Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Diametric shift in 2 protein levels spurs Alzheimer's plaque accumulation

December 02, 2011
AUGUSTA, Ga. - A diametric shift in the levels of two proteins involved in folding, moving and cutting other proteins enables accumulation of the destructive brain plaque found in Alzheimer's disease, researchers report.

VPS35 is a protein that folds others into specific positions to unleash their functions. When levels are reduced as they are in aging, it unleashes the normally dormant BACE1, a protein responsible for beta amyloid plaque production, Georgia Health Sciences University researchers report in The Journal of Cell Biology.

When researchers modified a mouse model of Alzheimer's so that VPS35 production was essentially cut in half, BACE1 activity was increased, accelerating aging and development of related problems such as memory deficits and poor communication between brain cells as well as beta amyloid accumulation, said Dr. Wen-Cheng Xiong, developmental neurobiologist and Weiss Research Professor at GHSU and the study's corresponding author.

It was known that expression of VPS35 was down and BACE1 was up in Alzheimer's but the direct relationship was unknown, Xiong said. "We believe impaired function of VPS35 could be a risk factor for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases," Xiong said. Discovering the relationship makes VPS35 a potential biomarker for the diseases as well as a target for new therapies to keep VPS35 elevated. The accelerated aging model Xiong developed and patented will enable these future drug studies.

This unhealthy balance causes cells to accumulate more waste than their recycling systems can handle. Additionally misfolded proteins end up in the wrong cell compartment where they form aggregates that eventually kill the cell. Being in the wrong place is what enables BACE1 activity to increase: it ends up stuck in a cell compartment called the endosome where high acidity levels activate the protein. As BACE1 becomes more numerous and active, it chops up more potentially productive proteins, turning them into garbage.

"Each protein knows its destination, lifespan and when it should be degraded; everything is controlled. With aging, their trafficking, their control system is disrupted," Xiong said.

Future questions include what reduces VPS35 levels, such as increased levels of reactive oxygen species that come with age, and whether exercise can help keep them up. 'We think VPS35 will be a new, hot and hopefully productive area for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's research," Xiong said.

The protein is classified a retromer. Retromers are important to recycling inside cells. While silent in healthy adults, BACE1 plays an important role in brain development.

###

Xiong is a faculty member in GHSU's Medical College of Georgia and College of Graduate Studies.



Georgia Health Sciences University


Related Alzheimer's Disease Current Events and Alzheimer's Disease News Articles


Cracking the code of brain development
With a unique, multi-faceted approach, researchers at the Lieber Institute for Brain Development (LIBD) have quantified the effect of previously unidentified anomalies in genetic expression that determine how the human brain develops from its earliest stages.

Study: Novel agent decreases neuropathic pain in patients with type 2 diabetes
Molecular Medicine, a peer-reviewed biomedical journal published by the Feinstein Institute Press, published the results of a new study reporting clinically significant pain reduction in type 2 diabetic patients.

Signaling mechanism could be target for survival, growth of tumor cells in brain cancer
UT Southwestern Medical Center neurology researchers have identified an important cell signaling mechanism that plays an important role in brain cancer and may provide a new therapeutic target.

Early identification of modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline
Signs of cognitive decline related to aging populations, and even the severe cognitive losses seen in Alzheimer's disease and neurodegenerative disorders, may emerge many years earlier, according to a report presented today at the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology annual meeting in Phoenix (Arizona).

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists may treat alcohol dependence
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptor proteins that regulate the expression of genes. Drugs that activate PPARs - PPAR agonists - are used to treat diabetes and elevated blood lipids.

Can poor sleep lead to dementia?
People who have sleep apnea or spend less time in deep sleep may be more likely to have changes in the brain that are associated with dementia.

Sleep disturbance linked to amyloid in brain areas affected by Alzheimer's disease
Healthy, elderly research participants who report being more sleepy and less rested have higher levels of amyloid deposition in regions of the brain that are affected in Alzheimer's disease, according to a report presented today at the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology annual meeting in Phoenix (Arizona).

Even the perceived risk of disease prompts intention to actEven the perceived risk of disease prompts intention to act
With so much focus on risk factors for disease, we are living in an era of surveillance medicine, in which the emphasis on risk blurs the lines between health and illness, argue researchers at Yale and Syracuse universities in a study published in the December issue of the Journal of Health and Social Behavior.

Researchers at Mainz University explore new approach for treating Alzheimer's disease
It is estimated that about 35 million people worldwide currently suffer from dementia and it is expected that the number will increase to 135 million by the year 2050.

'Alzheimer's in a Dish' model induces skin cells into neurons expressing amyloid-beta
The search for a living laboratory model of human neurons in the grip of Alzheimer's disease (AD)--the so-called "Alzheimer's in a dish"--has a new candidate.
More Alzheimer's Disease Current Events and Alzheimer's Disease News Articles

The Alzheimer's Diet: A Step-by-Step Nutritional Approach for Memory Loss Prevention and Treatment (Volume 1)

The Alzheimer's Diet: A Step-by-Step Nutritional Approach for Memory Loss Prevention and Treatment (Volume 1)
by Richard S Isaacson MD (Author), Christopher N Ochner PhD (Author)


Harvard-trained Neurologist, Dr. Richard Isaacson and renowned nutrition expert, Dr. Christopher Ochner team up to create this ground-breaking nutritional guide for individuals concerned about memory loss. In recent years, there has been an explosion in research on nutritional interventions for Alzheimer’s prevention and treatment, which is considered to be the most severe public health crisis of our day. These specific dietary interventions present new hope for individuals concerned about memory loss, and also have rapidly expanding scientific-evidence to support their effectiveness. Based on empirical evidence, The Alzheimer’s Diet outlines what to eat, what not to eat, and highlights a step-by-step approach for improving memory and protecting the brain through diet. This...

Alzheimer's Disease: What If There Was a Cure?

Alzheimer's Disease: What If There Was a Cure?
by Mary T. Newport (Author), Cheryl Hirsch (Editor)


Though Dr. Mary T. Newport has provided professional care to newborns since 1983, she's led a double life since 2000 when she became a caregiver at home. That's when her beloved husband, Steve, first showed signs of Alzheimer's disease. After his deterioration accelerated in 2004, Dr. Newport began avidly researching ways to keep him functional for as long as possible. Since she understands medical terminology and scientific methods, she was thrilled to find new research showing that medium- chain fatty acids, which act like an alternative fuel in the insulin-deficient Alzheimer's brain, can sometimes reverse or at least stabilize the disease. When she gave Steve about 2 tablespoons of coconut oil (a source of these fats) at breakfast before a memory test that he had previously failed,...

Alzheimer's Disease: What If There Was a Cure?

Alzheimer's Disease: What If There Was a Cure?
by Mary T. Newport (Author)


The first edition of Alzheimer's Disease: What if There Was a Cure?, which details Dr. Newport's discovery and use of medium-chain fatty acids (which act like alternative fuel in the Alzheimer's brain), had such a strong reception in 2011 that a second edition is now in demand. In this updated and expanded version, Dr. Newport, a neonatal practitioner, continues the story of her husband Steve's progress and provides the most recent research on the possible connection between Alzheimer's disease and the herpes simplex virus and nitrosamine substances, as well as how infection, inflammation, and genetic makeup may affect an individual's response to fatty acid therapy. Among many other updates, Dr. Newport details the latest clinicaltrials aimed at removing beta-amyloid, which accumulates in...

Second Forgetting: Remembering the Power of the Gospel during Alzheimer's Disease

Second Forgetting: Remembering the Power of the Gospel during Alzheimer's Disease
by Dr. Benjamin T. Mast (Author), Scotty Smith (Foreword)


Charles is 78 years old and there is much he cannot remember. He cannot remember the names of his children, why he lives in a nursing home, or even whether he ate breakfast today. His forgetting causes confusion, and in his fear and uncertainty he sometimes lashes out at those who try to care for him. But when someone reads a favorite Psalm he quickly joins in, reciting each cherished word. When he hears an old hymn of faith, his hand slowly raises and he breathes out each word quietly, his face reflecting a peace that passes all understanding. Alzheimer’s disease has been described as the “defining disease” of the baby boomer generation. Millions of Americans will spend much of their retirement years either caring for a loved one with Alzheimer’s disease or experiencing its...

Alzheimer's Treatment Alzheimer's Prevention: A Patient and Family Guide, 2012 Edition

Alzheimer's Treatment Alzheimer's Prevention: A Patient and Family Guide, 2012 Edition
by Dr. Richard S Isaacson MD (Author)


Harvard-trained Neurologist Dr. Richard Isaacson answers the most common patient and caregiver questions on the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD). He shares his cutting edge, comprehensive approach in the fight against AD, the greatest public health crisis today. This groundbreaking book has been written especially for patients, caregivers, family members, and allied healthcare professionals. Dr. Isaacson writes in easy to understand terms and easy to read (larger-type) print to help educate and inform those confronting AD. He outlines his comprehensive and scientifically-based approach that includes a comprehenisve 9-week diet and nutrition plan, with examples of what to eat, what not to eat, and a food terminology guide to help read and understand nutrition labels. ...

A Caregiver's Guide to Alzheimer's Disease: 300 Tips for Making Life Easier

A Caregiver's Guide to Alzheimer's Disease: 300 Tips for Making Life Easier
by Patricia R. Callone (Author), Connie Kudlacek (Author), Barabara C. Vasiloff (Author), Janaan Manternach (Author), Roger A. Brumback (Author)


An estimated 5 million Americans have Alzheimer's disease. That number continues to grow - by 2050 the number of individuals with Alzheimer's could range from 11.3 million to 16 million. Alzheimer's disease is not a normal part of aging. It is a devastating disorder of the brain's nerve cells that impairs memory, thinking, and behavior. Written for patients, their families, and caregivers, A Caregiver's Guide to Alzheimer's Disease: 300 Tips for Making Life Easier will help readers understand what is physically happening to the brain so they can empower their own special skills and talents throughout the disease process. The book is divided into three sections that correspond to the progression of Alzheimer's and the unique challenges encountered at each stage.Section A: The major part of...

Where Two Worlds Touch: A Spiritual Journey Through Alzheimer's Disease

Where Two Worlds Touch: A Spiritual Journey Through Alzheimer's Disease
by Jade C. Angelica (Author)


Jade Angelica shares the wisdom and hope she gleaned from caring for her mother and from many years working closely with Alzheimer's patients and caregivers. Challenging the predominant belief that people with Alzheimer's no longer have purpose, potential, or the capacity for meaningful relationship, Where Two Worlds Touch is both a spiritual memoir and a pastoral guide for those who love someone with Alzheimer's. Readers will find here the reassuring words of a friend who has been there and can give advice on preserving connection, finding hope, self-care, and staying open to the possibility of grace.

Alzheimer's Disease: Alzheimer's Stage By Stage, The Alzheimer's Diet And Alzheimer's Caregivers Guide (Alzheimer's Disease, Dementia Help Book 1)

Alzheimer's Disease: Alzheimer's Stage By Stage, The Alzheimer's Diet And Alzheimer's Caregivers Guide (Alzheimer's Disease, Dementia Help Book 1)


Get The Information You NEED To Deal With Alzheimer’s Disease Right Away!
Today only, get this Kindle book for just $2.99. Regularly priced at $5.99. Read on your PC, Mac, smart phone, tablet or Kindle device.

Have you or a loved one been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease? Are you unsure of what to expect? Things may seem okay today, but Alzheimer's disease eventually will rob you or your loved one of all of the cherished memories and recognition capabilities. How do you know if you are suffering from Alzheimer's disease?

Age-related memory problems and the beginning stages of Alzheimer's disease can look remarkably the same. Download this book NOW and:
Learn What The Signs And Symptoms Of Alzheimer's Disease Are. Learn The Difference Between...

The 36-Hour Day: A Family Guide to Caring for People Who Have Alzheimer Disease, Related Dementias, and Memory Loss

The 36-Hour Day: A Family Guide to Caring for People Who Have Alzheimer Disease, Related Dementias, and Memory Loss
by Nancy L. Mace (Author), Peter V. Rabins (Author)


When someone in your family suffers from Alzheimer disease or other related memory loss diseases, both you and your loved one face immense challenges. For over thirty years, this book has been the trusted bible for families affected by dementia disorders. Now completely revised and updated, this guide features the latest information on the causes of dementia, managing the early stages of dementia, the prevention of dementia, and finding appropriate living arrangements for the person who has dementia when home care is no longer an option.

You'll learn:
-The basic facts about dementia
-How to deal with problems arising in daily care-- meals, exercise, personal hygiene, and safety
-How to cope with an impaired person's false ideas, suspicion, anger, and other mood...

The 36-Hour Day: A Family Guide to Caring for People with Alzheimer Disease, Other Dementias, and Memory Loss in Later Life, 4th

The 36-Hour Day: A Family Guide to Caring for People with Alzheimer Disease, Other Dementias, and Memory Loss in Later Life, 4th
by Nancy L. Mace (Author), Peter V. Rabins (Author)


Revised in 2006 for its twenty-fifth anniversary, this best-selling book is the "bible" for families caring for people with Alzheimer disease, offering comfort and support to millions worldwide. In addition to the practical and compassionate guidance that have made The 36-Hour Day invaluable to caregivers, the fourth edition is the only edition currently available that includes new information on medical research and the delivery of care. The new edition includes: - new information on diagnostic evaluation
- resources for families and adult children who care for people with dementia
- updated legal and financial information
- the latest information on nursing homes and other communal living arrangements
- new information on research, medications, and the biological...

© 2014 BrightSurf.com