Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

New Study Is First to Show That Pesticides Can Induce Morphological Changes in Vertebrate Animals, Says Pitt Researcher

April 03, 2012

PITTSBURGH- The world's most popular weed killer, Roundup®, can cause amphibians to change shape, according to research published today in Ecological Applications.

Rick Relyea, University of Pittsburgh professor of biological sciences in the Kenneth P. Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences and director of Pitt's Pymatuning Laboratory of Ecology, demonstrated that sublethal and environmentally relevant concentrations of Roundup® caused two species of amphibians to alter their morphology. According to Relyea, this is the first study to show that a pesticide can induce morphological changes in a vertebrate animal.

Relyea set up large outdoor water tanks that contained many of the components of natural wetlands. Some tanks contained caged predators, which emit chemicals that naturally induce changes in tadpole morphology (such as larger tails to better escape predators). After adding tadpoles to each tank, he exposed them to a range of Roundup® concentrations. After 3 weeks, the tadpoles were removed from the tanks.

"It was not surprising to see that the smell of predators in the water induced larger tadpole tails," says Relyea. "That is a normal, adaptive response. What shocked us was that the Roundup® induced the same changes. Moreover, the combination of predators and Roundup® caused the tail changes to be twice as large." Because tadpoles alter their body shape to match their environment, having a body shape that does not fit the environment can put the animals at a distinct disadvantage.

Predators cause tadpoles to change shape by altering the stress hormones of tadpoles, says Relyea. The similar shape changes when exposed to Roundup® suggest that Roundup® may interfere with the hormones of tadpoles and potentially many other animals.

"This discovery highlights the fact that pesticides, which are important for crop production and human health, can have unintended consequences for species that are not the pesticide's target," says Relyea. "Herbicides are not designed to affect animals, but we are learning that they can have a wide range of surprising effects by altering how hormones work in the bodies of animals. This is important because amphibians not only serve as a barometer of the ecosystem's health, but also as an indicator of potential dangers to other species in the food chain, including humans."

For two decades, Relyea has studied community ecology, evolution, disease ecology, and ecotoxicology. He has authored more than 80 scientific articles and book chapters and has presented research seminars around the world. For more information about his laboratory, visit www.pitt.edu/~relyea/

University of Pittsburgh


Related Pesticides Current Events and Pesticides News Articles


Poor communities a 'hotbed' of entrepreneurial creativity, but need help to grow long-term
Necessity can be the mother of invention, but without financial and business development support, many impoverished entrepreneurs can't get past the start-up phase of establishing a unique new business.

Rhythm of 'detox' and feeding genes in fruitflies and mice coordinated by neuropeptide
A 24-hour rhythm of cellular detoxification in flies and mammals is coordinated by a neuropeptide that also drives feeding in both organisms, found a team led by Amita Sehgal, PhD, a professor of Neuroscience and director of the Chronobiology Program, in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

Nation's beekeepers lost 44 percent of bees in 2015-16
Beekeepers across the United States lost 44 percent of their honey bee colonies during the year spanning April 2015 to April 2016, according to the latest preliminary results of an annual nationwide survey.

Pesticide exposure may be ALS risk factor
New research shows environmental pollutants could affect the chances a person will develop amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS.

Elevated bladder cancer risk in New England and arsenic in drinking water
A new study has found that drinking water from private wells, particularly dug wells established during the first half of the 20th century, may have contributed to the elevated risk of bladder cancer that has been observed in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont for over 50 years.

Aerial spraying to combat mosquitos linked to increased risk of autism in children
New research to be presented at the Pediatric Academic Societies 2016 Meeting suggests that the use of airplanes to spray anti-mosquito pesticides may increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder and developmental delays among children.

Phosphorus 'tax' could be huge if tropical farming intensifies
One way to feed the globe's growing population is to ramp up intensive farming in tropical regions, but doing so will require a lot of fertilizer -- particularly phosphorus.

Argentinian researchers develop trap for mosquito that transmits Zika
Argentinian researchers from the Centro de Investigaciones de Plagas e Insecticidas have developed a new trap that can be used to effectively monitor and control the Aedes aegypti mosquito, which is the primary transmitter of Zika, dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever.

Banned EU pesticide affects learning of honeybees but not bumblebees
Exposure to a pesticide banned by the European Union significantly affects the learning of honeybees but has no effect on bumblebees - scientists from the University of Sussex have discovered.

Common pesticides kill amphibian parasites, study finds
The combined effects of pesticides and parasites threaten wildlife populations worldwide (e.g. amphibians, honeybees).
More Pesticides Current Events and Pesticides News Articles

The Pesticide Encyclopedia

The Pesticide Encyclopedia
by Kalyani Paranjape (Editor), Vasant Gowariker (Editor), V. N. Krishnamurthy (Editor), Sudha Gowariker (Editor)


In today's world, food security is an important issue. Food shortages push prices up, impacting upon the health and well-being of hundreds of millions of rural poor across the globe. One way to increase food security is to decrease the amount of yield lost to pests. The Pesticide Encyclopedia provides a comprehensive overview of the fight against pests, covering chemical pesticides, biocontrol agents and biopesticides. It also covers interrelated topics such as pesticide toxicity, legislation and regulation, handling, storage and safety aspects, IPM techniques, resistance management, interaction of pesticides with soil and the environment.

An important reference for policy makers, advisers and students and researchers of crop science, this book also includes useful notes on...

Banned: A History of Pesticides and the Science of Toxicology

Banned: A History of Pesticides and the Science of Toxicology
by Frederick Rowe Davis (Author)


Silent Spring catalyzed an environmental movement in the 1960s and achieved a ban on DDT, but are the alternatives any less toxic?

Rachel Carson’s eloquent book Silent Spring stands as one of the most important books of the twentieth century and inspired important and long-lasting changes in environmental science and government policy. Frederick Rowe Davis thoughtfully sets Carson’s study in the context of the twentieth century, reconsiders her achievement, and analyzes its legacy in light of toxic chemical use and regulation today.
 
Davis examines the history of pesticide development alongside the evolution of the science of toxicology and tracks legislation governing exposure to chemicals across the twentieth century. He affirms the brilliance of Carson’s careful...

The Pesticide Conspiracy

The Pesticide Conspiracy
by Robert Van Den Bosch (Author)


Professor van den Bosch of the University of California was one of the developers of Integrated Pest Management—the use of biological controls, improved pest knowledge and observation, and judicious application of chemicals only when absolutely necessary. His research often suggested that less or no pesticides should be applied, which made him the target of both open and clandestine attack from industry and government figures. In protest, he wrote this passionate account of what Ecology called "the ultimate social disaster of: evolving pesticide-resistant insects, the destruction of their natural predators and parasites, emergent populations of new insect pests, downstream water pollution, atmospheric pollution, the 'accidental' killing of wildlife and people, and the bankruptcies of...

The Myths of Safe Pesticides

The Myths of Safe Pesticides
by André Leu (Author)


The chemical-based conventional agriculture industry claims that the synthesized concoctions they sell as pesticides, herbicides, and insecticides are safe when used as directed, but does the scientific evidence truly support their assertions? Organic agriculturist and lecturer André Leu delves into a wealth of respected scientific journals to present the peer-reviewed evidence that proves the claims of chemical companies and pesticide regulators are not all they seem. Leu translates technical jargon into layman s terms to break down the five most-repeated myths about pesticide safety, refuting them using scientific data. The pesticide industry argues that agriculture, and the global population itself, cannot survive without its products, but Leu warns that we are at risk unless we break...

Our Daily Poison: From Pesticides to Packaging, How Chemicals Have Contaminated the Food Chain and Are Making Us Sick

Our Daily Poison: From Pesticides to Packaging, How Chemicals Have Contaminated the Food Chain and Are Making Us Sick
by Marie-Monique Robin (Author), Allison Schein (Translator), Lara Vergnaud (Translator)


Called “terrifying” by L’Express and “a gripping and urgent book for anyone concerned about democracy, corporate power or public health” by Stuffed and Starved author Raj Patel, Our Daily Poison takes award-winning journalist and filmmaker Marie-Monique Robin across North America, Europe, and Asia. The book documents the many ways in which we encounter a shocking array of chemicals in our everyday lives—from the pesticides that blanket our crops to the additives and plastics that contaminate our food—and their effects over time.

“Full of facts, stories, and wisdom” (The Huffington Post), Our Daily Poison follows the trail of the synthetic molecules in our environment and our food, tracing the ugly history of industrial chemical production, as well as the shoddy...

Pesticides, A Love Story: America's Enduring Embrace of Dangerous Chemicals (Cultureamerica)

Pesticides, A Love Story: America's Enduring Embrace of Dangerous Chemicals (Cultureamerica)
by Michelle Mart (Author)


“Presto! No More Pests!” proclaimed a 1955 article introducing two new pesticides, "miracle-workers for the housewife and back-yard farmer." Easy to use, effective, and safe: who wouldn’t love synthetic pesticides? Apparently most Americans did—and apparently still do. Why—in the face of dire warnings, rising expense, and declining effectiveness—do we cling to our chemicals? Michelle Mart wondered. Her book, a cultural history of pesticide use in postwar America, offers an answer.

America's embrace of synthetic pesticides began when they burst on the scene during World War II and has held steady into the 21st century—for example, more than 90% of soybeans grown in the US in 2008 are Roundup Ready GMOs, dependent upon generous use of the herbicide glyphosate to control...

Pesticide residue analysis by GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS: In fruits and vegetables

Pesticide residue analysis by GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS: In fruits and vegetables
by Rahul Dukale (Author), Sameer Fattepurkar (Author), Shilpa Udamale (Author)


About Book: This book present the work that the study of investigate pesticide residues in market fruit and vegetables. Pesticide residues were determined by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. A Multi-residue and PGR methods were described for simultaneous determination of pesticides commonly used in crop protection. This methods used to determine pesticide residues with a broad range of physicochemical properties in fresh fruits and vegetables related to Organophosphorus (OPP), Organochlorines (OCP), Pyrethroids, and Carbamates mainly used in agriculture. Sample extract was cleaned up by using SOP. Pesticide residues above the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) were detected in some of the samples, but most of sample has no residues or...

DDT and the American Century: Global Health, Environmental Politics, and the Pesticide That Changed the World (The Luther H. Hodges Jr. and Luther H. ... Entrepreneurship, and Public Policy)

DDT and the American Century: Global Health, Environmental Politics, and the Pesticide That Changed the World (The Luther H. Hodges Jr. and Luther H. ... Entrepreneurship, and Public Policy)
by David Kinkela (Author)


Praised for its ability to kill insects effectively and cheaply and reviled as an ecological hazard, DDT continues to engender passion across the political spectrum as one of the world's most controversial chemical pesticides. In DDT and the American Century, David Kinkela chronicles the use of DDT around the world from 1941 to the present with a particular focus on the United States, which has played a critical role in encouraging the global use of the pesticide. Kinkela's study offers a unique approach to understanding both this contentious chemical and modern environmentalism in an international context.



Pollinator Protection a Bee & Pesticide Handbook

Pollinator Protection a Bee & Pesticide Handbook
by A. Johansen Carl (Author), F. Mayer Daniel (Author), J. Connor Lawrence (Editor)


A handbook designed for use by beekeepers, growers, pesticide applicators, county agents, ag consultants, environmentalists, and research scientists and teachers. The book outlines methods of protecting pollinating bee species to ensure adequate crop pollination. Chapters include: History of Bee Poisoning, Bees and their Relatives, Bee Poisoning Symptoms and Signs, Types of Pesticides, Herbicides, Types of Insecticides, Pesticides Used by Beekeepers, Factors Contributing to Bee Poisoning, Mortality Factors Confused with Poisoning, Food Contamination, Other Contaminant Effects, The Science of Bee Poisoning, Legislation/Regulation, Miscellaneous Poisoning Problems, Reducing Pollinator Damage and Death. There are five Appendixes: Sequential Testing for Bee Hazard, Toxicity of Insecticides...

Pesticides: Chemicals That Kill

Pesticides: Chemicals That Kill
by Choice PH


The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) claims there is adequate protection from over exposure to toxic pesticides. That claim may be true for the average consumer who carefully washes fruits and vegetables, but it is definitely not true for farm and ranch workers, especially in developing countries.

This eBook examines the various types of pesticides used in our food supply and the possible ill effects of those chemicals to humans and the environment. We discuss the economic impact of using pesticides versus organic farming, and the primary and secondary benefits of pesticide use.

© 2016 BrightSurf.com