Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Regular exercise could reduce complications of sickle cell trait

April 26, 2012
Reducing oxidative stress through exercise may eventually be used to treat sickle cell disease

SAN DIEGO-Sickle cell disease (SCD), an inherited condition that causes red blood cells to sometimes deform into a crescent shape, affects an estimated 100,000 Americans, typically those of African descent. However, far more have sickle cell trait (SCT), caused when individuals carry just a single copy of the disease-causing mutation in their genes. Rather than all their red blood cells being affected, those with SCT carry a mix of affected red blood cells and normal ones. Previously, researchers and physicians had assumed that those with SCT were immune from the increased burden of sickness and death that those with SCD carry. However, recent research suggests that the same morbidity and mortality that follow SCD patients at an increased rate also affect those with SCT to a lesser extent.

Nearly all these adverse effects are consequences of oxidative stress, a condition in which free radicals overwhelm the body's natural antioxidants. In healthy individuals, oxidative stress has been linked with conditions including cancer, heart disease, and simply aging; in sickle cell disease patients, oxidative stress is thought to play a role in causing the inflammation, problem with the linings of blood vessels, and blood cell blockages that cause complications from this disease.

However, scientists have long known that exercise increases the level of antioxidants present in the body, defending against oxidative stress. In a new study, researchers compare the effects of exhaustive exercise on people with SCT who exercise regularly with those who don't. They found that training regularly seems to offset the burden of exhaustive exercise by lowering the levels of molecules associated with oxidative stress, increasing antioxidant molecules, and increasing nitric oxide, a molecule important for opening blood vessels which could play a role in preventing the blood vessel occlusion that sometimes occurs in SCD and SCT.

The study is the result of efforts undertaken by Vincent Pialoux, Erica N. Chirico, Camille Faes, Emeline Aufradet, and Cyril Martin of the University Lyon I, Leonard Feasson of the University of Saint-Etienne, and Laurent Messonnier of the University of Savoie. An abstract of their study entitled, "Physical Activity Blunts Oxidative Stress Reponse to Exercise in Sickle Cell Trait Carriers," will be discussed at the meeting Experimental Biology 2012, being held April 21-25 at the San Diego Convention Center. The abstract is sponsored by the American Physiological Society (APS), one of six scientific societies sponsoring the conference which last year attracted some 14,000 attendees.

Training Reduces Oxidative Stress

Dr. Pialoux, who led the study, and his French colleagues collaborated with colleagues at the University of Yaounde I in Yaounde, Cameroon, where the rate of SCD and SCT is significantly higher than in France. The researchers recruited 18 volunteers with SCT and 22 others without this trait. Each group was further subdivided into those who had exercised consistently for several years by playing soccer for at least eight hours per week and those who considered themselves sedentary for at least the last two years.

Each volunteer's blood was tested for the presence of molecules that signal oxidative stress, others that act as antioxidants, and nitric oxide metabolites. These volunteers then pedaled on a stationary bicycle, with the researchers ratcheting up the workout's intensity every few minutes until the volunteers bowed out from exhaustion. After the workout, the researchers tested the volunteers' blood again at regular intervals to assess the same molecules.

Results showed that well-trained volunteers with SCT had significantly lower levels of molecules associated with oxidative stress, higher levels of antioxidant molecules, and higher levels of nitric oxide metabolites than untrained volunteers with SCT.

Results Could Apply to SCD

These results suggest that regular exercise might help combat the problems likely caused by oxidative stress that increase morbidity and mortality in people with SCT, Pialoux says. "In this population, regular physical activity might be seen as a treatment," he adds.

The findings could hold promise for patients with SCD as well, he says. Since exercise is known to trigger the painful and damaging episodes known as sickle cell crisis, in which large red blood cells become sickled and block blood vessels, doctors often advise SCD patients to avoid exercise. However, if these patients exercise regularly and become trained over time, the associated reduction in oxidative stress might improve their condition, Pialoux explains.

"We think that regular physical exercise that's controlled by a physician and performed at low intensity could be a strategy to limit the disease burden in SCD patients," he says. He and his colleagues are currently testing this strategy in animal models of the disease, with plans to eventually test human subjects.

Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology


Related Oxidative Stress Current Events and Oxidative Stress News Articles


Phthalates heighten risk for childhood asthma
Researchers at the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health at the Mailman School of Public Health are the first to demonstrate an association between childhood asthma and prenatal exposure to two phthalates used in a diverse array of household products. Results appear online in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives.

'Disease in a dish' approach could aid Huntington's disease discovery efforts
Creating induced pluripotent stem cells or iPS cells allows researchers to establish "disease in a dish" models of conditions ranging from Alzheimer's disease to diabetes.

Cholecystokinin octapeptide antagonizes apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelial cells
Oxidative stress may cause retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell apoptosis. Nitric oxide and superoxide react to produce peroxynitrite, which, along with its derivatives, are strong oxidants. Cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 (CCK-8) can protect cholinergic neurons against basal forebrain lesion caused by brain injury.

Single enzyme is necessary for development of diabetes
An enzyme called 12-LO promotes the obesity-induced oxidative stress in the pancreatic cells that leads to pre-diabetes, and diabetes.

Oxidative Stress Is Significant Predictor for Hip Fracture, Research Shows
Oxidative stress is a significant predictor for hip fracture in postmenopausal women, according to new research led by University of Cincinnati (UC) epidemiologists.

Treating Alzheimer's disease with Yizhijiannao granules by inhibiting neuronal apoptosis
Previous studies have shown that Yizhijiannao granule can enhance cognitive performance in Alzheimer's disease patients and Alzheimer's disease-model mice.

Analysis of African plant reveals possible treatment for aging brain
For hundreds of years, healers in São Tomé e Príncipe-an island off the western coast of Africa-have prescribed cata-manginga leaves and bark to their patients. These pickings from the Voacanga africana tree are said to decrease inflammation and ease the symptoms of mental disorders.

NUS study shows effectiveness of common anti-malarial drug in controlling asthma
Asthmatic patients may soon have a more effective way to control the condition, thanks to a new pharmacological discovery by researchers from the National University of Singapore (NUS).

Antioxidant Biomaterial Promotes Healing
When a foreign material like a medical device or surgical implant is put inside the human body, the body always responds.

BU researchers discover that Klotho is neuroprotective against Alzheimer's disease
Boston University School of Medicine researchers may have found a way to delay or even prevent Alzheimer's disease (AD).
More Oxidative Stress Current Events and Oxidative Stress News Articles

Oxidative Stress: What is Oxidative Stress?

Oxidative Stress: What is Oxidative Stress?
by Matthew Jordan (Author)


The term oxidative stress has been linked to multiple diseases and aging. Oxidative stress and managing free radicals through antioxidants has also become big business and it is important that consumers educate themselves on effective oxidative stress management. This book will provide a simple definition of oxidative stress along with sources of oxidative stress management.

Molecular Basis of Oxidative Stress: Chemistry, Mechanisms, and Disease Pathogenesis

Molecular Basis of Oxidative Stress: Chemistry, Mechanisms, and Disease Pathogenesis
by Frederick A. Villamena (Author)


Sets the stage for the development of better diagnostic techniques and therapeuticsFeaturing contributions from an international team of leading clinicians and biomedical researchers, Molecular Basis of Oxidative Stress reviews the molecular and chemical bases of oxidative stress, describing how oxidative stress can lead to the development of cancer and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, it explains the potential role of free radicals in both the diagnosis and the development of therapeutics to treat disease.Molecular Basis of Oxidative Stress is logically organized, beginning with a comprehensive discussion of the fundamental chemistry of reactive species. Next, the book:Presents new mechanistic insights into how oxidative damage of biomolecules occursExamines how...

Oxidative Stress and Cardiorespiratory Function (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology / Neuroscience and Respiration)

Oxidative Stress and Cardiorespiratory Function (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology / Neuroscience and Respiration)
by Mieczyslaw Pokorski (Editor)


Cardiorespiratory function is prominently affected by oxidative stress. Cigarette smoking is the archetype of oxidative and nitrative stress and free radical formation. New adverse effects of smoking keep on propping up in research. The chapters provide the comprehensive view of new developments in this area regarding cardiovascular and lung function and muscle catabolism. Alterations in inflammatory cytokines and proteins as well as degradation of muscle proteins due to smoking, by far unrecognized, caused by oxidative stress also are presented. Much less is known about the effect of cognitive stress on vagally-mediated cardiorespiratory function and surprisingly, on vagal immune pathway. The experimental studies also show that clinically important meconium aspiration syndrome contains...

Oxidative Stress: Causes, Role in Diseases and Biological Effects (Cell Biology Research Progress)

Oxidative Stress: Causes, Role in Diseases and Biological Effects (Cell Biology Research Progress)
by Cassidy Croft (Author), Cassidy Croft (Editor)




Oxidative Stress and Free Radical Damage in Neurology (Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice)

Oxidative Stress and Free Radical Damage in Neurology (Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice)
by Natan Gadoth (Editor), Hans Hilmar Göbel (Editor)


The role of free radicals and oxidative stress in neurological disorders has only recently been recognized, leaving clinical neurologists to seek in vain for information on the subject even in major textbooks. What published information there is may consist of brief reminders of the possible association of superoxidase dismutase with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and nitrous oxide with migraine. With luck they may also find information on the purported role of free radicals in the pathogenesis of traumatic brain injury. Oxidative Stress and Free Radical Damage in Neurology sets the record straight, focusing on clinical and research issues regarding the interplay of free radicals and the human nervous system. Crucially, the chapters cover numerous antioxidants and their possible...

Oxidative Stress in Cancer Biology and Therapy (Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice)

Oxidative Stress in Cancer Biology and Therapy (Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice)
by Douglas R. Spitz (Editor), Kenneth J. Dornfeld (Editor), Koyamangalath Krishnan (Editor), David Gius (Editor)


During the last 30 years it has become clearly evident that oxidative stress and free radical biology play key roles in carcinogenesis, cancer progression, cancer therapy, and normal tissue damage that limits treatment efficacy during cancer therapy. These mechanistic observations have led to the realization that free radical biology and cancer biology are two integrally related fields of investigation that can greatly benefit from cross fertilization of theoretical constructs. The current volume of scientific papers was assembled under the heading of Oxidative Stress in Cancer Biology and Therapy in order to stimulate the discussion of how the knowledge gained in the emerging field of oxidative stress in cancer biology can be utilized to more effectively design interventions to enhance...

Studies on Respiratory Disorders (Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice)

Studies on Respiratory Disorders (Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice)
by Nirmal K. Ganguly (Editor), Surinder K. Jindal (Editor), Shyam Biswal (Editor), Peter J. Barnes (Editor), Ruby Pawankar (Editor)


This volume covers data describing the role of free radicals and antioxidants in respiratory disorders, including the data that deal with clinical and pre-clinical trials. Chapters describe the relationship of oxidative stress to a number of respiratory and pulmonary conditions from a basic science and clinical perspective, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, acute lung injury, pulmonary hypertension, toxicity and fibrosis, cancer and asbestosis. The book also discusses the use of conventional biomarkers of oxidative stress and breath condensates as adjuncts to classical laboratory testing, the effect of antioxidants on cellular protection, as well as the development of novel antioxidant modalities.

Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Mechanisms in Obesity, Diabetes, and the Metabolic Syndrome (Oxidative Stress and Disease)

Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Mechanisms in Obesity, Diabetes, and the Metabolic Syndrome (Oxidative Stress and Disease)
by Helmut Sies (Editor)


Characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, metabolic syndrome is associated with the risks of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Obesity, which increases the incidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and subsequently leads to increased stress and inflammation, appears to play a central role in the progression of the syndrome. Evidence of inflammatory processes in accumulated fat appears to be an early initiator of metabolic syndrome. Likewise, the more active angiotensin system in obesity may contribute to even greater oxidative stress that serves as a key signaling event in vascular remodeling. These factors strengthen obesity's association with oxidative stress.

Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Mechanisms in Obesity,...

Oxidative Stress in Aging: From Model Systems to Human Diseases (Aging Medicine)

Oxidative Stress in Aging: From Model Systems to Human Diseases (Aging Medicine)
by Satomi Miwa (Editor), Kenneth Bruce Beckman (Editor), Florian Muller (Editor)


Human aging is a complex phenomenon. This state-of-the-art book discusses the role of free radicals in aging in different animal models, as well as the relevance of free radicals on age-related diseases and pathological conditions in humans (following an introduction section of the basics and theory of free radicals). In addition, the major interventions trials of antioxidant supplements in age-related disease, cancer and so forth are reviewed and discussed.

Oxidative Stress and Wound Healing in Type 2 Diabetics with Foot Ulcer: Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patients

Oxidative Stress and Wound Healing in Type 2 Diabetics with Foot Ulcer: Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patients
by Elizabeth Bolajoko (Author), Kensese Mossanda (Author)


Lower-limb infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its complications including diabetic foot ulcer. Persistent hyperglycaemia leads to an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through glucose auto-oxidation, sorbitol pathway and protein glycation. This study investigated the effects of selenium, Vitamins C & E supplementations on OS indices: 4-hydoxy-2′-nonenal (4-HNE), lipid peroxides (LPO) and 8–hydroxy–2΄–deoxyguanosine (8–OHdG) as well as antioxidant defence system: Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total antioxidant status (TAS)on wound healing in diabetic ulcers in both experimental and clinical models. Data...

© 2014 BrightSurf.com