Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Oil palm surging source of greenhouse gas emissions

April 27, 2012
Continued expansion of industrial-scale oil palm plantations on the island of Borneo will become a leading cause of greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 unless strong forest and peatland protections are enacted and enforced, according to a National Academy of Sciences study.

The study, conducted by Yale and Stanford researchers, found that about two-thirds of lands outside of protected areas in the Ketapang District of West Kalimantan Province in Indonesian Borneo are leased to oil palm agribusiness companies. If these leases are converted to oil palm at current expansion rates, by 2020 monotypic palm stands will occupy more than a third of regional lands and intact forests will decline to less than 5 percent from approximately 15 percent in 2008.

The researchers were surprised to learn that 50 percent of oil palm plantations were established on peatlands through last year. When peat soils are drained for oil palm cultivation, they begin to release carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The study found that if oil palm expansion continues, with no restrictions on peatland development, almost 90 percent of oil palm's greenhouse gas emissions will come from peatlands by 2020.

"Preventing oil palm establishment on peatlands will be critical for any greenhouse gas emissions-reduction strategy," said Kimberly Carlson, a doctoral candidate at the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies and co-author of the study with Lisa Curran, a professor of anthropology at Stanford University.

Carlson pointed out that even if future oil palm expansion is halted in forests and peatlands, greenhouse gas emissions will decline by only 3 percent to 4 percent. She said that instead of simply placing a moratorium on oil palm expansion, "protecting secondary and logged forests, as well as peatlands, is the strategy that most effectively reduces carbon emissions and maintains forest cover."

The researchers argue that regional emissions could be reduced by up to 21 percent by 2020 through the prevention of oil palm encroachment, wildfire, logging, and agricultural expansion on intact and previously logged forested lands and peatlands. But even in the best-case scenario for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, 28 percent of 1 million acres of community lands will be converted to oil palm.

"Unfortunately forest and peatland protection does not automatically generate benefits for local communities," said Curran. "To become truly sustainable, oil palm companies must not only protect existing forests and carbon stocks, but should ensure that any land acquired from resident smallholder farmers and communities meets the criteria for free, prior and informed consent, and is equitably and transparently compensated."

Incorporating people, forests and carbon in their assessment required building a spatially explicit simulation model from scratch. The researchers started with a model of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon developed by co-author Britaldo Soares-Filho and his team, and rebuilt it for the drastically different environment of Indonesian Borneo.

Palm oil is a form of edible vegetable oil used in many products, including cookies, crackers, popcorn, frozen dinners, low-fat dairy, candy, soap and cosmetics. Indonesia, currently the global leader in palm-oil production, aims to increase the area for oil palm cultivation to 45 million acres by 2020 from 24 million acres in 2009, yet little is known about the influence of oil palm expansion on people and ecosystems.

"Early on we decided to include people in our assessment," said Carlson. "Local residents and their lands are often forgotten in conversations about forests."

###

The study, "Committed Carbon Emissions Deforestation, and Community Land Conversion from Oil Palm Plantation Expansion in West Kalimantan, Indonesia," was funded by the Natural Aeronautics and Space Administration's Land Cover/Land-Use Change Program, John D. and Catherine T. McArthur Foundation, National Science Foundation, East-West Center, and Stanford and Yale universities.

Yale University


Related Oil Palm Current Events and Oil Palm News Articles


Partially logged rainforests could be emitting more carbon than previously thought
Global carbon emissions from forests could have been underestimated because calculations have not fully accounted for the dead wood from logging.

Deforestation is messing with our weather -- and our food
New research published today in Nature Communications provides insight into how large-scale deforestation could impact global food production by triggering changes in local climate.

York scientists question tropical protected areas' role under climate change
New research led by University of York scientists highlights how poor connectivity of protected area (PA) networks in Southeast Asia may prevent lowland species from responding to climate change.

How to make palm oil without destroying forests
The versatility of palm oil has led to its use in not just food products but also in everyday goods from lipstick to laundry detergent.

A novel shuttle for fatty acids
Oils from plant seeds provide the basis for many aspects of modern life that are taken for granted, being used to make cooking oil, soap, fuel, cosmetics, medicines, flooring, and many other everyday products.

New hope for Borneo's orangutans despite climate change and deforestation threats
New conservation research has discovered that up to 74% of current orang-utan habitat in Borneo could become unsuitable for this endangered species due to 21st century climate or land-cover changes.

Research partnership is key to biodiversity conservation
A new policy paper led by University of York scientists, in partnership with Proforest, aims to increase awareness among researchers of the High Conservation Value (HCV) approach to safeguarding ecosystems and species.

Malaysia's 'Smart Villages' and 9 other proven ideas for sustainable development
As nations zero in on the UN's post-2015 global Sustainable Development Goals, innovations being successfully pioneered and demonstrated in Malaysia offer several proven tactical ideas for improving the world, says an influential international sustainable development networking organization.

Newly identified gene provides reliable visual cue for oil palm fruit ripeness
A genetic discovery by a team of scientists from the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB), aided by scientists from Orion Genomics, paves the way for increased production of palm oil, which accounts for 45 percent of the world's edible oil, while also helping to conserve sensitive wild habitats at risk of being turned into agricultural land.

'Insect soup' holds DNA key for monitoring biodiversity
Research published today in the journal Ecology Letters shows that a process known as 'metabarcoding' is much faster than and just as reliable as standard biodiversity datasets assembled with traditional labour-intensive methods.
More Oil Palm Current Events and Oil Palm News Articles

The Oil Palm

The Oil Palm
by R. H. V. Corley (Author), P. B. H. Tinker (Author)


The oil palm is the world's most valuable oil crop. With palm oil production increasing by more than 50% in the last decade of the twentieth century and set to double in the next twenty years, it has never before been so important to understand the history, use and cultivation of this fascinating crop.

There have been many new developments since the third edition of The Oil Palm in 1988, particularly in the fields of clonal propagation, agronomy, breeding and molecular genetics. This new edition has been completely rewritten, and is the first book to record and explore these and many other developments.

The book traces the origins and progress of the industry, and describes the basic science underlying the physiology, breeding and nutrition of the oil palm. It...

The Palm Oil Controversy in Southeast Asia: A Transnational Perspective

The Palm Oil Controversy in Southeast Asia: A Transnational Perspective
by Oliver Pye (Editor), Jayati Bhattacharya (Editor)


"This engaged and vital edited volume brings together the varied viewpoints of academics, consultants and activists all concerned with the astonishing expansion of palm oil as a globally traded commodity. It reveals how this complex, contested and controversial expression of globalization transcends narrow national and sectoral interests, stimulating a transnational exchange of goods, capital and labour, as well as laws, norms, values and even understanding. Compelling, readable and insightful, the study shows that corporate responses to civil society's concerns about palm oil's role in global warming, human rights abuses, land grabbing and biodiversity loss, now need to be complemented by legal, regulatory and governance reforms to be effective." - Marcus Colchester, Director, Forest...

In the Wake of Industry: Surveying Palm Oil Production

In the Wake of Industry: Surveying Palm Oil Production


They say ignorance is bliss, and in our society the 99% are quite blissful. We place our destinies in the hands of the few. With that, great things like cities and a sense of security are possible. However, the majority of us live in our own worlds absent societal responsibility. As a result, many decisions are made that may undo these pleasantries we take for granted.

This story explores the truth behind industrial deforestation and the need to preserve our natural rainforests. The result of which brings peril to the unnoticed victims of Indonesia and beyond.

The Palm Oil Miracle

The Palm Oil Miracle
by Fife Bruce (Author)


Palm oil has been used as both a food and a medicine for thousands of years. It was prized by the pharaohs of ancient Egypt as a sacred food. Today palm oil is the most widely used oil in the world. In tropical Africa and Southeast Asia it is an integral part of a healthy diet just as olive oil is in the Mediterranean. Palm oil possesses excellent cooking properties. It is more heat stable than other vegetable oils and imparts in foods and baked goods superior taste, texture, and quality. Palm oil is one of the world’s healthiest oils. As a natural vegetable oil, it contains no trans fatty acids or cholesterol. It is currently being used by doctors and government agencies to treat specific illnesses and improve nutritional status. Recent medical studies have shown that palm oil,...

The Oil Palm (World Agriculture Series)

The Oil Palm (World Agriculture Series)
by R. H. V. Corley (Author), P. B. H. Tinker (Author)


The oil palm is the world's most valuable oil crop. Its production has increased over the decades, reaching 56 million tons in 2013, and it gives the highest yields per hectare of all oil crops. Remarkably, oil palm has remained profitable through periods of low prices. Demand for palm oil is also expanding, with the edible demand now complemented by added demand from biodiesel producers. The Oil Palm is the definitive reference work on this important crop. This fifth edition features new topics - including the conversion of palm oil to biodiesel, and discussions about the impacts of palm oil production on the environment and effects of climate change ? alongside comprehensively revised chapters, with updated references throughout. The Oil Palm, Fifth Edition will be useful to...

The Palm Oil Stain

The Palm Oil Stain
by Nadia Maddy (Author)


The Palm Oil Stain is a brutal tale of a woman's journey of love and survival. Set against the backdrop of the Rebel War in Sierra Leone, Shalimar escapes an attack on her village assisted by a South African mercenary the locals call Chameleon. Displaced in Freetown, Shalimar devises a plan to return home to locate her family while forging an unlikely relationship with Chameleon whose alcoholic abuse has left him bereft of any emotion. Shalimar soon learns her predicament was brought about by the betrayal of those close to her. Shalimar's decision to risk the wrath of the Rebels in the abandoned villages in order to find her family changes the course of her and Chameleon's life forever. The Palm Oil Stain is a deeply moving love story that relays the harsh reality of war, betrayal and...

AGRICULTURAL TRAINING MANUAL FOR OIL PALM PRODUCTION: DUN HILLS FARMING TRAINING MANUAL FOR OIL PALM PRODUCTION (ELIASES GENESES) 2014

AGRICULTURAL TRAINING MANUAL FOR OIL PALM PRODUCTION: DUN HILLS FARMING TRAINING MANUAL FOR OIL PALM PRODUCTION (ELIASES GENESES) 2014


Like in any other under developing country, crime has always been a critical issue. For example in economy in countries like Nigeria, Iraq, Syria, Ukraine and others recently this so called political unrest or instabilities is also may be traced back to oil, gold, minerals energy and nuclear enrichment syndrome, global terrorism has been a growing issue that has affected our society in many ways and if unchecked may rob our legacy from the future generation to come. It was reported that in 2008, august to be priced about forty (40) foreign investors pull out their investments from Nigeria, which is about 70% of their revenue as of then comes from oil and petroleum enrichment before that previous year. Even though, the percentage is actually dropping, the drops are of a very small value....

Palm Oil and Small Chop

Palm Oil and Small Chop
by John Goble (Author)


A colourful tale of trade and travel in the little-reported post-colonial era in West Africa

Palm Oil and Coconut Oil: Debunking The Myth

Palm Oil and Coconut Oil: Debunking The Myth
by eBookIt.com


In the late 1980s I use to suffer from severe stomach pains. All medical tests proved inconclusive and the only advice I was given by my doctor was to take antacid whenever I was in pain. I was not satisfied with this advice, and started looking for alternative treatments to put an end to my suffering. After a year of intense pain, my search for a cure led me to Reflexology.

I had ten sessions of reflexology treatments, one treatment a week for ten weeks and the pain disappeared. I was so impressed with the treatment; I enrolled in a reflexology course and trained as a reflexologist. After this experience, I became a fan of alternative therapies, and started reading magazines in alternative treatments, and started attending seminars and workshops in alternative therapies.
The Oil Painting Course You've Always Wanted: Guided Lessons for Beginners and Experienced Artists

The Oil Painting Course You've Always Wanted: Guided Lessons for Beginners and Experienced Artists
by Kathleen Lochen Staiger (Author)


Everything you always wanted to know about oil painting...but were afraid to ask. Or maybe you weren’t afraid—maybe you just didn’t know what to ask or where to start. In The Oil Painting Course You’ve Always Wanted, author Kathleen Staiger presents crystal clear, step-by-step lessons that build to reinforce learning. Brush control, creating the illusion of three dimensions, foolproof color mixing, still-life painting, landscapes, and portraits—every topic is covered in clear text, diagrams, illustrations, exercises, and demonstrations. Staiger has taught oil painting for more than thirty-five years; many of her students are now exhibiting and selling their paintings. Everyone from beginning hobby painters, to art students, to BFA graduates has questions about oil painting. Here...

© 2015 BrightSurf.com