Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

New comparison of ocean temperatures reveals rise over the last century

April 02, 2012
Ocean robots used in Scripps-led study that traces ocean warming to late 19th century

A new study contrasting ocean temperature readings of the 1870s with temperatures of the modern seas reveals an upward trend of global ocean warming spanning at least 100 years.

The research led by Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego physical oceanographer Dean Roemmich shows a .33-degree Celsius (.59-degree Fahrenheit) average increase in the upper portions of the ocean to 700 meters (2,300 feet) depth. The increase was largest at the ocean surface, .59-degree Celsius (1.1-degree Fahrenheit), decreasing to .12-degree Celsius (.22-degree Fahrenheit) at 900 meters (2,950 feet) depth.

The report is the first global comparison of temperature between the historic voyage of HMS Challenger (1872-1876) and modern data obtained by ocean-probing robots now continuously reporting temperatures via the global Argo program. Scientists have previously determined that nearly 90 percent of the excess heat added to Earth's climate system since the 1960s has been stored in the oceans. The new study, published in the April 1 advance online edition of Nature Climate Change and coauthored by John Gould of the United Kingdom-based National Oceanography Centre and John Gilson of Scripps Oceanography, pushes the ocean warming trend back much earlier.

"The significance of the study is not only that we see a temperature difference that indicates warming on a global scale, but that the magnitude of the temperature change since the 1870s is twice that observed over the past 50 years," said Roemmich, co-chairman of the International Argo Steering Team. "This implies that the time scale for the warming of the ocean is not just the last 50 years but at least the last 100 years."

Although the Challenger data set covers only some 300 temperature soundings (measurements from the sea surface down to the deep ocean) around the world, the information sets a baseline for temperature change in the world's oceans, which are now sampled continuously through Argo's unprecedented global coverage. Nearly 3,500 free-drifting profiling Argo floats each collect a temperature profile every 10 days.

Roemmich believes the new findings, a piece of a larger puzzle of understanding the earth's climate, help scientists to understand the longer record of sea-level rise, because the expansion of seawater due to warming is a significant contributor to rising sea level. Moreover, the 100-year timescale of ocean warming implies that the Earth's climate system as a whole has been gaining heat for at least that long.
###

Launched in 2000, the Argo program collects more than 100,000 temperature-salinity profiles per year across the world's oceans. To date, more than 1,000 research papers have been published using Argo's data set.

The Nature Climate Change study was supported by U.S. Argo through NOAA.

University of California - San Diego


Related Ocean Temperature Current Events and Ocean Temperature News Articles


UTSA microbiologists discover regulatory thermometer that controls cholera
Karl Klose, professor of biology and a researcher in UTSA's South Texas Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, has teamed up with researchers at Ruhr University in Bochum, Germany to understand how humans get infected with cholera, Their findings were released this week in an article published by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Ancient shellfish remains rewrite 10,000-year history of El Niño cycles
The planet's largest and most powerful driver of climate changes from one year to the next, the El Niño Southern Oscillation in the tropical Pacific Ocean, was widely thought to have been weaker in ancient times because of a different configuration of the Earth's orbit.

Understanding the Ocean's Role in Greenland Glacier Melt
The Greenland Ice Sheet is a 1.7 million-square-kilometer, 2-mile thick layer of ice that covers Greenland. Its fate is inextricably linked to our global climate system.

Phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass are expected to decrease by 6% and 11% respectively by the end of century due to climate change
It is estimated that ocean temperature warming will cause phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass to decrease by 6% and 11% respectively by the end of the century.

Reading ancient climate from plankton shells
Climate changes from millions of years ago are recorded at daily rate in ancient sea shells, new research shows.

Antarctic Glacier Calves Iceberg One-Fourth Size of Rhode Island
This week a European Earth-observing satellite confirmed that a large iceberg broke off of Pine Island Glacier, one of Antarctica's largest and fastest moving ice streams.

The Asian Monsoon is Getting Predictable
For much of Asia, the pace of life is tuned to rhythms of monsoons. The summer rainy season is especially important for securing the water and food supplies for more than a billion people.

Ancient pool of warm water questions current climate models
A huge pool of warm water that stretched out from Indonesia over to Africa and South America four million years ago suggests climate models might be too conservative in forecasting tropical changes.

Profiting from climate change
The climate is getting warmer, and sea levels are rising - a threat to island nations. As a group of researchers lead by colleagues from the University of Bonn found out, at the same time, tiny single-cell organisms are spreading rapidly through the world's oceans, where they might be able to mitigate the consequences of climate change.

MBL scientists find 'bipolar' marine bacteria, refuting 'everything is everywhere' idea
In another blow to the "Everything is Everywhere" tenet of bacterial distribution in the ocean, scientists at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) have found "bipolar" species of bacteria that occur in the Arctic and Antarctic, but nowhere else.
More Ocean Temperature Current Events and Ocean Temperature News Articles

Ocean

Ocean
by Robert Dinwiddie (Author), Philip Eales (Author), Sue Scott (Author), Michael Scott (Author), Kim Bryan (Author), David Burnie (Author), Frances Dipper (Author), Fabien Cousteau (Introduction)


The power and wonder of the ocean is as strong today as ever, with new expeditions to its depths, and new discoveries beneath melting ice, in developing reefs, and on shores around the world. To celebrate, we are releasing a second edition of Ocean, with the latest scientific research, coverage of major events like Superstorm Sandy and the Fukushima tsunami, and new graphics and images. Ocean includes an atlas of the world's oceans and seas compiled using satellite data, brand-new 3-D Earth modeling, and remarkable photography of the marine world that explores the interaction between people and the ocean environment. From the geological and physical processes that affect the ocean floor to the key habitat zones, flora, and fauna, this is the definitive reference to the world's...

The Oceans

The Oceans
by Ellen J. Prager (Author), Sylvia A. Earle (Author)


"[An] absorbing survey of oceanography . . . [this] elegant study is an excellent resource."­­Publishers Weekly A fascinating examination of the earth's oceans This exhaustive overview of oceanography captures the excitement of discovery in the making. The Oceans opens up the world of ocean science to the general reader and raises significant questions about the future of the ancient, nurturing ocean itself. The oceans cover more than 70 percent of the globe, yet less than 5 percent of that expanse has been explored. But, as Drs. Prager and Earle show in this vivid survey of ocean research, our knowledge is suddenly accelerating: various dives, soundings, computer analyses, and other probes are uncovering amazing facts about the 142 million square miles beneath the...

Ocean: The World's Last Wilderness Revealed

Ocean: The World's Last Wilderness Revealed
by Robert Dinwiddie (Author), Philip Eales (Author), Sue Scott (Author), Michael Scott (Author), Kim Bryan (Author), David Burnie (Author), Frances Dipper (Author), Richard Beatty (Author), Fabien Cousteau (Introduction), Fabien Cousteau (Introduction)


Breathtaking, powerful, and all-encompassing in its sheer scope and visual impact, Ocean sweeps you away on an incredible journey into the depths of our astonishing marine world. As the site where life first formed on Earth, a key element of the climate, and a fragile resource, oceans are of vital importance to our planet. This definitive visual guide to the world's oceans - including the geological and physical processes that affect the ocean floor, the key habitat zones, the rich diversity of marine life - is now available in paperback.

The Ocean Book (Wonders of Creation)

The Ocean Book (Wonders of Creation)
by Frank Sherwin (Author), Bryan Miller (Illustrator)


The oceans may well be Earth's final frontier. These dark and sometimes mysterious waters cover 71 percent of the surface area of the globe and have yet to be fully explored, Under the waves, a watery world of frail splendor, foreboding creatures, and sights beyond imagination awaits.The Ocean Book will teach you about:Giant squid and other "monsters" of the seasCenturies of ocean explorationHydrothermal ventsThe ingredients that make up the oceanHarnessing the ocean's energyIcebergsCoral reefsShips, submarines, and other ocean vesselsThe major ocean currentsEl Nino, whirlpools, and hurricanesHarvesting the oceans' resourcesWhales, dolphins, fish, and other sea creaturesLearning about the oceans and their hidden contents can be exciting and rewarding. The abundance and diversity of life,...

Oceans: Dolphins, sharks, penguins, and more!

Oceans: Dolphins, sharks, penguins, and more!
by Johnna Rizzo (Author), Sylvia A. Earle (Introduction)


Swim with sharks! Dive with dolphins! Stroll the beach with penguins! Young
readers will joyfully immerse themselves in this awesome adventure at sea,
in which stunning National Geographic photos reveal hidden worlds of action
and beauty. We meet 30 favorite sea creatures and explore their watery
homes: playful dolphins, mysterious sharks, graceful sea turtles, waddling
penguins, and dozens of others. Kids will marvel at speedy swimmers on the
hunt, and smile at cuddly scenes of animal families.


To give background on the attention-grabbing photographs, each page is
sprinkled with fun facts and layered with information about ocean wildlife
and environments. Age-appropriate text tells each animal’s story in
language that’s accurate, lively, and...

DK Eyewitness Books: Ocean

DK Eyewitness Books: Ocean
by Miranda MacQuitty (Author)


Now in Paperback! Dive in and discover the watery world covering most of our earth and the amazing wildlife in its depths in Eyewitness: Oceans. Through images, maps and informative text learn about life on the shore to the darkest depths of the ocean floor, including predators and prey, gas and oil exploration, products of the ocean, brave explorers and what the human race can do to help preserve one of the earth's most valuable resources. For over 25 years, DK's Eyewitness books have been the most trusted nonfiction series in classrooms, libraries, and homes around the world. In summer 2014 this award-winning series will get a fresh new look both inside and out. The introduction of paperback editions, eye-catching jackets, and updated interiors ensure that the Eyewitness series will...

Ocean Dynamics and the Carbon Cycle: Principles and Mechanisms

Ocean Dynamics and the Carbon Cycle: Principles and Mechanisms
by Professor Richard G. Williams (Author), Michael J. Follows (Author)


This textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate students presents a multidisciplinary approach to understanding ocean circulation and how it drives and controls marine biogeochemistry and biological productivity at a global scale. Background chapters on ocean physics, chemistry and biology provide students with the tools to examine the range of large-scale physical and dynamic phenomena that control the ocean carbon cycle and its interaction with the atmosphere. Throughout the text observational data is integrated with basic physical theory to address cutting-edge research questions in ocean biogeochemistry. Simple theoretical models, data plots and schematic illustrations summarise key results and connect the physical theory to real observations. Advanced mathematics is provided in...

The Science of Ocean Waves: Ripples, Tsunamis, and Stormy Seas

The Science of Ocean Waves: Ripples, Tsunamis, and Stormy Seas
by J. B. Zirker (Author)


"Powerful ocean waves fascinate the public, and they have made a lot of news lately." With that indisputable observation, scientist J. B. Zirker takes off on a whirlwind tour of the world of waves—from the "ordinary" waves that constantly churn the sea to the rogues or freaks that can rise up seemingly from nowhere to heights of 20 meters or more... and everything in between.Addressing questions most ocean visitors have had and offering new ones for our consideration, The Science of Ocean Waves explains in accessible language how waves are formed, how they move, how they become huge and destructive, and how they're being studied now for clues that will help us plan for the future.Devoting chapters to wind, tides, currents, breakers, tsunamis, forecasting, renewable energy, and El...

The Ocean Almanac

The Ocean Almanac
by Robert Hendrickson (Author)


As expansive as the ocean itself, this entertaining, informative almanac offers hundreds of fascinating essays, anecdotes, facts, legends, and mysteries concerning the sea, its amazing inhabitants--both real and apocryphal--and the men and ships who have sailed it through the ages.

DK Eyewitness Books: Ocean

DK Eyewitness Books: Ocean
by Miranda MacQuitty (Author)


The most trusted nonfiction series on the market, Eyewitness Books provide an in-depth, comprehensive look at their subjects with a unique integration of words and pictures.

DK's classic look at the world's oceans, now reissued with a CD and wall chart.

© 2014 BrightSurf.com