Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Sunlight plus lime juice makes drinking water safer

April 18, 2012
Looking for an inexpensive and effective way to quickly improve the quality of your drinking water? According to a team of researchers from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, sunlight and a twist of lime might do the trick. Researchers found that adding lime juice to water that is treated with a solar disinfection method removed detectable levels of harmful bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) significantly faster than solar disinfection alone. The results are featured in the April 2012 issue of American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

"For many countries, access to clean drinking water is still a major concern. Previous studies estimate that globally, half of all hospital beds are occupied by people suffering from a water-related illness," said Kellogg Schwab, PhD, MS, senior author of the study, director of the Johns Hopkins University Global Water Program and a professor with the Bloomberg School's Department of Environmental Health Sciences. "The preliminary results of this study show solar disinfection of water combined with citrus could be effective at greatly reducing E. coli levels in just 30 minutes, a treatment time on par with boiling and other household water treatment methods. In addition, the 30 milliliters of juice per 2 liters of water amounts to about one-half Persian lime per bottle, a quantity that will likely not be prohibitively expensive or create an unpleasant flavor."

In low-income regions, solar disinfection of water is one of several household water treatment methods to effectively reduce the incidence of diarrheal illness. One method of using sunlight to disinfect water that is recommended by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is known as SODIS (Solar water Disinfection). The SODIS method requires filling 1 or 2 L polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastic) bottles with water and then exposing them to sunlight for at least 6 hours. In cloudy weather, longer exposure times of up to 48 hours may be necessary to achieve adequate disinfection. To determine if one of the active constituents in limes known as psoralenes could enhance solar disinfection of water, Schwab and Alexander Harding, lead author of the study and a medical student at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, looked at microbial reductions after exposure to both sunlight and simulated sunlight. The researchers filled PET plastic bottles with dechlorinated tap water and then added lime juice, lime slurry, or synthetic psoralen and either E. coli, MS2 bacteriophage or murine norovirus. Researchers found that lower levels of both E. coli and MS2 bacteriophage were statistically significant following solar disinfection when either lime juice or lime slurry was added to the water compared to solar disinfection alone. They did find however, that noroviruses were not dramatically reduced using this technique, indicating it is not a perfect solution.

"Many cultures already practice treatment with citrus juice, perhaps indicating that this treatment method will be more appealing to potential SODIS users than other additives such as TiO2 [titanium dioxide] or H2O2[hydrogen peroxide]," suggest the authors of the study. However, they caution, "additional research should be done to evaluate the use of lemon or other acidic fruits, as Persian limes may be difficult to obtain in certain regions."

Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health


Related Disinfection Current Events and Disinfection News Articles


Case study: Nebraska's Ebola isolation and decontamination approach
The Nebraska Biocontainment Unit (NBU), located at the Nebraska Medical Center, has shared its protocol for Ebola patient discharge, handling a patient's body after death and environmental disinfection in the March issue of the American Journal of Infection Control, the official publication of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC).

Hygiene practices affect contact lens case contamination, reports Optometry and Vision Science
Contact lens wearers who don't follow certain hygiene habits have increased bacterial contamination of their contact lens cases, reports a study in the February issue of Optometry and Vision Science, official journal of the American Academy of Optometry.

Gold nanoparticles show promise for early detection of heart attacks
NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering professors have been collaborating with researchers from Peking University on a new test strip that is demonstrating great potential for the early detection of certain heart attacks.

New contaminants found in oil and gas wastewater
Duke University scientists have discovered high levels of two potentially hazardous contaminants, ammonium and iodide, in wastewater being discharged or spilled into streams and rivers from oil and gas operations in Pennsylvania and West Virginia.

Pharmaceuticals, personal care products could taint swimming pools
A new study suggests pharmaceuticals and chemicals from personal care products end up in swimming pools, possibly interacting with chlorine to produce disinfection byproducts with unknown properties and health effects.

How Long Can Ebola Live?
The Ebola virus travels from person to person through direct contact with infected body fluids.

US radiology departments prepare for Ebola
Radiologists from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Emory University School of Medicine have issued a special report on radiology preparedness for handling cases of Ebola virus.

Can HIV be transmitted via manicure instruments?
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) lists numerous potential alternative sources of HIV transmission in addition to the known classical modes for acquiring the AIDS virus.

UPMC investigation into GI scope-related infections changes national guidelines
National guidelines for the cleaning of certain gastrointestinal (GI) scopes are likely to be updated due to findings from UPMC's infection prevention team.

E. coli outbreak at hospital associated with contaminated specialized GI endoscopes
Despite no lapses in the disinfection process recommended by the manufacturer being identified, specialized gastrointestinal endoscopes called duodenoscopes had bacterial contamination associated with an outbreak of a highly resistant strain of E coli at a hospital in Illinois.
More Disinfection Current Events and Disinfection News Articles

Disinfection, Sterilization, and Antisepsis

Disinfection, Sterilization, and Antisepsis
by PhD, MPH Edited By William A. Rutala (Author)




Disinfection in Healthcare

Disinfection in Healthcare
by Peter Hoffman (Author), Graham Ayliffe (Author), Tine Bradley (Author)


Concise, practical guide for everyone involved in the control of hospital infection. Features: * Key information at your fingertips: Concise information is easy to find - now includes references and index. * Completely revised, expanded and updated to reflect changes in new chemical disinfectants. * Reviews the range of new disinfectants used for endoscope reprocessing. New for this edition: * For the first time, includes thermal disinfection applications of washer-disinfectors and healthcare laundry. * Covers new safety regulations. * Reviews new European disinfectant tests. * Outlines the properties of both established and new disinfectants, * Covers the use of disinfectants against the range of healthcare-associated pathogens.

Disinfection and Decontamination: Principles, Applications and Related Issues

Disinfection and Decontamination: Principles, Applications and Related Issues
by Gurusamy Manivannan (Editor)


In the battle between humans and microbes, knowledge may be not only the best weapon but also the best defense. Pulling contributions from 34 experts into a unified presentation, Disinfection and Decontamination: Principles, Applications, and Related Issues provides coverage that is both sophisticated and practical. The book reviews the fundamentals, explores the interdisciplinary nature of the science, and includes discussions of regulatory and legal issues. While the chapters present in depth coverage of infections in hospitals, they also widen their scope to include laboratories outside the healthcare environment. Based on practical experience, the volume examines recent advances in the research, development, and applications for disinfection and decontamination in many different...

Disinfection, Sterlization, and Preservation

Disinfection, Sterlization, and Preservation
by Seymour S. Block (Author)


Examines the chemical and physical agents used for sterilization, and substances used as antiseptics and disinfectants. Topics new to this edition include the measuring of controlling hepatitis, compounds inactivating AIDS, germfree environments, and antimicrobial agents in agriculture.

Disinfection of Root Canal Systems: The Treatment of Apical Periodontitis

Disinfection of Root Canal Systems: The Treatment of Apical Periodontitis
by Nestor Cohenca (Editor)


Clean root canal systems are essential for successful endodontic treatment. With contributions from leading endodontists from around the world, Dr. Nestor Cohenca here presents the etiology of endodontic disease caused by the endodontic biofilm and all therapies available to predictably disinfect the root canal system, thus increasing successful endodontic outcomes. Disinfection of Root Canal Systems: The Treatment of Apical Periodontitis is an evidence-based manual that describes root canal anatomy, the endodontic biofilm, and the role of disinfection before presenting the most up-to-date methods of irrigation and disinfection. Individual chapters are devoted to each method, such as positive pressure irrigation, apical negative pressure irrigation, sonic activation, photodynamic therapy,...

Disinfection and Disinfectants (An Introduction to the Study Of): Together with an Account of the Chemical Substances Used As Antiseptics and Preservatives

Disinfection and Disinfectants (An Introduction to the Study Of): Together with an Account of the Chemical Substances Used As Antiseptics and Preservatives
by Samuel Rideal (Author)


This book was originally published prior to 1923, and represents a reproduction of an important historical work, maintaining the same format as the original work. While some publishers have opted to apply OCR (optical character recognition) technology to the process, we believe this leads to sub-optimal results (frequent typographical errors, strange characters and confusing formatting) and does not adequately preserve the historical character of the original artifact. We believe this work is culturally important in its original archival form. While we strive to adequately clean and digitally enhance the original work, there are occasionally instances where imperfections such as blurred or ...

Disinfection By-Products and Human Health

Disinfection By-Products and Human Health
by Steve E Hrudey (Editor), Jeffrey WA Charrois (Editor)


Disinfection By-Products and Human Health is based on contributions from a leading group of international and local researchers and drinking water utility personnel, most of whom, in May 2011 attended two AWA sponsored forums in Australia. Participants took part in workshops on Disinfection By-Products (DBPs) and Human Health; one convened at Ozwater'11 in Adelaide, Australia, the other hosted by the Curtin Water Quality Research Centre (CWQRC), Perth, Australia and co-sponsored by Curtin University, Water Corporation (Western Australia), GHD Group Pty Limited, and Water Quality Research Australia (WQRA). The contributions are prepared to facilitate communication with practitioners, as well as with researchers, making use of overview illustrations rather than dense text or data tables....

Ultraviolet Disinfection Handbook, The

Ultraviolet Disinfection Handbook, The
by James Bolton (Author), Christine Cotton (Author)


With the explosion of interest in UV disinfection, the USEPA fully mandates the use of UV disinfection in the new LT2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rules. This Handbook is designed to provide a practical introduction to the subject of UV disinfection and UV reactors. This Handbook will be of value to engineering and scientific consultants, water treatment operators and managers, government regulatory staff, and students and faculty members in undergraduate science and engineering programs. Terminology is carefully defined and essential references are included.

Chlorination and Chloramination Handbook (Water Disinfection Series)

Chlorination and Chloramination Handbook (Water Disinfection Series)
by Gerald Cornell (Author), Gerald F. Connell (Author)


Book by Cornell, Gerald, Connell, Gerald F.

Disinfection of Pipelines and Water Storage Facilities (Science and Technology)

Disinfection of Pipelines and Water Storage Facilities (Science and Technology)
by William Lauer (Author), Fred Sanchez (Author)


This field guide provides a handy, practical how-to book for drinking water personnel involved in disinfection processes. The book gives water operators common problems and provides solutions on disinfection procedures. Coverage includes chapters on chlorination chemicals, disinfection of new pipelines, pipe line repairs and storage facilities and highly chlorinated water; plus underwater inspections of storage facilities and their disinfection issues; a chapter on pipeline chlorination simplified and indexes on calculations of tank volumes and pipleline continuous feed method.

© 2015 BrightSurf.com