Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

'Green Routing' Can Cut Car Emissions Without Significantly Slowing Travel Time, Buffalo Study Find

December 15, 2011
BUFFALO, N.Y. -- The path of least emissions may not always be the fastest way to drive somewhere. But according to new research from the University at Buffalo, it's possible for drivers to cut their tailpipe emissions without significantly slowing travel time.

In detailed, computer simulations of traffic in Upstate New York's Buffalo Niagara region, UB researchers Adel Sadek and Liya Guo found that green routing could reduce overall emissions of carbon monoxide by 27 percent for area drivers, while increasing the length of trips by an average of just 11 percent.

In many cases, simple changes yielded great gains.

Funneling cars along surface streets instead of freeways helped to limit fuel consumption, for instance. Intelligently targeting travelers was another strategy that worked: Rerouting just one fifth of drivers -- those who would benefit most from a new path -- reduced regional emissions by about 20 percent.

Sadek, a transportation systems expert, says one reason green routing is appealing is because it's a strategy that consumers and transportation agencies could start using today.

"We're not talking about replacing all vehicles with hybrid cars or transforming to a hydrogen-fuel economy -- that would take time to implement," said Sadek, an associate professor of civil, structural and environmental engineering. "But this idea, green routing, we could implement it now."

In the near future, GPS navigation systems and online maps could play an important role in promoting green routing, Sadek said. Specifically, these systems and programs could use transportation research to give drivers the option to choose an environmentally friendly route instead of the shortest route.

Sadek and Guo, a PhD candidate, presented their research on green routing at the 18th World Congress on Intelligent Transportation Systems in October.

In the UB study on green routing, the researchers tied together two computer models commonly known as "MOVES" and "TRANSIMS."

The Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES), created by the Environmental Protection Agency, estimates emissions. The Transportation Analysis and Simulation System (TRANSIMS) simulates traffic in great detail, taking into account information including the location and pattern of signals; the grade of the road; and the trips people take at different times of day.

After incorporating Buffalo-specific data into TRANSIMS, Sadek and Guo ran a number of simulations, rerouting travelers in new ways each time.

After running the models numerous times, the researchers reached a "green-user equilibrium" -- a traffic pattern where all drivers are traveling along optimal routes. With the system in equilibrium, moving a commuter from one path to another would increase a user's overall emissions by creating more congestion or sparking another problem.

The simulations were part of a broader study Sadek is conducting on evaluating the likely environmental benefits of green routing in the region. His project is one of seven that the U.S. Department of Transportation has funded through a Broad Agency Announcement that aims to leverage intelligent transportation systems to reduce the environmental impact of transportation.

The University at Buffalo is a premier research-intensive public university, a flagship institution in the State University of New York system and its largest and most comprehensive campus. UB's more than 28,000 students pursue their academic interests through more than 300 undergraduate, graduate and professional degree programs. Founded in 1846, the University at Buffalo is a member of the Association of American Universities.

The University at Buffalo


Related Emissions Current Events and Emissions News Articles


What agricultural 'ecosystems on steroids' are doing to the air
In a study that identifies a new, "direct fingerprint" of human activity on Earth, scientists have found that agricultural crops play a big role in seasonal swings of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

As winter approaches, switching to cleaner heating oils could prevent health problems
With temperatures dipping, homeowners are firing up their heaters. But systems that require heating oil release fine particles outside that could have harmful health effects.

As CO2 acidifies oceans, scientists develop a way to measure effect on marine ecosystems
Following a 5,000 km long ocean survey, research published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences presents a new way to measure how the acidification of water is affecting marine ecosystems over an entire oceanic basin.

Could hydrogen vehicles take over as the 'green' car of choice?
Now that car makers have demonstrated through hybrid vehicle success that consumers want less-polluting tailpipes, they are shifting even greener.

Permafrost soil: Possible source of abrupt rise in greenhouse gases at end of last Ice Age
Scientists from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) have identified a possible source of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases that were abruptly released to the atmosphere in large quantities around 14,600 years ago.

As Temperatures Rise, Soil Will Relinquish Less Carbon to the Atmosphere Than Currently Predicted
Here's another reason to pay close attention to microbes: Current climate models probably overestimate the amount of carbon that will be released from soil into the atmosphere as global temperatures rise, according to research from the US Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab).

NASA Computer Model Provides a New Portrait of Carbon Dioxide
An ultra-high-resolution NASA computer model has given scientists a stunning new look at how carbon dioxide in the atmosphere travels around the globe.

Live longer? Save the planet? Better diet could nail both
As cities and incomes increase around the world, so does consumption of refined sugars, refined fats, oils and resource- and land-intense agricultural products such as beef.

Space: The final frontier in silicon chemistry
Silicon, which is one of the most common elements in the Earth's crust, is also sprinkled abundantly throughout interstellar space.

Study: Farmers and scientists divided over climate change
Crop producers and scientists hold deeply different views on climate change and its possible causes, a study by Purdue and Iowa State universities shows.
More Emissions Current Events and Emissions News Articles

Otoacoustic Emissions: Principles, Procedures, and Protocols (Core Clinical Concepts in Audiology)

Otoacoustic Emissions: Principles, Procedures, and Protocols (Core Clinical Concepts in Audiology)
by Sumitrajit Dhar (Author), James W. Hall III (Author)


Otoacoustic emissions now play an important role in hearing screening and the clinical assessment of children and adults. However, a new wave of evidence is challenging our fundamental understanding regarding OAE sources and mechanisms. Similarly, just as we have settled on methods and protocols for clinical uses of otoacoustic emissions, ongoing research suggests new opportunities for evidence-based clinical applications. In Otoacoustic Emissions: Principles, Procedures, and Protocols, Drs. Dhar and Hall have collected the latest information on OAEs from basic research to clinical applications. The book is concise, but comprehensive, and covers the essentials of the subject from innovative and up-to-date perspectives. The material covered in the book is appropriate for intermediate and...

Handbook of Otoacoustic Emissions (A Singular Audiology Text)

Handbook of Otoacoustic Emissions (A Singular Audiology Text)
by James W. Hall (Author)


Designed to help readers gain the technical expertise to add this dynamic procedure to their daily practices, this new handbook details how, when and why to use OAE for pediatric and adult patients. Dr. Hall includes the latest "hands-on" advice for measurement, analysis, and interpretation of OAE data in this evolving procedure. Troubleshooting guidelines are also included, and practical case reports highlight common pathologies and applications. Reader friendly features abound - margin notes, chapter outlines, sidebar commentaries, and questions to check understanding of the material are included.

Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems (3rd Edition) (Professional Technician)

Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems (3rd Edition) (Professional Technician)
by James D. Halderman (Author), James Linder (Author)


Automotive Fuel and Emission Control Systems, Third Edition, isdesigned specifically to correlate with the NATEF program.  This comprehensive, up-to-date text covers all aspects of automotive fuel and emissions. It emphasizes diagnosis and troubleshooting, and features tech tips and diagnostic stories throughout.   This title meets the needs for a textbook that combines topics in engine performance (ASE A8 content area) and topics covered in the advanced engine performance (L1) ASE test content area.  By combining these two complementary subjects into one comprehensive textbook, it is easier for the instructor to teach these topics and is cost effective for the student.

Gas Turbine Emissions (Cambridge Aerospace Series)

Gas Turbine Emissions (Cambridge Aerospace Series)
by Tim C. Lieuwen (Editor), Vigor Yang (Editor)


The development of clean, sustainable energy systems is one of the preeminent issues of our time. Most projections indicate that combustion-based energy conversion systems will continue to be the predominant approach for the majority of our energy usage, and gas turbines will continue to be important combustion-based energy conversion devices for many decades to come, used for aircraft propulsion, ground-based power generation, and mechanical-drive applications. This book compiles the key scientific and technological knowledge associated with gas turbine emissions into a single authoritative source. The book has three sections: the first section reviews major issues with gas turbine combustion, including design approaches and constraints, within the context of emissions. The second...

Controlling Radiated Emissions by Design

Controlling Radiated Emissions by Design
by Michel Mardiguian (Author)


The 3rd edition of Controlling Radiated Emissions by Design has been updated to reflect the latest changes in the field. New to this edition is material on aspects of technical advance, specifically long term energy efficiency, energy saving, RF pollution control, etc. This book retains the step-by-step approach for incorporating EMC into every new design, from the ground up. It describes the selection of quieter IC technologies, their implementation into a noise-free printed circuit layout, and the gathering of all these into low radiation packaging, including I/O filtering, connectors and cables considerations. All guidelines are supported by thorough and comprehensive calculated examples. Design engineers, EMC specialists and technicians will benefit from learning about the development...

Engine Emissions Measurement Handbook

Engine Emissions Measurement Handbook
by Hiroshi Nakamura (Author), Masayuki Adachi (Author), Hiroshi Nakamura (Editor), Masayuki Adachi (Editor)


The subject of engine emissions is expected to be at the forefront of environmental regulations and consumers concerns for years to come. As technology develops to comply with new and different requirements in various regions of the world, understanding the fundamental principles of how engine emissions occur, and how they can be properly measured, is vitally important. Engine Emissions Measurement Handbook, developed and co-authored by HORIBA Automotive Test Systems team addresses the main aspects of this subject. Written with the technical user in mind, this title is a must-have for those involved in engine development and testing, and environmental researchers focusing on better ways to minimize emissions pollution. Using easy-to-understand language, Engine Emissions Measurement...

Diesel Emissions and Their COntrol

Diesel Emissions and Their COntrol
by W. Addy Majewski (Author), Magdi K. Khair (Author)


This book will assist readers in meeting today's tough challenges of improving diesel engine emissions, diesel efficiency ,and public perception of the diesel engine. It can be used as an introductory text, while at the same time providing practical information that will be useful for experienced readers. This comprehensive book contains more than 600 pages and is well illustrated with more than 560 figures and 80 tables. The 23 chapters are separated into the following main sections: Diesel Engine Basics, Diesel Emissions , Diesel Fuels, Emission Control through Engine Design, Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment

Emissions Trading: Principles and Practice

Emissions Trading: Principles and Practice
by T.H. Tietenburg (Author)


First published in 1985, Emissions Trading was a comprehensive review of the first large-scale attempt to use economic incentives in environmental policy in the U.S. and of the empirical and theoretical research on which this approach is based. Since its publication it has consistently been one of the most widely cited works in the tradable permits literature. The second edition of this classic study of pollution reform considers how the use of transferable permits to control pollution has evolved, looks at how these programs have been implemented in the U.S. and internationally, and offers an objective evaluation of the resulting successes, failures, and lessons learned over the last twenty-five years.

Today's Technician: Automotive Fuels and Emissions. Classroom and Shop Manual Set (Bk.1)

Today's Technician: Automotive Fuels and Emissions. Classroom and Shop Manual Set (Bk.1)
by Barry Hollembeak (Author)


Theory, diagnostics, and service procedures for automotive fuel and emission systems are spotlighted in this newest Classroom and Shop Manual set to join the popular Today's Technician Series. Experienced author Barry Hollembeak enhances the reader's understanding of present-day automotive fuels and emission systems by covering the theories and procedures that underpin ASE high priority skills. The Classroom Manual builds upon facts and theories, while the Shop Manual, through performance-based objectives, helps readers acquire diagnostic and repair competency. Both manuals are tightly correlated with corresponding chapters and cross-references so that readers can make a sound connection between theoretical concepts and practical skills.

Principles and Practice of Positron Emission Tomography

Principles and Practice of Positron Emission Tomography
by Richard L. Wahl MD (Author), Julia W. Buchanan (Author)


Written by the best-known authority in positron emission tomography (PET), this comprehensive text is the first definitive reference in the field in almost twenty years. The book thoroughly explains the principles, clinical applications, and economic aspects of positron emission tomography today, enabling readers to make well- informed cost/benefit decisions and use PET as an effective diagnostic tool. Coverage includes extensive discussions of current oncologic, neurologic, psychiatric, and cardiac applications. An entire section gives readers a preview of emerging applications of PET in gene therapy, nephrology, pediatrics, infection/inflammation imaging, skeletal imaging, and pulmonary medicine. An appendix provides specific protocols for clinical PET imaging.

© 2014 BrightSurf.com