Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

New comparison of ocean temperatures reveals rise over the last century

April 02, 2012

Ocean robots used in Scripps-led study that traces ocean warming to late 19th century

A new study contrasting ocean temperature readings of the 1870s with temperatures of the modern seas reveals an upward trend of global ocean warming spanning at least 100 years.

The research led by Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego physical oceanographer Dean Roemmich shows a .33-degree Celsius (.59-degree Fahrenheit) average increase in the upper portions of the ocean to 700 meters (2,300 feet) depth. The increase was largest at the ocean surface, .59-degree Celsius (1.1-degree Fahrenheit), decreasing to .12-degree Celsius (.22-degree Fahrenheit) at 900 meters (2,950 feet) depth.

The report is the first global comparison of temperature between the historic voyage of HMS Challenger (1872-1876) and modern data obtained by ocean-probing robots now continuously reporting temperatures via the global Argo program. Scientists have previously determined that nearly 90 percent of the excess heat added to Earth's climate system since the 1960s has been stored in the oceans. The new study, published in the April 1 advance online edition of Nature Climate Change and coauthored by John Gould of the United Kingdom-based National Oceanography Centre and John Gilson of Scripps Oceanography, pushes the ocean warming trend back much earlier.

"The significance of the study is not only that we see a temperature difference that indicates warming on a global scale, but that the magnitude of the temperature change since the 1870s is twice that observed over the past 50 years," said Roemmich, co-chairman of the International Argo Steering Team. "This implies that the time scale for the warming of the ocean is not just the last 50 years but at least the last 100 years."

Although the Challenger data set covers only some 300 temperature soundings (measurements from the sea surface down to the deep ocean) around the world, the information sets a baseline for temperature change in the world's oceans, which are now sampled continuously through Argo's unprecedented global coverage. Nearly 3,500 free-drifting profiling Argo floats each collect a temperature profile every 10 days.

Roemmich believes the new findings, a piece of a larger puzzle of understanding the earth's climate, help scientists to understand the longer record of sea-level rise, because the expansion of seawater due to warming is a significant contributor to rising sea level. Moreover, the 100-year timescale of ocean warming implies that the Earth's climate system as a whole has been gaining heat for at least that long.
###

Launched in 2000, the Argo program collects more than 100,000 temperature-salinity profiles per year across the world's oceans. To date, more than 1,000 research papers have been published using Argo's data set.

The Nature Climate Change study was supported by U.S. Argo through NOAA.

University of California - San Diego


Related Ocean Temperature Current Events and Ocean Temperature News Articles


Influence of sea-ice loss on Arctic warming is shaped by temperatures in the Pacific Ocean
Influence of sea-ice loss on Arctic warming is shaped by varying temperatures in the Pacific Ocean, new study shows

NASA examines El Nino's impact on ocean's food source
El Nino years can have a big impact on the littlest plants in the ocean, and NASA scientists are studying the relationship between the two.

Exeter's world-leading climate change research showcased in prestigious science event
University of Exeter research into the impact of climate change will be featured at a prestigious science event in the USA, held this week.

How stable is the West Antarctic Ice Sheet?
A future warming of the Southern Ocean caused by rising greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere may severely disrupt the stability of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

Melting of massive ice 'lid' resulted in huge release of CO2 at the end of the ice age
A new study reconstructing conditions at the end of the last ice age suggests that as the Antarctic sea ice melted, massive amounts of carbon dioxide that had been trapped in the ocean were released into the atmosphere.

Warmer air and sea, declining ice continue to trigger Arctic change
A new NOAA-sponsored report shows that air temperature in 2015 across the Arctic was well above average with temperature anomalies over land more than 2 degrees Fahrenheit above average, the highest since records began in 1900.

Functions of global ocean microbiome key to understanding environmental changes
The billions of marine microorganisms present in every liter of seawater represent a structured ecological community that regulates how the Earth functions in practically every way, from energy consumption to respiration. As inhabitants of the largest environment on Earth, microbial marine systems drive changes in every global system.

Climate change: Warm water is mixing up life in the Arctic
The warming of arctic waters in the wake of climate change is likely to produce radical changes in the marine habitats of the High North.

NASA study shows that common coolants contribute to ozone depletion
A class of widely used chemical coolants known as hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) contributes to ozone depletion by a small but measurable amount, countering a decades-old assumption, according to a new NASA study.

New insights into the dynamics of past climate change
A new study of the relationship between ocean currents and climate change has found that they are tightly linked, and that changes in the polar regions can affect the ocean and climate on the opposite side of the world within one to two hundred years, far quicker than previously thought.
More Ocean Temperature Current Events and Ocean Temperature News Articles

Fundamentals of Estuarine Physical Oceanography (Ocean Engineering & Oceanography)

Fundamentals of Estuarine Physical Oceanography (Ocean Engineering & Oceanography)
by Luiz Bruner de Miranda (Author), Fernando Pinheiro Andutta (Author), Björn Kjerfve (Author), Belmiro Mendes de Castro Filho (Author)


This book provides an introduction to the complex system functions, variability and human interference in ecosystem between the continent and the ocean. It focuses on circulation, transport and mixing of estuarine and coastal water masses, which is ultimately related to an understanding of the hydrographic and hydrodynamic characteristics (salinity, temperature, density and circulation), mixing processes (advection and diffusion), transport timescales such as the residence time and the exposure time.
In the area of physical oceanography, experiments using these water bodies as a natural laboratory and interpreting their circulation and mixing processes using theoretical and semi-theoretical knowledge are of fundamental importance. Small-scale physical models may also be used together...

Fuller Projection Dymaxion Air-ocean World

Fuller Projection Dymaxion Air-ocean World
by R. Buckminster Fuller (Author)


This Raleigh Edition of the Dymaxion (TM) map, first designed in Raleigh, North Carolina, is a vivid color reproduction of the original rendition created by R. Buckminster Fuller in 1954 in his office there. We have reproduced the map exactly as it was first conceived and produced by its creator. Both the land masses and the grayscale shading in the oceans represent mean low annual temperatures. The visionary Fuller designed this map to help us recognize that 'we're all astronauts aboard a little spaceship called Earth.' Because it can be reconfigured into a variety of patterns, it also communicated the point that 'there are many ways to see the world.' laminated map / packed in eco-friendly cardboard tube

Full Fathom Five: Ocean Warming and a Father's Legacy

Full Fathom Five: Ocean Warming and a Father's Legacy
by Gordon Chaplin (Author)


Gordon Chaplin’s father was a seemingly happy-go-lucky, charismatic adventurer who married a wealthy heiress and somehow transformed himself into the author of a landmark scientific study, Fishes of the Bahamas, published by the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. As a young boy, the author took part in collecting specimens for his father. Fifty years later, he was asked to join a team from the same institution studying the state of sea life in the Bahamian waters where he grew up, as measured against his father’s benchmark. The first of the sea changes presented in this eloquent book stems from climate change and is the drastic transformation of ocean life due to global warming. The second is his father’s miraculous transformation from presumed playboy into scientist. And...

Fever in the Oceans (Climate Change) (Climate Change (Abdo))

Fever in the Oceans (Climate Change) (Climate Change (Abdo))
by Stephen Aitken (Author), Stephen Aitken (Illustrator)


Temperatures all over the world are rising due to climate change, effecting the marine life around the world. Provide even the youngest readers information about the oceans, the changes in climate and its affects on the oceans, and what they can do to help preserve our planet with Fever in the Oceans. Bright, colorful illustrations and straightforward text make this topic accessible for even the youngest audience. Hot Facts and Cool Ideas sidebars provide additional information and Dr. Know experiments provide a fun look at climate. Looking Glass Library is an imprint of Magic Wagon, a division of ABDO Publishing Group. Grades preK-4.

Chemical Transport in Metasomatic Processes (Nato Science Series C:)

Chemical Transport in Metasomatic Processes (Nato Science Series C:)
by Harold C. Helgeson (Editor)


As indicated on the title page, this book is an outgrowth of the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on Chemical Transport in Metasomatic Processes, which was held in Greece, June 3-16, 1985. The ASI consisted of five days of invited lectures, poster sessions, and discussion at the Club Poseidon near Loutraki, Corinthia, followed by a two-day field trip in Corinthia and Attica. The second week of the ASI consisted of an excursion aboard M/S Zeus, M/Y Dimitrios II, and the M/S Irini to four of the Cycladic Islands to visit, study, and sample outstanding exposures of metasomatic activity on Syros, Siphnos, Seriphos, and Naxos. Nine­ teen invited lectures and 10 session chairmen/discussion leaders participated in the ASI, which was attended by a total of 92 professional scientists and...

Rivers of North America

Rivers of North America
by Arthur C. Benke (Editor), Colbert E. Cushing (Editor)


AWARDS:
2006 Outstanding Academic Title, by CHOICE

The 2005 Award for Excellence in Professional and Scholarly Publishing by the Association of American Publishers (AAP)

Best Reference 2005, by the Library Journal

Rivers of North America is an important reference for scientists, ecologists, and students studying rivers and their ecosystems. It brings together information from several regional specialists on the major river basins of North America, presented in a large-format, full-color book. The introduction covers general aspects of geology, hydrology, ecology and human impacts on rivers. This is followed by 22 chapters on the major river basins. Each chapter begins with a full-page color photograph and includes several additional photographs within the text....

COMPLETE OCEANOGRAPHY: For upsc and other competitive exams

COMPLETE OCEANOGRAPHY: For upsc and other competitive exams


Table of contents

BOTTOM TOPOGRAPHY OF THE OCEANS 1
TEMPERATURE OF THE OCEAN WATER 3
SALINITY OF THE OCEAN WATER 5
THERMOHALINE CIRCULATION 8
OCEAN CURRENTS 9
TIDES 13
OCEAN DEPOSITS 14
CORAL REEFS 17
MARITIME ZONES 18


Our Next Ice Age: Tomorrow (The Reading Room at Clocktower Books (Nonfiction) Book 1)

Our Next Ice Age: Tomorrow (The Reading Room at Clocktower Books (Nonfiction) Book 1)
by Clocktower Books


You may have a vast, cold surprise in store. Scientists look at all possible scenarios—including a startling, counter-intuitive global climate possibility: that global warming (which is very much real and deadly) may actually trigger a sudden, violent self-correcting mechanism on our planet, leading to a near instant ice age in our own time. We do need serious clean energy to survive along with the polar bears, penguins, and many other species - but we can prepare for all outcomes. Don’t throw away those snow tires yet, and keep your rubber boots in the hall closet. You may need them yet.

Climate change is not a theory but a fact - specifically, because it’s always been there. Climate change is as normal as gravity and rocks. Contrary to the self-serving lies of dirty...

The Near-Surface Layer of the Ocean: Structure, Dynamics and Applications (Atmospheric and Oceanographic Sciences Library)

The Near-Surface Layer of the Ocean: Structure, Dynamics and Applications (Atmospheric and Oceanographic Sciences Library)
by Alexander Soloviev (Author), Roger Lukas (Author)


The rationale for publishing a second edition of this monograph is that this area of research continues to show remarkable advancement. The new generation of synthetic aperture radar satellites has provided unprecedented spatial resolution of sea surface features. In addition, satellites to measure sea surface salinity have been launched. Computational fluid dynamics models open new opportunities in understanding the processes in the near-surface layer of the ocean and their visibility from space. Passive acoustic methods for monitoring short surface waves have significantly progressed. Of importance for climate research, processes in the near-surface layer of the ocean contribute to errors in satellite estimates of sea surface temperature trends. Due to growing applications of...

Climate of Uncertainty: A Balanced Look At Global Warming and Renewable Energy

Climate of Uncertainty: A Balanced Look At Global Warming and Renewable Energy
by Ocean Publishing


Global warming, renewable energy, expanding populations, sustainability--Climate of Uncertainty examines all issues with an objectivity and grace in an arena often fraught with dissent and extremism. Perfect for anyone seeking an understanding of all sides of the climate change debate, Climate of Uncertainty has garnered praise from every part of the ideological spectrum, proving that sometimes the most powerful voices are not the loudest, but the most rational.

© 2017 BrightSurf.com