Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

New comparison of ocean temperatures reveals rise over the last century

April 02, 2012

Ocean robots used in Scripps-led study that traces ocean warming to late 19th century

A new study contrasting ocean temperature readings of the 1870s with temperatures of the modern seas reveals an upward trend of global ocean warming spanning at least 100 years.

The research led by Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego physical oceanographer Dean Roemmich shows a .33-degree Celsius (.59-degree Fahrenheit) average increase in the upper portions of the ocean to 700 meters (2,300 feet) depth. The increase was largest at the ocean surface, .59-degree Celsius (1.1-degree Fahrenheit), decreasing to .12-degree Celsius (.22-degree Fahrenheit) at 900 meters (2,950 feet) depth.

The report is the first global comparison of temperature between the historic voyage of HMS Challenger (1872-1876) and modern data obtained by ocean-probing robots now continuously reporting temperatures via the global Argo program. Scientists have previously determined that nearly 90 percent of the excess heat added to Earth's climate system since the 1960s has been stored in the oceans. The new study, published in the April 1 advance online edition of Nature Climate Change and coauthored by John Gould of the United Kingdom-based National Oceanography Centre and John Gilson of Scripps Oceanography, pushes the ocean warming trend back much earlier.

"The significance of the study is not only that we see a temperature difference that indicates warming on a global scale, but that the magnitude of the temperature change since the 1870s is twice that observed over the past 50 years," said Roemmich, co-chairman of the International Argo Steering Team. "This implies that the time scale for the warming of the ocean is not just the last 50 years but at least the last 100 years."

Although the Challenger data set covers only some 300 temperature soundings (measurements from the sea surface down to the deep ocean) around the world, the information sets a baseline for temperature change in the world's oceans, which are now sampled continuously through Argo's unprecedented global coverage. Nearly 3,500 free-drifting profiling Argo floats each collect a temperature profile every 10 days.

Roemmich believes the new findings, a piece of a larger puzzle of understanding the earth's climate, help scientists to understand the longer record of sea-level rise, because the expansion of seawater due to warming is a significant contributor to rising sea level. Moreover, the 100-year timescale of ocean warming implies that the Earth's climate system as a whole has been gaining heat for at least that long.
###

Launched in 2000, the Argo program collects more than 100,000 temperature-salinity profiles per year across the world's oceans. To date, more than 1,000 research papers have been published using Argo's data set.

The Nature Climate Change study was supported by U.S. Argo through NOAA.

University of California - San Diego


Related Ocean Temperature Current Events and Ocean Temperature News Articles


Influence of sea-ice loss on Arctic warming is shaped by temperatures in the Pacific Ocean
Influence of sea-ice loss on Arctic warming is shaped by varying temperatures in the Pacific Ocean, new study shows

NASA examines El Nino's impact on ocean's food source
El Nino years can have a big impact on the littlest plants in the ocean, and NASA scientists are studying the relationship between the two.

Exeter's world-leading climate change research showcased in prestigious science event
University of Exeter research into the impact of climate change will be featured at a prestigious science event in the USA, held this week.

How stable is the West Antarctic Ice Sheet?
A future warming of the Southern Ocean caused by rising greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere may severely disrupt the stability of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

Melting of massive ice 'lid' resulted in huge release of CO2 at the end of the ice age
A new study reconstructing conditions at the end of the last ice age suggests that as the Antarctic sea ice melted, massive amounts of carbon dioxide that had been trapped in the ocean were released into the atmosphere.

Warmer air and sea, declining ice continue to trigger Arctic change
A new NOAA-sponsored report shows that air temperature in 2015 across the Arctic was well above average with temperature anomalies over land more than 2 degrees Fahrenheit above average, the highest since records began in 1900.

Functions of global ocean microbiome key to understanding environmental changes
The billions of marine microorganisms present in every liter of seawater represent a structured ecological community that regulates how the Earth functions in practically every way, from energy consumption to respiration. As inhabitants of the largest environment on Earth, microbial marine systems drive changes in every global system.

Climate change: Warm water is mixing up life in the Arctic
The warming of arctic waters in the wake of climate change is likely to produce radical changes in the marine habitats of the High North.

NASA study shows that common coolants contribute to ozone depletion
A class of widely used chemical coolants known as hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) contributes to ozone depletion by a small but measurable amount, countering a decades-old assumption, according to a new NASA study.

New insights into the dynamics of past climate change
A new study of the relationship between ocean currents and climate change has found that they are tightly linked, and that changes in the polar regions can affect the ocean and climate on the opposite side of the world within one to two hundred years, far quicker than previously thought.
More Ocean Temperature Current Events and Ocean Temperature News Articles

Ocean

Ocean
by Robert Dinwiddie (Author), Philip Eales (Author), Sue Scott (Author), Michael Scott (Author), Kim Bryan (Author), David Burnie (Author), Frances Dipper (Author), Fabien Cousteau (Introduction)


The power and wonder of the ocean is as strong today as ever, with new expeditions to its depths, and new discoveries beneath melting ice, in developing reefs, and on shores around the world. To celebrate, we are releasing a second edition of Ocean, with the latest scientific research, coverage of major events like Superstorm Sandy and the Fukushima tsunami, and new graphics and images. Ocean includes an atlas of the world's oceans and seas compiled using satellite data, brand-new 3-D Earth modeling, and remarkable photography of the marine world that explores the interaction between people and the ocean environment. From the geological and physical processes that affect the ocean floor to the key habitat zones, flora, and fauna, this is the definitive reference to the world's...

Stickmen's Guide to Oceans in Layers (Stickmen's Guide to This Incredible Earth)

Stickmen's Guide to Oceans in Layers (Stickmen's Guide to This Incredible Earth)
by Catherine Chambers (Author), Venitia Dean (Illustrator), John Paul De Quay (Illustrator)


Splash with the Stickmen at the sea's surface, and then dive down through the darkening zones and into the abyss. But don't stop there! Follow the Stickmen to snorkel around coral gardens, find creatures that make their own light, and dive 7 miles down to the deepest trench. The Stickmen have plenty of oxygen (and wild facts) to keep you alert as you float past coral gardens, pods of humpback whales, robotic submarines, and the weirdest creatures of the deep.



Ocean: The World's Last Wilderness Revealed

Ocean: The World's Last Wilderness Revealed
by Robert Dinwiddie (Author), Philip Eales (Author), Sue Scott (Author), Michael Scott (Author), Fabien Cousteau (Introduction)


Breathtaking, powerful, and all-encompassing in its sheer scope and visual impact, Ocean sweeps you away on an incredible journey into the depths of our astonishing marine world. As the site where life first formed on Earth, a key element of the climate, and a fragile resource, oceans are of vital importance to our planet. This definitive visual guide to the world's oceans - including the geological and physical processes that affect the ocean floor, the key habitat zones, the rich diversity of marine life - is now available in paperback.

The Ocean Book (Wonders of Creation)

The Ocean Book (Wonders of Creation)
by Frank Sherwin (Author), Bryan Miller (Illustrator)


The oceans may well be Earth's final frontier. These dark and sometimes mysterious waters cover 71 percent of the surface area of the globe and have yet to be fully explored, Under the waves, a watery world of frail splendor, foreboding creatures, and sights beyond imagination awaits.The Ocean Book will teach you about:Giant squid and other "monsters" of the seasCenturies of ocean explorationHydrothermal ventsThe ingredients that make up the oceanHarnessing the ocean's energyIcebergsCoral reefsShips, submarines, and other ocean vesselsThe major ocean currentsEl Nino, whirlpools, and hurricanesHarvesting the oceans' resourcesWhales, dolphins, fish, and other sea creaturesLearning about the oceans and their hidden contents can be exciting and rewarding. The abundance and diversity of life,...

Ocean Beach (Images of America)

Ocean Beach (Images of America)
by Ocean Beach Historical Society (Author)


Ocean Beach, a neighborhood of San Diego, California, is known throughout the city, county, and beyond as a unique and quirky place with the feel of a small town, despite being a stones throw from the center of a major metropolis. Founded in 1887 in a coastal area known for its beautiful cliffs and rock formations, Ocean Beach went through growing pains in the early 1900s before establishing itself as a family-oriented, self-contained beach community by the mid-1930s. Full of mom-and-pop stores and very walkable, Ocean Beach is a favorite destination for thousands of tourists and San Diegans each year.

Oceans: Dolphins, sharks, penguins, and more!

Oceans: Dolphins, sharks, penguins, and more!
by Johnna Rizzo (Author), Sylvia A. Earle (Introduction)


Swim with sharks! Dive with dolphins! Stroll the beach with penguins! Young
readers will joyfully immerse themselves in this awesome adventure at sea,
in which stunning National Geographic photos reveal hidden worlds of action
and beauty. We meet 30 favorite sea creatures and explore their watery
homes: playful dolphins, mysterious sharks, graceful sea turtles, waddling
penguins, and dozens of others. Kids will marvel at speedy swimmers on the
hunt, and smile at cuddly scenes of animal families.


To give background on the attention-grabbing photographs, each page is
sprinkled with fun facts and layered with information about ocean wildlife
and environments. Age-appropriate text tells each animal’s story in
language that’s...

Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics

Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics
by Jorge L. Sarmiento (Author)


Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics provides a broad theoretical framework upon which graduate students and upper-level undergraduates can formulate an understanding of the processes that control the mean concentration and distribution of biologically utilized elements and compounds in the ocean. Though it is written as a textbook, it will also be of interest to more advanced scientists as a wide-ranging synthesis of our present understanding of ocean biogeochemical processes. The first two chapters of the book provide an introductory overview of biogeochemical and physical oceanography. The next four chapters concentrate on processes at the air-sea interface, the production of organic matter in the upper ocean, the remineralization of organic matter in the water column, and the processing of...

The Ocean of Life: The Fate of Man and the Sea

The Ocean of Life: The Fate of Man and the Sea
by Callum Roberts (Author)


A Silent Spring for oceans, written by "the Rachel Carson of the fish world" (The New York Times)Who can forget the sense of wonder with which they discovered the creatures of the deep? In this vibrant hymn to the sea, Callum Roberts—one of the world’s foremost conservation biologists—leads readers on a fascinating tour of mankind’s relationship to the sea, from the earliest traces of water on earth to the oceans as we know them today. In the process, Roberts looks at how the taming of the oceans has shaped human civilization and affected marine life.We have always been fish eaters, from the dawn of civilization, but in the last twenty years we have transformed the oceans beyond recognition. Putting our exploitation of the seas into historical context, Roberts offers a devastating...

Ocean Country: One Woman's Voyage from Peril to Hope in her Quest To Save the Seas

Ocean Country: One Woman's Voyage from Peril to Hope in her Quest To Save the Seas
by Liz Cunningham (Author), Carl Safina (Foreword)


Ocean Country is an adventure story, a call to action, and a poetic meditation on the state of the seas. But most importantly it is the story of finding true hope in the midst of one of the greatest crises to face humankind, the rapidly degrading state of our environment. After a near-drowning accident in which she was temporarily paralyzed, Liz Cunningham crisscrosses the globe in an effort to understand the threats to our dazzling but endangered oceans. This intimate account charts her thrilling journey through unexpected encounters with conservationists, fishermen, sea nomads, and scientists in the Mediterranean, Sulawesi, the Turks and Caicos Islands, and Papua, New Guinea.

Two Hearts in Winter (Ocean City Boardwalk Series) (Volume 2)

Two Hearts in Winter (Ocean City Boardwalk Series) (Volume 2)
by Donna Fasano (Author)


Loss and betrayal have caused Heather Phillips to give up on love. She’s thrown herself into running The Lonely Loon, her Bed and Breakfast located on the boardwalk of Ocean City, Maryland. The “off season” in this tourist town is usually a time of rest and reflection for her; however, DB Atwell, a famous author, arrives at The Loon for the winter to finish his long-overdue novel. Daniel, too, has faced grief, and tragedy continues to haunt him. Once Heather and Daniel meet, their lives will never be the same. Reminiscent of Nights in Rodanthe by Nicholas Sparks and culminating in a happily-ever-after similar to the great Nora Roberts, Two Hearts in Winter is a story about learning to let go of the past, about realizing that, though hardship affects us, it need not define us, and...

© 2016 BrightSurf.com