Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

How Grass Buffers Keep Agricultural Herbicides at Bay

April 26, 2010
Grass buffer strips are commonly used in crop production to reduce herbicide runoff. These practices are encouraged through incentives, regulations or laws, and are effective at lowering herbicide concentration in runoff. However, subsurface filtration (under the buffer strips) is not as well documented, and neither are the effects of trees integrated into buffer strips with grasses.

Understanding these effects is crucial as agriculture producers continue to adopt these strategies.

Researchers studied the impact of grass and grass/tree buffer strips on three herbicides commonly used in agriculture. The scientists studied the transport of the herbicides in both surface runoff and subsurface infiltration during two growing seasons.
Vegetative barriers reduce herbicide concentrations in runoff, but movement of herbicides through subsurface filtration actually increased. Total export of herbicides was reduced through the use of grass and grass/tree barriers. The research was conducted by Emmanuelle Caron, Pierre Lafrance, Jean-Christian Auclair of the University of Quebec, and Marc Duchemin of the Institute of Research and Development in Agri-Environment.

The results are reported in the March/April 2010 edition of the Journal of Environmental Quality, published by the American Society of Agronomy, the Crop Soil Science Society of America, and the Soil Science Society of America.

The results for the first year showed a 35% reduction in herbicide concentration in grass and grass/tree buffer strips than with no buffer. Herbicide concentrations in subsurface filtration increased 800-1200-% with buffer strips, although total overall concentration was reduced 40-60%. In 2005, total herbicide concentration exported through the buffer strips was 75-95% less than without the buffers. The findings indicate that grass barriers decrease surface water runoff while increasing subsurface infiltration, resulting in an overall loss of herbicides before reaching bodies of water.

Integrating trees into the barriers did not result in any significant differences. This was possible due to the fact that the trees were only two years old at the beginning of the study, and their root systems were not yet developed enough to demonstrate any impact. Further research is needed to determine the effects of long-established trees in buffer strips. Local meteorological conditions also play an important role in the efficiency of buffer strips, and the two years of the study experienced a wide range of variability that future long term research should address.

The American Society of Agronomy (ASA)


Related Herbicides Current Events and Herbicides News Articles


Clove oil tested for weed control in organic Vidalia sweet onion
Weed control is one of the most challenging aspects of organic crop production. Most growers of certified organic crops rely heavily on proven cultural and mechanical weed control methods while limiting the use of approved herbicides.

Goats better than chemicals for curbing invasive marsh grass
Herbivores, not herbicides, may be the most effective way to combat the spread of one of the most invasive plants now threatening East Coast salt marshes, a new Duke University-led study finds.

Trees and shrubs invading critical grasslands, diminish cattle production
Half of the Earth's land mass is made up of rangelands, which include grasslands and savannas, yet they are being transformed at an alarming rate.

Insecticides Similar to Nicotine Widespread in Midwest
Insecticides similar to nicotine, known as neonicotinoids, were found commonly in streams throughout the Midwest, according to a new USGS study. This is the first broad-scale investigation of neonicotinoid insecticides in the Midwestern United States and one of the first conducted within the United States.

Organic apple orchards benefit from green compost applications
In traditional apple orchards, effective management practices rely on two interrelated components: finding ways to manage competitive vegetation under the trees, and supplying important supplemental nutrition to trees.

Scientists weed out pesky poison ivy with discovery of killer fungus
Much to the chagrin of gardeners, hikers, and virtually anyone enjoying the outdoors, one of the hazards of summer is picking up an itchy poison ivy rash.

Research could lead to new cancer assay, aid both dogs and humans
Veterinary researchers at Oregon State University have identified a unique group of proteins that indicate the presence of transitional cell carcinoma - the most common cause of bladder cancer - and may lead to a new assay which could better diagnose this disease in both dogs and humans.

Drones give farmers an eye in the sky to check on crop progress
This growing season, crop researchers at the University of Illinois are experimenting with the use of drones - unmanned aerial vehicles - on the university's South Farms.

Stanford researchers rethink 'natural' habitat for wildlife
Protecting wildlife while feeding a world population predicted to reach 9 billion by 2050 will require a holistic approach to conservation that considers human-altered landscapes such as farmland, according to Stanford researchers.

Significant baseline levels of arsenic found in soil throughout Ohio are due to natural processes
Geologic and soil processes are to blame for significant baseline levels of arsenic in soil throughout Ohio, according to a study published recently in the Journal of Environmental Quality.
More Herbicides Current Events and Herbicides News Articles

Herbicides and Plant Physiology

Herbicides and Plant Physiology
by Andrew H. Cobb (Author), John P. H. Reade (Author)


Herbicides continue to make a spectacular contribution to modern safe crop production. It is essential to understand how these compounds work in plants and their surroundings to properly facilitate the development of more effective and safer agrochemicals. This book provides that information in a succinct and user-friendly way.The second edition of this very well-received and highly thought of book has been fully up-dated with much new information of relevance to the subject, particularly in the areas of cell and molecular biology.

Herbicide Resistance and World Grains

Herbicide Resistance and World Grains
by Stephen B. Powles (Editor), Dale L Shaner (Editor)


Written by experts from across the globe, Herbicide Resistance and World Grains evaluates the weed and herbicide management systems in major world grain crops such as soybean, maize, rice, and canola. The book examines the impact of transgenic crops and new technology on resistance management. It provides background information and offers practical guidelines for the management of herbicide resistant weeds with an emphasis on a systems approach.

This book provides the how-tos of managing herbicide resistant weed populations in the major grain crops. The authors also explore the sociological and agronomic factors affecting farmers' adaptation of herbicide resistance management systems. With this in mind, they suggest that the recommended guidelines be global in scope but also...

Herbicide handbook of the Weed Science Society of America

Herbicide handbook of the Weed Science Society of America
by C. E. Beste (Author)


An informative handbook that handbook offers comprehensive information on the more than 230 herbicides currently available in the U.S. It includes physical properties, mode of action, environmental fate, solubility, toxicity to humans and wildlife, binding properties and much more.

Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2012

Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2012
by Committee to Review the Health Effects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides (Ninth Biennial Update) (Author), Board on the Health of Select Populations (Author), Institute of Medicine (Author)


From 1962 to 1971, the US military sprayed herbicides over Vietnam to strip the thick jungle canopy that could conceal opposition forces, to destroy crops that those forces might depend on, and to clear tall grasses and bushes from the perimeters of US base camps and outlying fire-support bases. Mixtures of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), picloram, and cacodylic acid made up the bulk of the herbicides sprayed. The main chemical mixture sprayed was Agent Orange, a 50:50 mixture of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. At the time of the spraying, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic form of dioxin, was an unintended contaminant generated during the production of 2,4,5-T and so was present in Agent Orange and some other formulations...

Herbicides Chemistry: Degradation and Mode of Action (Herbicides (Marcel Dekker))

Herbicides Chemistry: Degradation and Mode of Action (Herbicides (Marcel Dekker))
by Kearney (Author)




The Herbicide Glyphosate

The Herbicide Glyphosate
by E. Grossbard (Editor), D. Atkinson (Editor)




Target Sites of Herbicide Action

Target Sites of Herbicide Action
by Peter Boger (Author), Gerhard Sandmann (Author)


This publication is based on the plant processes and reaction sites for which reliable knowledge on both their physiology and biochem-istry and the mode of herbicidal action is available. Targets of the agrochemical research, such as enzymes of biosynthetic pathways or herbicide-binding peptides in the photosynthetic membrane, are highlighted. Detailed knowledge about the target sites will allow bio-chemical model systems to evaluate the biological activity of newly synthesized compounds before their conventional screening in the greenhouse. Quantitative structure/activity relationships should be performed more reliably with simple biological species or enzymol-ogy assays, to aid in the rational design of pesticides. This text is highly valuable for plant physiologists, pathologists, and...

Herbicide Classes in Development: Mode of Action, Targets, Genetic Engineering, Chemistry

Herbicide Classes in Development: Mode of Action, Targets, Genetic Engineering, Chemistry
by Peter Böger (Editor), Ko Wakabayashi (Editor), Kenji Hirai (Editor)


Chemical pest control is in use in practically every country in the world since agrochemicals play a decisive role in ensuring food supply and protection against damage by pests, insects and pathogenic fungi. Particularly in the half­ century since World War II, food production has risen dramatically in most parts of the world. In the last 20 years, the yield of major crops has roughly doubled in Western agriculture and there is still the potential for further achievements, particularly in the developing countries. The world's cereal and rice production, now more than 2 billion tons/year, has to increase by 2. 4% annually to cope with the rising food demand caused mainly by the growing population and improvement of living standards in most of the developing countries. Such a demand for...

Biochemistry and Physiology of Herbicide Action

Biochemistry and Physiology of Herbicide Action
by Carl Fedtke (Author)


Herbicides are part of modern agricultural production systems and therefore contribute significantly to the economy of agricultural products. At the same time, herbicides are potent and specific inhibitors of plant metabolism and may therefore be used as valuable tools in basic plant physiological research. A well-known example is the photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicide diuron, known to plant physiologists as DCMU, which has become one of the essentials in modern photosynthesis research. Similarly, knowledge in other areas of plant metabolism may be advanced by the use of herbicides as specific inhibitors. This book describes the effects of herbicides on the metabolism of higher plants from the viewpoint of the plant physiologist. The material of this book is therefore, as far as...

Herbicides: Chemistry, Degradation, & Mode of Action, Vol. 2

Herbicides: Chemistry, Degradation, & Mode of Action, Vol. 2
by Philip C. Kearney (Author), Donald D. Kaufman (Editor)




© 2014 BrightSurf.com