Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

New comparison of ocean temperatures reveals rise over the last century

April 02, 2012
Ocean robots used in Scripps-led study that traces ocean warming to late 19th century

A new study contrasting ocean temperature readings of the 1870s with temperatures of the modern seas reveals an upward trend of global ocean warming spanning at least 100 years.

The research led by Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego physical oceanographer Dean Roemmich shows a .33-degree Celsius (.59-degree Fahrenheit) average increase in the upper portions of the ocean to 700 meters (2,300 feet) depth. The increase was largest at the ocean surface, .59-degree Celsius (1.1-degree Fahrenheit), decreasing to .12-degree Celsius (.22-degree Fahrenheit) at 900 meters (2,950 feet) depth.

The report is the first global comparison of temperature between the historic voyage of HMS Challenger (1872-1876) and modern data obtained by ocean-probing robots now continuously reporting temperatures via the global Argo program. Scientists have previously determined that nearly 90 percent of the excess heat added to Earth's climate system since the 1960s has been stored in the oceans. The new study, published in the April 1 advance online edition of Nature Climate Change and coauthored by John Gould of the United Kingdom-based National Oceanography Centre and John Gilson of Scripps Oceanography, pushes the ocean warming trend back much earlier.

"The significance of the study is not only that we see a temperature difference that indicates warming on a global scale, but that the magnitude of the temperature change since the 1870s is twice that observed over the past 50 years," said Roemmich, co-chairman of the International Argo Steering Team. "This implies that the time scale for the warming of the ocean is not just the last 50 years but at least the last 100 years."

Although the Challenger data set covers only some 300 temperature soundings (measurements from the sea surface down to the deep ocean) around the world, the information sets a baseline for temperature change in the world's oceans, which are now sampled continuously through Argo's unprecedented global coverage. Nearly 3,500 free-drifting profiling Argo floats each collect a temperature profile every 10 days.

Roemmich believes the new findings, a piece of a larger puzzle of understanding the earth's climate, help scientists to understand the longer record of sea-level rise, because the expansion of seawater due to warming is a significant contributor to rising sea level. Moreover, the 100-year timescale of ocean warming implies that the Earth's climate system as a whole has been gaining heat for at least that long.
###

Launched in 2000, the Argo program collects more than 100,000 temperature-salinity profiles per year across the world's oceans. To date, more than 1,000 research papers have been published using Argo's data set.

The Nature Climate Change study was supported by U.S. Argo through NOAA.

University of California - San Diego


Related Ocean Temperature Current Events and Ocean Temperature News Articles


Warmest oceans ever recorded
"This summer has seen the highest global mean sea surface temperatures ever recorded since their systematic measuring started.

Robotic Ocean Gliders Aid Study of Melting Polar Ice
The rapidly melting ice sheets on the coast of West Antarctica are a potential major contributor to rising ocean levels worldwide.

UTSA microbiologists discover regulatory thermometer that controls cholera
Karl Klose, professor of biology and a researcher in UTSA's South Texas Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, has teamed up with researchers at Ruhr University in Bochum, Germany to understand how humans get infected with cholera, Their findings were released this week in an article published by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Ancient shellfish remains rewrite 10,000-year history of El Niño cycles
The planet's largest and most powerful driver of climate changes from one year to the next, the El Niño Southern Oscillation in the tropical Pacific Ocean, was widely thought to have been weaker in ancient times because of a different configuration of the Earth's orbit.

Understanding the Ocean's Role in Greenland Glacier Melt
The Greenland Ice Sheet is a 1.7 million-square-kilometer, 2-mile thick layer of ice that covers Greenland. Its fate is inextricably linked to our global climate system.

Phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass are expected to decrease by 6% and 11% respectively by the end of century due to climate change
It is estimated that ocean temperature warming will cause phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass to decrease by 6% and 11% respectively by the end of the century.

Reading ancient climate from plankton shells
Climate changes from millions of years ago are recorded at daily rate in ancient sea shells, new research shows.

Antarctic Glacier Calves Iceberg One-Fourth Size of Rhode Island
This week a European Earth-observing satellite confirmed that a large iceberg broke off of Pine Island Glacier, one of Antarctica's largest and fastest moving ice streams.

The Asian Monsoon is Getting Predictable
For much of Asia, the pace of life is tuned to rhythms of monsoons. The summer rainy season is especially important for securing the water and food supplies for more than a billion people.

Ancient pool of warm water questions current climate models
A huge pool of warm water that stretched out from Indonesia over to Africa and South America four million years ago suggests climate models might be too conservative in forecasting tropical changes.
More Ocean Temperature Current Events and Ocean Temperature News Articles

Ocean

Ocean
by Robert Dinwiddie (Author), Philip Eales (Author), Sue Scott (Author), Michael Scott (Author), Kim Bryan (Author), David Burnie (Author), Frances Dipper (Author), Fabien Cousteau (Introduction)


The power and wonder of the ocean is as strong today as ever, with new expeditions to its depths, and new discoveries beneath melting ice, in developing reefs, and on shores around the world. To celebrate, we are releasing a second edition of Ocean, with the latest scientific research, coverage of major events like Superstorm Sandy and the Fukushima tsunami, and new graphics and images. Ocean includes an atlas of the world's oceans and seas compiled using satellite data, brand-new 3-D Earth modeling, and remarkable photography of the marine world that explores the interaction between people and the ocean environment. From the geological and physical processes that affect the ocean floor to the key habitat zones, flora, and fauna, this is the definitive reference to the world's...

Ocean: The World's Last Wilderness Revealed

Ocean: The World's Last Wilderness Revealed
by Robert Dinwiddie (Author), Philip Eales (Author), Sue Scott (Author), Michael Scott (Author), Kim Bryan (Author), David Burnie (Author), Frances Dipper (Author), Richard Beatty (Author), Fabien Cousteau (Introduction), Fabien Cousteau (Introduction)


Breathtaking, powerful, and all-encompassing in its sheer scope and visual impact, Ocean sweeps you away on an incredible journey into the depths of our astonishing marine world. As the site where life first formed on Earth, a key element of the climate, and a fragile resource, oceans are of vital importance to our planet. This definitive visual guide to the world's oceans - including the geological and physical processes that affect the ocean floor, the key habitat zones, the rich diversity of marine life - is now available in paperback.

Oceans: Dolphins, sharks, penguins, and more!

Oceans: Dolphins, sharks, penguins, and more!
by Johnna Rizzo (Author), Sylvia A. Earle (Introduction)


Swim with sharks! Dive with dolphins! Stroll the beach with penguins! Young
readers will joyfully immerse themselves in this awesome adventure at sea,
in which stunning National Geographic photos reveal hidden worlds of action
and beauty. We meet 30 favorite sea creatures and explore their watery
homes: playful dolphins, mysterious sharks, graceful sea turtles, waddling
penguins, and dozens of others. Kids will marvel at speedy swimmers on the
hunt, and smile at cuddly scenes of animal families.


To give background on the attention-grabbing photographs, each page is
sprinkled with fun facts and layered with information about ocean wildlife
and environments. Age-appropriate text tells each animal’s story in
language that’s accurate, lively, and...

The Ocean Book (Wonders of Creation)

The Ocean Book (Wonders of Creation)
by Frank Sherwin (Author), Bryan Miller (Illustrator)


The oceans may well be Earth's final frontier. These dark and sometimes mysterious waters cover 71 percent of the surface area of the globe and have yet to be fully explored, Under the waves, a watery world of frail splendor, foreboding creatures, and sights beyond imagination awaits.The Ocean Book will teach you about:Giant squid and other "monsters" of the seasCenturies of ocean explorationHydrothermal ventsThe ingredients that make up the oceanHarnessing the ocean's energyIcebergsCoral reefsShips, submarines, and other ocean vesselsThe major ocean currentsEl Nino, whirlpools, and hurricanesHarvesting the oceans' resourcesWhales, dolphins, fish, and other sea creaturesLearning about the oceans and their hidden contents can be exciting and rewarding. The abundance and diversity of life,...

DK Eyewitness Books: Ocean

DK Eyewitness Books: Ocean
by Miranda MacQuitty (Author)


Now in Paperback! Dive in and discover the watery world covering most of our earth and the amazing wildlife in its depths in Eyewitness: Oceans. Through images, maps and informative text learn about life on the shore to the darkest depths of the ocean floor, including predators and prey, gas and oil exploration, products of the ocean, brave explorers and what the human race can do to help preserve one of the earth's most valuable resources. For over 25 years, DK's Eyewitness books have been the most trusted nonfiction series in classrooms, libraries, and homes around the world. In summer 2014 this award-winning series will get a fresh new look both inside and out. The introduction of paperback editions, eye-catching jackets, and updated interiors ensure that the Eyewitness series will...

Ocean Beach (Images of America (Arcadia Publishing))

Ocean Beach (Images of America (Arcadia Publishing))
by Ocean Beach Historical Society (Author)


Ocean Beach, a neighborhood of San Diego, California, is known throughout the city, county, and beyond as a unique and quirky place with the feel of a small town, despite being a stones throw from the center of a major metropolis. Founded in 1887 in a coastal area known for its beautiful cliffs and rock formations, Ocean Beach went through growing pains in the early 1900s before establishing itself as a family-oriented, self-contained beach community by the mid-1930s. Full of mom-and-pop stores and very walkable, Ocean Beach is a favorite destination for thousands of tourists and San Diegans each year.

Song for the Blue Ocean: Encounters Along the World's Coasts and Beneath the Seas

Song for the Blue Ocean: Encounters Along the World's Coasts and Beneath the Seas
by Carl Safina (Author)


Part odyssey, part pilgrimage, this epic personal narrative follows the author's exploration of coasts, islands, reefs, and the sea's abyssal depths. Scientist and fisherman Carl Safina takes readers on a global journey of discovery, probing for truth about the world's changing seas, deftly weaving adventure, science, and political analysis.


Janice VanCleave's Oceans for Every Kid: Easy Activities that Make Learning Science Fun

Janice VanCleave's Oceans for Every Kid: Easy Activities that Make Learning Science Fun
by Janice VanCleave (Author)


Why is the ocean salty? How do whales stay warm? What causes tides to rise and fall? How do oil spills affect ocean animals? Now you can discover the answers to these and many other fascinating questions about the ocean--the earth's last frontier. Janice VanCleave's Oceans for Every Kid makes learning about the ocean and its inhabitants an intriguing adventure. Use a bottle, pennies, a straw, and clay to demonstrate how submarines rise. Make your own wave holder with index cards and a plastic folder. Through these and other activities you'll find out how fish move up and down in water, how pollutants move into the ocean, how to navigate without a compass, how to map the surface of the ocean floor, and much more. Each of the activities begins with a statement of purpose followed by a list...

Oceans: A Visual Guide (Visual Guides)

Oceans: A Visual Guide (Visual Guides)
by Stephen Hutchinson (Author), Lawrence Hawkins (Author)


"This is a superb book. The authors are to be commended. Not only did I find the book informative and useful, but as an ichthyhologist [fish expert] and former director of a marine conservation non-governmental organization, I learned new information."
- Neil Alfonso, Research Services, Canadian Museum of Nature The world's oceans contain habitats that are as different from one another as a rainforest is from a desert. Oceanography is little more than a century old, and scientists now explore the sea in specialized submersibles and scan its features from space. Oceans explores the mysteries of these fascinating worlds beneath the waves. From the coastline to the deepest trench, oceans host an astonishing variety of marine life. Some are rare, some bizarre, some of...

Ocean's End Travels Through Endangered Seas

Ocean's End Travels Through Endangered Seas
by Colin Woodard (Author)


The Black Sea is already dead. Because of sea-level rise, an entire nation in the South Pacific, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, is being washed away. Throughout the Caribbean Sea, vast stretches of coral reef-called the "rainforests of the ocean" because of their diversity of life-are dying at increasingly rapid rates. The reefs along the entire north coast of Jamaica are dead. Ocean's End is not about the damage our oceans could suffer (and inflict) in ten or a hundred years, if we're not careful. It's an eyewitness account, in compelling and vivid detail, of the massive worldwide destruction that's already happened.

© 2014 BrightSurf.com