Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Diametric shift in 2 protein levels spurs Alzheimer's plaque accumulation

December 02, 2011

AUGUSTA, Ga. - A diametric shift in the levels of two proteins involved in folding, moving and cutting other proteins enables accumulation of the destructive brain plaque found in Alzheimer's disease, researchers report.

VPS35 is a protein that folds others into specific positions to unleash their functions. When levels are reduced as they are in aging, it unleashes the normally dormant BACE1, a protein responsible for beta amyloid plaque production, Georgia Health Sciences University researchers report in The Journal of Cell Biology.

When researchers modified a mouse model of Alzheimer's so that VPS35 production was essentially cut in half, BACE1 activity was increased, accelerating aging and development of related problems such as memory deficits and poor communication between brain cells as well as beta amyloid accumulation, said Dr. Wen-Cheng Xiong, developmental neurobiologist and Weiss Research Professor at GHSU and the study's corresponding author.

It was known that expression of VPS35 was down and BACE1 was up in Alzheimer's but the direct relationship was unknown, Xiong said. "We believe impaired function of VPS35 could be a risk factor for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases," Xiong said. Discovering the relationship makes VPS35 a potential biomarker for the diseases as well as a target for new therapies to keep VPS35 elevated. The accelerated aging model Xiong developed and patented will enable these future drug studies.

This unhealthy balance causes cells to accumulate more waste than their recycling systems can handle. Additionally misfolded proteins end up in the wrong cell compartment where they form aggregates that eventually kill the cell. Being in the wrong place is what enables BACE1 activity to increase: it ends up stuck in a cell compartment called the endosome where high acidity levels activate the protein. As BACE1 becomes more numerous and active, it chops up more potentially productive proteins, turning them into garbage.

"Each protein knows its destination, lifespan and when it should be degraded; everything is controlled. With aging, their trafficking, their control system is disrupted," Xiong said.

Future questions include what reduces VPS35 levels, such as increased levels of reactive oxygen species that come with age, and whether exercise can help keep them up. 'We think VPS35 will be a new, hot and hopefully productive area for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's research," Xiong said.

The protein is classified a retromer. Retromers are important to recycling inside cells. While silent in healthy adults, BACE1 plays an important role in brain development.

###

Xiong is a faculty member in GHSU's Medical College of Georgia and College of Graduate Studies.



Georgia Health Sciences University


Related Alzheimer's Disease Current Events and Alzheimer's Disease News Articles


Leaky blood-brain barrier linked to Alzheimer's disease
Researchers using contrast-enhanced MRI have identified leakages in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) of people with early Alzheimer's disease (AD), according to a new study published online in the journal Radiology.

Vicious circle of platelets
They were published in the current issue of the renowned journal "Science Signaling". The scientists provide evidence for the first time that treatment of Alzheimer transgenic model mice with an anti-platelet drug leads to significantly reduced amyloid plaques in cerebral vessels.

Study paves way for new therapies in fight against calcium disorders
A study led by researchers at Georgia State University provides new insights into the molecular basis of human diseases resulting from mutations in the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a protein found in cell membranes.

Ancient anti-inflammatory drug salicylic acid has cancer-fighting properties
Scientists from the Gladstone Institutes have identified a new pathway by which salicylic acid--a key compound in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs aspirin and diflunisal--stops inflammation and cancer.

The deadly toxin acrolein has a useful biological role
Scientists from RIKEN in Japan have discovered that acrolein--a toxic substance produced in cells during times of oxidative stress--in fact may play a role in preventing the process of fibrillation, an abnormal clumping of peptides that has been associated with Alzheimer's disease and other neural diseases.

Researchers identify immune genes tied to common, deadly brain cancer
Researchers have identified a group of immune system genes that may play a role in how long people can live after developing a common type of brain cancer called glioblastoma multiforme, a tumor of the glial cells in the brain.

Can Alzheimer's disease-associated peptide fight bacterial infection?
Amyloid-ß is a sticky peptide notorious for forming destructive plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients, but a new study suggests that it may also serve a protective function as an antimicrobial peptide.

Human amyloid-beta acts as natural antibiotic in the brains of animal models
A new study from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) investigators provides additional evidence that amyloid-beta protein - which is deposited in the form of beta-amyloid plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease - is a normal part of the innate immune system, the body's first-line defense against infection.

Progranulin and dementia -- a blood sample does not tell the full story!
Progranulin is a central protein in both neuronal survival and neurodegenerative diseases. It is thus not surprising that altered progranulin levels represent a universal theme shared across several common neurodegenerative diseases.

PET imaging with special tracer can detect and diagnose early Alzheimer's disease
The effort to find ways to detect and diagnose preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) has taken a big step forward with the use of positron emission tomography (PET), a "nuclear medicine" for imaging processes in the body, when PET is used with a special 'tracer' that binds to the amyloid plaques in the brain that are a characteristic cause of AD.
More Alzheimer's Disease Current Events and Alzheimer's Disease News Articles

Alzheimer's Treatments  That Actually Worked  In Small Studies!  (Based On New, Cutting-Edge,  Correct Theory!)  That Will Never Be Tested &  You Will Never Hear About From Your MD Or Big Pharma !

Alzheimer's Treatments That Actually Worked In Small Studies! (Based On New, Cutting-Edge, Correct Theory!) That Will Never Be Tested & You Will Never Hear About From Your MD Or Big Pharma !
by Jeff T Bowles (Author)


From the author of the BEST SELLING BOOK

“The Miraculous Results of Extremely High Doses of the Sunshine Hormone-Vitamin D3-My One Year Experiment.......”

This IS the better mousetrap! Most MD's get just a basic 4 years in Med School, then work to earn not learn. I've researched diseases and aging for 20+ years, with a 10 year stint where I spent 12 hrs/day everyday in the Northwestern Med School's library just reviewing clinical and scientific studies! .I've had 3 major papers published; the publishing journal has 5 Nobel Prizes between the editors. And described my papers as extremely exciting and of major importance!

It's time to take control of your Alzheimer's treatment and try protocols that have actually worked and are based on the newest,...

The Alzheimer's Prevention & Treatment Diet

The Alzheimer's Prevention & Treatment Diet
by Richard S. Isaacson MD (Author), Christopher N. Ochner PhD (Author)


Alzheimer s disease (AD) is a type of dementia that can be very hard for both the patient and the caregiver. Currently, five million Americans have been diagnosed with AD--and that number is likely to triple by 2050. While the cause of Alzheimer s disease is still a mystery, new research has increased our knowledge of certain aspects of the disease. Perhaps most significant, studies show that proper diet may make a real difference, not only in slowing the progression of AD, but also in preventing it. In this groundbreaking book, a notable expert on Alzheimer s disease has teamed up with a leading researcher of nutrition to create a unique guide to understanding and managing this serious condition. The Alzheimer s Prevention & Treatment Diet outlines a cutting-edge nutritional program that...

Developing Therapeutics for Alzheimer's Disease: Progress and Challenges

Developing Therapeutics for Alzheimer's Disease: Progress and Challenges
by Michael S. Wolfe PhD (Editor)


Developing Therapeutics for Alzheimer's Disease: Progress and Challenges provides a thorough overview of the latest advances toward the development of therapeutics for Alzheimer’s disease, along with the major hurdles that still must be overcome and potential solutions to these problems. Despite the lack of progress toward developing therapeutics that can slow or stop the progression of this disease, important discoveries have been made and many promising approaches are advancing in preclinical studies and clinical trials. This book outlines the special challenges related to specific targets and approaches, while presenting a realistic, comprehensive and balanced view of drug discovery and development in this area. Written by international leaders in the field, the book assesses...

A Caregiver's Guide to Alzheimer's Disease: 300 Tips for Making Life Easier

A Caregiver's Guide to Alzheimer's Disease: 300 Tips for Making Life Easier
by Patricia R. Callone (Author), Connie Kudlacek (Author), Barabara C. Vasiloff (Author), Janaan Manternach (Author), Roger A. Brumback (Author)


"An estimated 5 million Americans have Alzheimer's disease. That number continues to grow - by 2050 the number of individuals with Alzheimer's could range from 11.3 million to 16 million. Alzheimer's disease is not a normal part of aging. It is a devastating disorder of the brain's nerve cells that impairs memory, thinking, and behavior. Written for patients, their families, and caregivers, A Caregiver's Guide to Alzheimer's Disease: 300 Tips for Making Life Easier will help readers understand what is physically happening to the brain so they can empower their own special skills and talents throughout the disease process. The book is divided into three sections that correspond to the progression of Alzheimer's and the unique challenges encountered at each stage.Section A: The major part...

Alzheimer's Disease: What If There Was a Cure?: The Story of Ketones

Alzheimer's Disease: What If There Was a Cure?: The Story of Ketones
by Mary T Newport (Author)


In this second edition Dr. Newport, a neonatal practitioner, continues the story of Steve's progress and provides the most recent research on such topics as possible causes of Alzheimer's due to the herpes simplex virus and nitrosamine substances and how infection, inflammation and genetic makeup may affect an individual's response to fatty acid therapy.

Alzheimer's Treatment Alzheimer's Prevention: A Patient and Family Guide, 2012 Edition

Alzheimer's Treatment Alzheimer's Prevention: A Patient and Family Guide, 2012 Edition
by Dr. Richard S Isaacson MD (Author)


Harvard-trained Neurologist Dr. Richard Isaacson answers the most common patient and caregiver questions on the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD). He shares his cutting edge, comprehensive approach in the fight against AD, the greatest public health crisis today. This groundbreaking book has been written especially for patients, caregivers, family members, and allied healthcare professionals. Dr. Isaacson writes in easy to understand terms and easy to read (larger-type) print to help educate and inform those confronting AD. He outlines his comprehensive and scientifically-based approach that includes a comprehenisve 9-week diet and nutrition plan, with examples of what to eat, what not to eat, and a food terminology guide to help read and understand nutrition labels. ...

Learning to Speak Alzheimer's: A Groundbreaking Approach for Everyone Dealing with the Disease

Learning to Speak Alzheimer's: A Groundbreaking Approach for Everyone Dealing with the Disease
by Joanne Koenig Coste (Author)


Joanne Koenig Coste, now a renowned pioneer in implementing positive methods of caring for Alzheimer's patients, began to develop her groundbreaking approach when her middle-aged husband was diagnosed with progressive dementia shortly after the birth of her fourth child. As she struggled to care for him and their family, she recognized that it was possible to avoid some of the tremendous emotional burdens Alzheimer's patients and their care providers endure during the course of the disease. In this book Koenig Coste explains the five tenets of her "habilitation" approach, an accessible and comprehensive plan proven to have worked with thousands of patients and care providers.
Refuting long-accepted ideas, she calls for care "partners" to join patients in their current sense of place...

Alzheimer's Disease: What If There Was a Cure?: The Story of Ketones

Alzheimer's Disease: What If There Was a Cure?: The Story of Ketones
by Mary T Newport (Author)


Acting on new research showing that medium-chain fatty acids, which act like an alternative fuel in the insulin-deficient Alzheimer's brain, can sometimes reverse or at least stabilize the disease, author Dr. Mary T. Newport has demonstrated through her care for her husband that there is hope, relief, and perhaps a cure.

Outsmarting Alzheimer's: What You Can Do To Reduce Your Risk

Outsmarting Alzheimer's: What You Can Do To Reduce Your Risk
by Kenneth S. Kosik (Author)


An easy-to-follow, research-based guide to the simple, low-cost choices that give the reader the power to reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and dementia; slow the progression of the disease; and mitigate symptoms and improve well-being.

Did you know that getting on the treadmill can help keep your brain sharp? Or that repeatedly staying up to catch the late show could increase the likelihood of being struck down by dementia? The dozens of choices you make over the course of any average day—ordering the curry versus the burger with fries, taking the stairs versus the elevator—all add up. Together with your family history, they establish your chances of getting Alzheimer’s years from now. No drugs or procedures can cure or even effectively treat Alzheimer’s...

The Alzheimer's Diet: A Step-by-Step Nutritional Approach for Memory Loss Prevention and Treatment (Volume 1)

The Alzheimer's Diet: A Step-by-Step Nutritional Approach for Memory Loss Prevention and Treatment (Volume 1)
by Richard S Isaacson MD (Author), Christopher N Ochner PhD (Author)


Harvard-trained Neurologist, Dr. Richard Isaacson and renowned nutrition expert, Dr. Christopher Ochner team up to create this ground-breaking nutritional guide for individuals concerned about memory loss. In recent years, there has been an explosion in research on nutritional interventions for Alzheimer’s prevention and treatment, which is considered to be the most severe public health crisis of our day. These specific dietary interventions present new hope for individuals concerned about memory loss, and also have rapidly expanding scientific-evidence to support their effectiveness. Based on empirical evidence, The Alzheimer’s Diet outlines what to eat, what not to eat, and highlights a step-by-step approach for improving memory and protecting the brain through diet. This...

© 2016 BrightSurf.com