Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Regular exercise could reduce complications of sickle cell trait

April 26, 2012

Reducing oxidative stress through exercise may eventually be used to treat sickle cell disease

SAN DIEGO-Sickle cell disease (SCD), an inherited condition that causes red blood cells to sometimes deform into a crescent shape, affects an estimated 100,000 Americans, typically those of African descent. However, far more have sickle cell trait (SCT), caused when individuals carry just a single copy of the disease-causing mutation in their genes. Rather than all their red blood cells being affected, those with SCT carry a mix of affected red blood cells and normal ones. Previously, researchers and physicians had assumed that those with SCT were immune from the increased burden of sickness and death that those with SCD carry. However, recent research suggests that the same morbidity and mortality that follow SCD patients at an increased rate also affect those with SCT to a lesser extent.

Nearly all these adverse effects are consequences of oxidative stress, a condition in which free radicals overwhelm the body's natural antioxidants. In healthy individuals, oxidative stress has been linked with conditions including cancer, heart disease, and simply aging; in sickle cell disease patients, oxidative stress is thought to play a role in causing the inflammation, problem with the linings of blood vessels, and blood cell blockages that cause complications from this disease.

However, scientists have long known that exercise increases the level of antioxidants present in the body, defending against oxidative stress. In a new study, researchers compare the effects of exhaustive exercise on people with SCT who exercise regularly with those who don't. They found that training regularly seems to offset the burden of exhaustive exercise by lowering the levels of molecules associated with oxidative stress, increasing antioxidant molecules, and increasing nitric oxide, a molecule important for opening blood vessels which could play a role in preventing the blood vessel occlusion that sometimes occurs in SCD and SCT.

The study is the result of efforts undertaken by Vincent Pialoux, Erica N. Chirico, Camille Faes, Emeline Aufradet, and Cyril Martin of the University Lyon I, Leonard Feasson of the University of Saint-Etienne, and Laurent Messonnier of the University of Savoie. An abstract of their study entitled, "Physical Activity Blunts Oxidative Stress Reponse to Exercise in Sickle Cell Trait Carriers," will be discussed at the meeting Experimental Biology 2012, being held April 21-25 at the San Diego Convention Center. The abstract is sponsored by the American Physiological Society (APS), one of six scientific societies sponsoring the conference which last year attracted some 14,000 attendees.

Training Reduces Oxidative Stress

Dr. Pialoux, who led the study, and his French colleagues collaborated with colleagues at the University of Yaounde I in Yaounde, Cameroon, where the rate of SCD and SCT is significantly higher than in France. The researchers recruited 18 volunteers with SCT and 22 others without this trait. Each group was further subdivided into those who had exercised consistently for several years by playing soccer for at least eight hours per week and those who considered themselves sedentary for at least the last two years.

Each volunteer's blood was tested for the presence of molecules that signal oxidative stress, others that act as antioxidants, and nitric oxide metabolites. These volunteers then pedaled on a stationary bicycle, with the researchers ratcheting up the workout's intensity every few minutes until the volunteers bowed out from exhaustion. After the workout, the researchers tested the volunteers' blood again at regular intervals to assess the same molecules.

Results showed that well-trained volunteers with SCT had significantly lower levels of molecules associated with oxidative stress, higher levels of antioxidant molecules, and higher levels of nitric oxide metabolites than untrained volunteers with SCT.

Results Could Apply to SCD

These results suggest that regular exercise might help combat the problems likely caused by oxidative stress that increase morbidity and mortality in people with SCT, Pialoux says. "In this population, regular physical activity might be seen as a treatment," he adds.

The findings could hold promise for patients with SCD as well, he says. Since exercise is known to trigger the painful and damaging episodes known as sickle cell crisis, in which large red blood cells become sickled and block blood vessels, doctors often advise SCD patients to avoid exercise. However, if these patients exercise regularly and become trained over time, the associated reduction in oxidative stress might improve their condition, Pialoux explains.

"We think that regular physical exercise that's controlled by a physician and performed at low intensity could be a strategy to limit the disease burden in SCD patients," he says. He and his colleagues are currently testing this strategy in animal models of the disease, with plans to eventually test human subjects.

Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology


Related Oxidative Stress Current Events and Oxidative Stress News Articles


High blood pressure linked to short-, long-term exposure to some air pollutants
Both short- and long-term exposure to some air pollutants commonly associated with coal burning, vehicle exhaust, airborne dust and dirt are associated with the development of high blood pressure, according to new research in the American Heart Association's journal Hypertension.

The deadly toxin acrolein has a useful biological role
Scientists from RIKEN in Japan have discovered that acrolein--a toxic substance produced in cells during times of oxidative stress--in fact may play a role in preventing the process of fibrillation, an abnormal clumping of peptides that has been associated with Alzheimer's disease and other neural diseases.

Ever-changing moods may be toxic to the brain of bipolar patients
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe and complex mental illness with a strong genetic component that affects 2% of the world population. The disorder is characterized by episodes of mania and depression that may alternate throughout life and usually first occur in the early 20s.

New study surveys genetic changes linked with Parkinson's disease
After Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease (PD) is the leading neurodegenerative disorder, affecting close to a million Americans, with 50,000 new cases diagnosed every year. A progressive disorder of the nervous system affecting movement, PD typically strikes adults in mid-life.

Researchers identify genes linked to the effects of mood and stress on longevity
The visible impacts of depression and stress that can be seen in a person's face -- and contribute to shorter lives -- can also be found in alterations in genetic activity, according to newly published research.

Probiotic bacteria could provide some protection against cadmium poisoning
Oral administration of certain probiotics reduced uptake of the heavy metal, cadmium, in the intestines of mice, and in a laboratory experiment using human intestinal cells.

Altered purine metabolism linked to depression
People suffering from major depressive disorder may have altered purine metabolism, according to a new study from the University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital.

Can sesame-based ingredients reduce oxidative stress?
The antioxidant boosting properties of sesame, and especially sesame oil, can have a significant effect on oxidative stress, improving human health, according to a systematic review published in Journal of Medicinal Food, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers.

New research shows sensitivity to oxidative stress is not always linked to aging
A study published in the US journal, Aging by the University of Surrey and University of Rochester has made an important breakthrough in understanding the impact of oxygen exposure on the aging process of mammal cells.

New computer program can help uncover hidden genomic alterations that drive cancers
Cancer is rarely the result of a single mutation in a single gene.
More Oxidative Stress Current Events and Oxidative Stress News Articles

Oxidative Stress: What is Oxidative Stress?

Oxidative Stress: What is Oxidative Stress?
by Matthew Jordan (Author)


The term oxidative stress has been linked to multiple diseases and aging. Oxidative stress and managing free radicals through antioxidants has also become big business and it is important that consumers educate themselves on effective oxidative stress management. This book will provide a simple definition of oxidative stress along with sources of oxidative stress management.

How Not to Die: Discover the Foods Scientifically Proven to Prevent and Reverse Disease

How Not to Die: Discover the Foods Scientifically Proven to Prevent and Reverse Disease
by Michael Greger (Author), Gene Stone (Author)


From the physician behind the wildly popular website NutritionFacts.org, How Not to Die reveals the groundbreaking scientific evidence behind the only diet that can prevent and reverse many of the causes of disease-related death.The vast majority of premature deaths can be prevented through simple changes in diet and lifestyle. In How Not to Die, Dr. Michael Greger, the internationally-renowned nutrition expert, physician, and founder of NutritionFacts.org, examines the fifteen top causes of premature death in America-heart disease, various cancers, diabetes, Parkinson's, high blood pressure, and more-and explains how nutritional and lifestyle interventions can sometimes trump prescription pills and other pharmaceutical and surgical approaches, freeing us to live healthier lives.The...

Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Protection: The Science of Free Radical Biology and Disease

Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Protection: The Science of Free Radical Biology and Disease
by Donald Armstrong (Editor), Robert D. Stratton (Editor)


Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Protection: The Science of Free Radical Biology and< Disease provides an overview of the basic principles of free radical formation. The text delves into free radical formation in molecular biology and its effect on subcellular damage, as well as the role of antioxidant reserves as a protective mechanism. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Protection begins with a historical perspective of pioneers in oxidative stress with an introductory section that explains the basic principles related to oxidative stress in biochemistry and molecular biology, demonstrating both pathways and biomarkers. This section also covers diagnostic imaging and differential diagnostics. The following section covers psychological, physiologic, pharmacologic and pathologic correlates....

Autism: Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Immune Abnormalities

Autism: Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Immune Abnormalities
by Abha Chauhan (Author), Ved Chauhan (Author), Ted Brown (Author)


In 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued an autism alarm, estimating that one in 150 children may be affected by autism spectrum disorder. Autism has been treated mainly with technical approaches: principally applied behavior analysis and psychopharmacology. The findings in this book implicate oxidative stress as a common feature in autism, and support the claim that oxidative stress and intracellular redox imbalance can be induced or triggered in autism by exposure to certain environmental agents. Such findings could point the way to new treatment approaches in autism. Autism: Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Immune Abnormalities brings together a wealth of cutting-edge evidence that is already influencing how we treat this serious condition. It looks at the...

Studies on Respiratory Disorders (Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice)

Studies on Respiratory Disorders (Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice)
by Gautam Kumar Saha (Editor), Surinder K. Jindal (Editor), Shyam Biswal (Editor), Peter J. Barnes (Editor), Ruby Pawankar (Editor)


This volume covers data describing the role of free radicals and antioxidants in respiratory disorders, including the data that deal with clinical and pre-clinical trials. Chapters describe the relationship of oxidative stress to a number of respiratory and pulmonary conditions from a basic science and clinical perspective, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, acute lung injury, pulmonary hypertension, toxicity and fibrosis, cancer and asbestosis. The book also discusses the use of conventional biomarkers of oxidative stress and breath condensates as adjuncts to classical laboratory testing, the effect of antioxidants on cellular protection, as well as the development of novel antioxidant modalities.

  Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Cancer: Dietary Approaches for Cancer Prevention
by Ah-Ng Tony Kong (Editor)


Increasing scientific evidence suggests that the majority of diseases including cancer are driven by oxidative stress and inflammation, attributed to environmental factors. These factors either drive genetic mutations or epigenetically modify expression of key regulatory genes. These changes can occur as early as gestational fetal development, and major questions remain as to how dietary/nutritional phytochemical factors biochemically interact with such genetic and epigenetic events. With chapters written by international experts, Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Cancer: Dietary Approaches for Cancer Prevention examines the latest developments on the effects of various dietary phytochemicals.

Divided into nine sections, the book begins with the basic mechanisms of...

Studies on Atherosclerosis (Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice)

Studies on Atherosclerosis (Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice)
by Martin Rodriguez-Porcel (Editor), Alejandro R. Chade (Editor), Jordan D. Miller (Editor)


This volume explores the role free radicals and antioxidants within the development of vascular disease, examining fundamental research and translating preclinical knowledge to clinical trials. The expertly authored chapters describe the relationship of oxidative stress to atherosclerosis and the cardiovascular system, exploring its role in cardiac fibrosis, renovascular disease, hypertension, and regulation of blood pressure and cerebral vascular tone. The concluding chapter discusses the current state of clinical research, contextualizing clinical trials within the existing theoretical framework and analyzing attempts to preserve oxidant stress under various conditions. 
With its concise and authoritative analysis of pre-clinical research and clinical results, Studies in...

  Vitamin D: Oxidative Stress, Immunity, and Aging (Oxidative Stress and Disease)
by Adrian F. Gombart (Editor)


Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency is a worldwide, public health problem in both developed and developing countries. Rickets among infants has reemerged. Low levels of vitamin D are associated with increased risk and mortality from cancer. At the same time, the beneficial effects of vitamin D on a host of conditions have recently been discovered. Focusing on areas not extensively covered in other comparable books, Vitamin D: Oxidative Stress, Immunity, and Aging highlights the most recent research findings on the impact of this nutrient in oxidative stress, immunity, and aging. A state-of-the-art compilation of essential information, this book explores: Vitamin D and its genomic and nongenomic effects, the role of therapeutic analogs in treating disease, and the production of vitamin...

Redox-Active Therapeutics (Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice)

Redox-Active Therapeutics (Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice)
by Ines Batinic-Haberle (Editor), Julio S. Reboucas (Editor), Ivan Spasojevic (Editor)


This essential volume comprehensively discusses redox-active therapeutics, focusing particularly on their molecular design, mechanistic, pharmacological and medicinal aspects.  The first section of the book describes the basic aspects of the chemistry and biology of redox-active drugs and includes a brief overview of the redox-based pathways involved in cancer and the medical aspects of redox-active drugs, assuming little in the way of prior knowledge. Subsequent sections and chapters describe more specialized aspects of central nervous system injuries, neurodegenerative diseases, pain, radiation injury and radioprotection (such as of brain, lungs, head and neck and erectile function) and neglected diseases (e.g., leishmaniasis). It encompasses several major classes of redox-active...

Inflammation, Aging, and Oxidative Stress (Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice)

Inflammation, Aging, and Oxidative Stress (Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice)
by Stephen C. Bondy (Editor), Arezoo Campbell (Editor)


The book describes the major degenerative processes and pathologies exacerbated by senescence and how they can be alleviated through retardation of cellular aging. Topics discussed include neurodegenerative disease, protein oxidation, cerebrovascular disease, particle-induced inflammation and cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease, ovarian aging, dietary and endogenous anti-oxidants in management of Parkinson’s disease, and effects of exercise on oxidation and inflammation. The nineteen expertly authored chapters are organized into three sections in order to present a complete picture to the reader: Age Related Cellular Events, Role of Inflammatory and Oxidative Processes in Age-Related Diseases, and Retardation of Cellular Aging.Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Age-Related...

© 2016 BrightSurf.com