-dated with much new information of relevance to the subject, particularly in the areas of cell and molecular biology.

Herbicide Handbook of the Weed Science Society of America

Herbicide Handbook of the Weed Science Society of America
by William H. Ahrens (Editor)


Handbook giving detailed information about commonly available herbicides, including common names, manufacturers, chemical properties, behavior in plants, behavior in soils, and toxicological properties.

Operation Ranch Hand: The air force and herbicides in Southeast Asia, 1961-1971

Operation Ranch Hand: The air force and herbicides in Southeast Asia, 1961-1971
by William A. Buckingham (Author)


This book is a study of the process by which herbicidal military policy was made in Southeast Asia. The author relates the intense controversy over the effects of the Agent Orange spraying program. He connects policy to operations, showing how pressure from scientists and disagreements within the government imposed limits on the program. He explores the technical difficulties in spraying herbicides; and he pays tribute to the Ranch Hand airmen who flew planes "low and slow" over enemy positions (altogether, Ranch Hand aircraft took over 7,000 hits). Since the 1975 renunciation of the use of herbicides, this military episode has remained unique in U.S. history. Includes notes, appendices, bibliography, and photos.

21st Century VA Independent Study Course: Vietnam Veterans and Agent Orange Exposure - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Medical Care for Wartime Dioxin Herbicide Exposure (Veterans Health Issues Series)

21st Century VA Independent Study Course: Vietnam Veterans and Agent Orange Exposure - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Medical Care for Wartime Dioxin Herbicide Exposure (Veterans Health Issues Series)
by Progressive Management


The Veterans Administration (VA) Independent Study Course on Vietnam Veterans and Agent Orange Exposure provides essential information for health care providers about the impact of the dioxin-containing herbicide on soldiers in the war. It serves as an introduction to the long-term health consequences of exposure to Agent Orange and other herbicides used in Vietnam. This document provides an overview of Agent Orange, the Department of Veterans Affairs health care, research, disability compensation programs for Vietnam veterans and common symptoms and diagnoses of these veterans. After completing this independent study, readers should be able to recognize common symptoms and diagnoses of veterans exposed to Agent Orange and other herbicides used in Vietnam; identify the conditions...

Herbicide Classes in Development: Mode of Action, Targets, Genetic Engineering, Chemistry

Herbicide Classes in Development: Mode of Action, Targets, Genetic Engineering, Chemistry
by Peter Böger (Editor), Ko Wakabayashi (Editor), Kenji Hirai (Editor)


Chemical pest control is in use in practically every country in the world since agrochemicals play a decisive role in ensuring food supply and protection against damage by pests, insects and pathogenic fungi. Particularly in the half­ century since World War II, food production has risen dramatically in most parts of the world. In the last 20 years, the yield of major crops has roughly doubled in Western agriculture and there is still the potential for further achievements, particularly in the developing countries. The world's cereal and rice production, now more than 2 billion tons/year, has to increase by 2. 4% annually to cope with the rising food demand caused mainly by the growing population and improvement of living standards in most of the developing countries. Such a demand for...

Diagnosis of Herbicide Damage to Crops (MAFF Reference Books)

Diagnosis of Herbicide Damage to Crops (MAFF Reference Books)
by Fish.& Food,Min.of Agriculture (Author)




Herbicide Handbook, Volume 1. 1972 by Monsanto (Herbicide Handbook, Volume 1, 1972)

Herbicide Handbook, Volume 1. 1972 by Monsanto (Herbicide Handbook, Volume 1, 1972)
by Monsanto Company Agricultural Division (Photographer)


copyright and published 1971 by Monsanto - 4.25 by 7.25 inches, 284 pages

The Herbicide Glyphosate

The Herbicide Glyphosate
by E. Grossbard (Editor), D. Atkinson (Editor)




Insecticide, Herbicide, Fungicide Quick Guide, 2001

Insecticide, Herbicide, Fungicide Quick Guide, 2001
by Bill G. Page (Author)




A Bitter Fog: Herbicides and Human Rights

A Bitter Fog: Herbicides and Human Rights
by Carol Van Strum (Author)


A Bitter Fog is a true story of people living in the forests of Oregon fighting to protect their families and environment from Agent Orange poisons sprayed on them from the air. It puts human faces on those who defied profiteering corporations and indifferent government agencies and fought to protect their homes and families. It is the story of a struggle that spawned a still-vibrant environmental movement. This updated edition adds to the meticulously researched information of the 1983 edition, which exposed deception and outright fraud by chemical manufacturers and government complicity in covering up human health and environmental problems. The story is still relevant as the threats to human health and the environment are still happening, exposing millions to the senseless destruction...

© 2017 BrightSurf.com