Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

New comparison of ocean temperatures reveals rise over the last century

April 02, 2012

Ocean robots used in Scripps-led study that traces ocean warming to late 19th century

A new study contrasting ocean temperature readings of the 1870s with temperatures of the modern seas reveals an upward trend of global ocean warming spanning at least 100 years.

The research led by Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego physical oceanographer Dean Roemmich shows a .33-degree Celsius (.59-degree Fahrenheit) average increase in the upper portions of the ocean to 700 meters (2,300 feet) depth. The increase was largest at the ocean surface, .59-degree Celsius (1.1-degree Fahrenheit), decreasing to .12-degree Celsius (.22-degree Fahrenheit) at 900 meters (2,950 feet) depth.

The report is the first global comparison of temperature between the historic voyage of HMS Challenger (1872-1876) and modern data obtained by ocean-probing robots now continuously reporting temperatures via the global Argo program. Scientists have previously determined that nearly 90 percent of the excess heat added to Earth's climate system since the 1960s has been stored in the oceans. The new study, published in the April 1 advance online edition of Nature Climate Change and coauthored by John Gould of the United Kingdom-based National Oceanography Centre and John Gilson of Scripps Oceanography, pushes the ocean warming trend back much earlier.

"The significance of the study is not only that we see a temperature difference that indicates warming on a global scale, but that the magnitude of the temperature change since the 1870s is twice that observed over the past 50 years," said Roemmich, co-chairman of the International Argo Steering Team. "This implies that the time scale for the warming of the ocean is not just the last 50 years but at least the last 100 years."

Although the Challenger data set covers only some 300 temperature soundings (measurements from the sea surface down to the deep ocean) around the world, the information sets a baseline for temperature change in the world's oceans, which are now sampled continuously through Argo's unprecedented global coverage. Nearly 3,500 free-drifting profiling Argo floats each collect a temperature profile every 10 days.

Roemmich believes the new findings, a piece of a larger puzzle of understanding the earth's climate, help scientists to understand the longer record of sea-level rise, because the expansion of seawater due to warming is a significant contributor to rising sea level. Moreover, the 100-year timescale of ocean warming implies that the Earth's climate system as a whole has been gaining heat for at least that long.
###

Launched in 2000, the Argo program collects more than 100,000 temperature-salinity profiles per year across the world's oceans. To date, more than 1,000 research papers have been published using Argo's data set.

The Nature Climate Change study was supported by U.S. Argo through NOAA.

University of California - San Diego


Related Ocean Temperature Current Events and Ocean Temperature News Articles


NASA examines El Nino's impact on ocean's food source
El Nino years can have a big impact on the littlest plants in the ocean, and NASA scientists are studying the relationship between the two.

Exeter's world-leading climate change research showcased in prestigious science event
University of Exeter research into the impact of climate change will be featured at a prestigious science event in the USA, held this week.

How stable is the West Antarctic Ice Sheet?
A future warming of the Southern Ocean caused by rising greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere may severely disrupt the stability of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

Melting of massive ice 'lid' resulted in huge release of CO2 at the end of the ice age
A new study reconstructing conditions at the end of the last ice age suggests that as the Antarctic sea ice melted, massive amounts of carbon dioxide that had been trapped in the ocean were released into the atmosphere.

Warmer air and sea, declining ice continue to trigger Arctic change
A new NOAA-sponsored report shows that air temperature in 2015 across the Arctic was well above average with temperature anomalies over land more than 2 degrees Fahrenheit above average, the highest since records began in 1900.

Functions of global ocean microbiome key to understanding environmental changes
The billions of marine microorganisms present in every liter of seawater represent a structured ecological community that regulates how the Earth functions in practically every way, from energy consumption to respiration. As inhabitants of the largest environment on Earth, microbial marine systems drive changes in every global system.

Climate change: Warm water is mixing up life in the Arctic
The warming of arctic waters in the wake of climate change is likely to produce radical changes in the marine habitats of the High North.

NASA study shows that common coolants contribute to ozone depletion
A class of widely used chemical coolants known as hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) contributes to ozone depletion by a small but measurable amount, countering a decades-old assumption, according to a new NASA study.

New insights into the dynamics of past climate change
A new study of the relationship between ocean currents and climate change has found that they are tightly linked, and that changes in the polar regions can affect the ocean and climate on the opposite side of the world within one to two hundred years, far quicker than previously thought.

University of Montana student, professor discover earliest Jurassic corals
Five times in Earth's history mass extinction events have wiped out up to 90 percent of global life. University of Montana doctoral student Montana Hodges and geosciences Professor George Stanley recently found the fossil record of the earliest North American coral species that reappeared after the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction event.
More Ocean Temperature Current Events and Ocean Temperature News Articles

Ocean

Ocean
by Robert Dinwiddie (Author), Philip Eales (Author), Sue Scott (Author), Michael Scott (Author), Kim Bryan (Author), David Burnie (Author), Frances Dipper (Author), Fabien Cousteau (Introduction)


The power and wonder of the ocean is as strong today as ever, with new expeditions to its depths, and new discoveries beneath melting ice, in developing reefs, and on shores around the world. To celebrate, we are releasing a second edition of Ocean, with the latest scientific research, coverage of major events like Superstorm Sandy and the Fukushima tsunami, and new graphics and images. Ocean includes an atlas of the world's oceans and seas compiled using satellite data, brand-new 3-D Earth modeling, and remarkable photography of the marine world that explores the interaction between people and the ocean environment. From the geological and physical processes that affect the ocean floor to the key habitat zones, flora, and fauna, this is the definitive reference to the world's...

Our Next Ice Age: Tomorrow: The Global Ocean Temperature Conveyor and Effects of Its Potential Shutdown Amid Global Warming (The Reading Room (Nonfiction) Book 7)

Our Next Ice Age: Tomorrow: The Global Ocean Temperature Conveyor and Effects of Its Potential Shutdown Amid Global Warming (The Reading Room (Nonfiction) Book 7)
by Clocktower Books


An amazing global temperature regulator is the Thermohaline Circulation or Global Ocean Temperature Conveyor. Similar to a smaller version in the Mediterranean, this natural wonder of the Earth shuttles the world's largest water current over thousands of miles in cycle lasting over three years. If this conveyer shuts down due to global temperature rising, it may well be the trigger that shoots us from global warming to extreme and sudden global chilling.

The author describes key features and defines major terminology regarding climate. He distinguishes between climate change, which is a constant that has been with us since the beginning of time, and global warming, which is one form of climate change. Amid constant change, the Earth's mean atmospheric temperature will either...

The Ocean Book (Wonders of Creation)

The Ocean Book (Wonders of Creation)
by Frank Sherwin (Author), Bryan Miller (Illustrator)


The oceans may well be Earth's final frontier. These dark and sometimes mysterious waters cover 71 percent of the surface area of the globe and have yet to be fully explored, Under the waves, a watery world of frail splendor, foreboding creatures, and sights beyond imagination awaits.The Ocean Book will teach you about:Giant squid and other "monsters" of the seasCenturies of ocean explorationHydrothermal ventsThe ingredients that make up the oceanHarnessing the ocean's energyIcebergsCoral reefsShips, submarines, and other ocean vesselsThe major ocean currentsEl Nino, whirlpools, and hurricanesHarvesting the oceans' resourcesWhales, dolphins, fish, and other sea creaturesLearning about the oceans and their hidden contents can be exciting and rewarding. The abundance and diversity of life,...

Oceans: Dolphins, sharks, penguins, and more!

Oceans: Dolphins, sharks, penguins, and more!
by Johnna Rizzo (Author), Sylvia A. Earle (Introduction)


Swim with sharks! Dive with dolphins! Stroll the beach with penguins! Young
readers will joyfully immerse themselves in this awesome adventure at sea,
in which stunning National Geographic photos reveal hidden worlds of action
and beauty. We meet 30 favorite sea creatures and explore their watery
homes: playful dolphins, mysterious sharks, graceful sea turtles, waddling
penguins, and dozens of others. Kids will marvel at speedy swimmers on the
hunt, and smile at cuddly scenes of animal families.


To give background on the attention-grabbing photographs, each page is
sprinkled with fun facts and layered with information about ocean wildlife
and environments. Age-appropriate text tells each animal’s story in
language that’s...

Ocean: The World's Last Wilderness Revealed

Ocean: The World's Last Wilderness Revealed
by Robert Dinwiddie (Author), Philip Eales (Author), Sue Scott (Author), Michael Scott (Author), Kim Bryan (Author), David Burnie (Author), Frances Dipper (Author), Richard Beatty (Author), Robert Dinwiddie (Foreword), Fabien Cousteau (Foreword), Fabien Cousteau (Foreword), Louise Thomas (Foreword)


As the site where life first formed on Earth, a key element of the climate, and a continuing but fragile resource, oceans are of vital importance to our planet. From the geological and physical processes that affect the ocean floor to the key habitat zones, flora, and fauna, this is the definitive reference to the world's oceans for the entire family. Includes an introduction by Fabien Cousteau. Includes the latest developments in ocean exploration and photography. Catalogs the rich diversity of ocean features and marine life. Highlights important people, unique habitats, human impact studies, and extreme facts. Published in association with the American Museum of Natural History.

Ocean Country: One Woman's Voyage from Peril to Hope in her Quest To Save the Seas

Ocean Country: One Woman's Voyage from Peril to Hope in her Quest To Save the Seas
by Liz Cunningham (Author), Carl Safina (Foreword)


Ocean Country is an adventure story, a call to action, and a poetic meditation on the state of the seas. But most importantly it is the story of finding true hope in the midst of one of the greatest crises to face humankind, the rapidly degrading state of our environment. After a near-drowning accident in which she was temporarily paralyzed, Liz Cunningham crisscrosses the globe in an effort to understand the threats to our dazzling but endangered oceans. This intimate account charts her thrilling journey through unexpected encounters with conservationists, fishermen, sea nomads, and scientists in the Mediterranean, Sulawesi, the Turks and Caicos Islands, and Papua, New Guinea.

DK Eyewitness Books: Ocean

DK Eyewitness Books: Ocean
by Miranda Macquitty (Author)


Now in Paperback! Dive in and discover the watery world covering most of our earth and the amazing wildlife in its depths in Eyewitness: Oceans. Through images, maps and informative text learn about life on the shore to the darkest depths of the ocean floor, including predators and prey, gas and oil exploration, products of the ocean, brave explorers and what the human race can do to help preserve one of the earth's most valuable resources. For over 25 years, DK's Eyewitness books have been the most trusted nonfiction series in classrooms, libraries, and homes around the world. In summer 2014 this award-winning series will get a fresh new look both inside and out. The introduction of paperback editions, eye-catching jackets, and updated interiors ensure that the Eyewitness series will...

The Oceans

The Oceans
by Ellen J. Prager (Author), Sylvia A. Earle (Author)


"[An] absorbing survey of oceanography . . . [this] elegant study is an excellent resource."­­Publishers Weekly A fascinating examination of the earth's oceans This exhaustive overview of oceanography captures the excitement of discovery in the making. The Oceans opens up the world of ocean science to the general reader and raises significant questions about the future of the ancient, nurturing ocean itself. The oceans cover more than 70 percent of the globe, yet less than 5 percent of that expanse has been explored. But, as Drs. Prager and Earle show in this vivid survey of ocean research, our knowledge is suddenly accelerating: various dives, soundings, computer analyses, and other probes are uncovering amazing facts about the 142 million square miles beneath the...

The Ocean Is Alive: Re-visioning Our Relationship with the Living Ocean

The Ocean Is Alive: Re-visioning Our Relationship with the Living Ocean
by Glenn Edney (Author)


The Ocean covers over 70 percent of our planet’s surface and accounts for 97-99 percent of the liveable biosphere. She is the cradle of our existence and the heart of our blue home, a vast, living and breathing superorganism. The Ocean Is Alive is first and foremost a celebration of the Ocean in all her living splendour. It takes the reader on a fascinating and informative voyage of discovery into the blue heart our planet, from the Ocean’s formation more than four billion years ago and the emergence of life deep below her surface, to the incredible diversity and exuberance we know today. But much more than this, it is a journey of discovery into Ocean consciousness: through the evolution of the senses, the emergence of sentient behaviour, and finally an intriguing exploration of what...

The Once and Future Ocean: Notes Toward a New Hydraulic Society

The Once and Future Ocean: Notes Toward a New Hydraulic Society
by Peter Neill (Author)


Peter Neill’sThe Once and Future Ocean aspires to do nothing less than transform our relationship with the world’s most promising and imperiled natural element: the ocean and the inter-connected cycles of water, essential for all aspects of human survival in the 21st century. A successor to Rachael Carson’s The Sea Around Us, Aldo Leopold’s Sand County Almanac, and Jonathan Schell’s The Fate of the Earth, The Once and Future Ocean is ambitious in scope yet grounded in actionable, specific ideas and solutions for preserving the health of the world ocean. It explores the ocean's impact on climate, fresh water, food, energy, health, security, sustainable development, community living, and cultural traditions. Beginning with a discursive analysis of the most pertinent issues...

© 2016 BrightSurf.com