Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Differences in dopamine may determine how hard people work

May 03, 2012
Human study suggests biological basis for individual differences in behavior

Washington, DC - Whether someone is a "go-getter" or a "slacker" may depend on individual differences in the brain chemical dopamine, according to new research in the May 2 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience. The findings suggest that dopamine affects cost-benefit analyses.

The study found that people who chose to put in more effort - even in the face of long odds - showed greater dopamine response in the striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, areas of the brain important in reward and motivation. In contrast, those who were least likely to expend effort showed increased dopamine response in the insula, a brain region involved in perception, social behavior, and self-awareness.

Researchers led by Michael Treadway, a graduate student working with David Zald, PhD, at Vanderbilt University, asked participants to rapidly press a button in order to earn varying amounts of money. Participants got to decide how hard they were willing to work depending on the odds of a payout and the amount of money they could win. Some accepted harder challenges for more money even against long odds, whereas less motivated subjects would forgo an attempt if it cost them too much effort.

In a separate session, the participants underwent a type of brain imaging called positron emission tomography (PET) that measured dopamine system activity in different parts of the brain. The researchers then examined whether there was a relationship between each individual's dopamine responsiveness and their scores on the motivational test described earlier.

Previous rodent research also showed that dopamine activity in motivational centers is important for long-shot decisions. However, in the current study, the researchers were surprised to find that those with increased dopamine activity in the insula were the least likely to expend effort on the task. "These results show for the first time that increased dopamine in the insula is associated with decreased motivation - suggesting that the behavioral effects of dopaminergic drugs may vary depending on where they act in the brain," said lead study author Treadway.

"Previous research has indicated that dopamine influences the motivation to seek out rewards. Now, this elegant new study provides the clearest evidence to date that individual differences in dopamine-related motivation might be a trait," said Marco Leyton, PhD, an expert on dopamine at McGill University, who was not involved in the study. "A striking implication highlighted by the authors is that abnormal dopamine transmission could affect a wide range of decision-making processes and susceptibility to depression."

Society for Neuroscience


Related Dopamine Current Events and Dopamine News Articles


Parkinson's disease brain cells at risk of burnout, like an overheating motor
The death of brain cells in Parkinson's disease may be caused by a form of cellular energy crisis in neurons that require unusually high quantities of energy to carry out their job of regulating movement, researchers at the University of Montreal reported today.

Link between gene variant and aggression in children
Some children react more strongly to negative experiences than others. Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) have found a link between aggression and variants of a particular gene.

Honey bees rapidly evolve to overcome new disease
An international research team has some good news for the struggling honeybee, and the millions of people who depend on them to pollinate crops and other plants.

Safinamide in Parkinson disease: No hint of added benefit
Safinamide (trade name: Xadago) has been available since February 2015 as add-on therapy for the treatment of mid- to late-stage Parkinson disease in adults.

New compounds could reduce alcoholics' impulse to drink
Alcoholism inflicts a heavy physical, emotional and financial toll on individuals and society. Now new discoveries and promising animal studies are offering a glimmer of hope that a new class of drugs could treat the disease without many of the unwanted side effects caused by current therapies.

Study identifies cause of disruption in brain linked to psychiatric disorder
New research has identified the mechanisms that trigger disruption in the brain's communication channels linked to symptoms in psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia.

Smoking cessation drug not boosting number of smokers who quit
The introduction of a new prescription smoking-cessation aid, varenicline, in 2006 has had no significant impact on the rate at which Americans age 18 and older successfully quit smoking, according to a study led by researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine.

Retinal changes may serve as measures of brain pathology in schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is associated with structural and functional alterations of the visual system, including specific structural changes in the eye.

Sequestered prion protein takes the good mood away, suggests new hypothesis on depression
The discovery of antidepressant drugs in the 1950s led to the first biochemical hypothesis of depression, known as the monoamine hypothesis.

Low-dose lithium reduces side effects from most common treatment for Parkinson's disease
Low-dose lithium reduced involuntary motor movements - the troubling side effect of the medication most commonly used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) - in a mouse model of the condition that is diagnosed in about 60,000 Americans each year.
More Dopamine Current Events and Dopamine News Articles

Meet Your Happy Chemicals: Dopamine, Endorphin, Oxytocin, Serotonin

Meet Your Happy Chemicals: Dopamine, Endorphin, Oxytocin, Serotonin
by Loretta Graziano Breuning (Author)


You can feel good more often by stimulating the brain chemicals that cause happiness. This book shows how. It would be nice if your happy chemicals just flowed all the time, but they were not designed for effortless happiness. Their job is to promote survival, though your brain defines survival in a quirky way. It cares about the survival of your genes, and it wires itself in youth. That’s why we do quirky things to stimulate our happy chemicals, despite our best intentions. You can build new neural pathways to turn on your dopamine, serotonin, endorphin, and oxytocin in new ways. Dopamine is the “I can do it!” feeling. Serotonin is the pleasure of getting respect. Endorphin is a euphoria that masks physical pain. Oxytocin is the security of social trust. These impulses are easy to...

Dopamine Handbook

Dopamine Handbook
by Leslie Iversen (Author), Susan Iversen (Author), Stephen Dunnett (Author), Anders Bjorklund (Author)


The discovery of dopamine in 1957-1958 was one of the seminal events in the development of modern neuroscience, and has been extremely important for the development of modern therapies of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Dopamine has a fundamental role in almost all aspects of behavior: from motor control to mood regulation, cognition and addiction and reward, and dopamine research has been unique within the neurosciences in the way it has bridged basic science and clinical practice. Over the decades research into the role of dopamine in health and disease has been in the forefront of modern neuroscience. The Dopamine Handbook is the first single-volume publication to capture current progress and excitement in this dynamic research field.

35 Tips for a Happy Brain: How to Boost Your Oxytocin, Dopamine, Endorphins, and Serotonin (Brain Power, Brain Function, Boost Endorphins, Brain Science, Brain Exercise, Train Your Brain)

35 Tips for a Happy Brain: How to Boost Your Oxytocin, Dopamine, Endorphins, and Serotonin (Brain Power, Brain Function, Boost Endorphins, Brain Science, Brain Exercise, Train Your Brain)
by V. Noot (Author)


Make your brain function better and become a happier person! Did you know that a lot of emotions we experience are influenced by levels of oxytocin, serotonin, dopamine and endorphins? If you could get more of those “happiness hormones,” it certainly would improve your mood and empower your brain, wouldn’t it? Then don’t wait and download this e-book so you can experience more joy in life by: Creating more happiness hormones Relieving stress Releasing more cuddly feelings Increasing your energy Improving your mood Decreasing your chances of a depression Having more rewarding feelings in what you do Connecting to other people more intimately Keywords: Happiness hormones, happy hormones, relieve stress, relieve stress hormones, reduce stress hormones, increase happy...

Dopamine Dad: How An Entrepreneur Dropped 80lbs By Doing The Opposite To Every Other Fat Person

Dopamine Dad: How An Entrepreneur Dropped 80lbs By Doing The Opposite To Every Other Fat Person
by James D. Layton


Lies, Lies And More Lies!!

The "wellness" industry has been f*cking over fat people like me for too long. We've been engineered into little minions that think goal setting, calorie counting and watching a needle on the bathroom scales is somehow a magic cure for the real problem. Fat people are addicts. We love dopamine. That little "win" drug that gets released every time rich people close a deal, is the same drug that hits fat guys when they rip open a Snickers.

And you know what folks? It's addictive as hell. This short book is a personal story of how I dropped 80lbs in 5-6 months by ignoring the diet industry and tackling the addiction first.

"There's no incentive for weight watchers to "cure" anyone. That's why they set goals and watch you come...

The Willpower Instinct: How Self-Control Works, Why It Matters, and What You Can Do to Get More of It

The Willpower Instinct: How Self-Control Works, Why It Matters, and What You Can Do to Get More of It
by Kelly McGonigal (Author)


Based on Stanford University psychologist Kelly McGonigal's wildly popular course "The Science of Willpower," The Willpower Instinct is the first book to explain the new science of self-control and how it can be harnessed to improve our health, happiness, and productivity.

Informed by the latest research and combining cutting-edge insights from psychology, economics, neuroscience, and medicine, The Willpower Instinct explains exactly what willpower is, how it works, and why it matters. For example, readers will learn:
Willpower is a mind-body response, not a virtue. It is a biological function that can be improved through mindfulness, exercise, nutrition, and sleep.Willpower is not an unlimited resource. Too much self-control can actually be bad for your health.Temptation and...

Your Brain Electric: Everything you need to know about optimising neurotransmitters including serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline

Your Brain Electric: Everything you need to know about optimising neurotransmitters including serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline
by James Lee (Author)


In brain science, there are two phenomena which are becoming increasing common in modern society. Firstly, rates of depression and anxiety disorders are increasing, with as many as one in five people either clinically depressed or anxious at any given time. Secondly, our aging population is revealing a range of cognitive problems associated with aging, including memory loss and other cognitive impairments. Each of these has a common thread - They are underpinned by clear deficits in neurochemical function. You have probably heard that "depression is caused by a serotonin imbalance" (sometimes, but not always, this is the case), however did you also know - - Depression can be caused by low dopamine or noradrenaline (norepinephrine) - Problems with aceylcholine and glutamate can lead...

Better living through dopamine: How to increase dopamine naturally to live happier, sleep better and eat less

Better living through dopamine: How to increase dopamine naturally to live happier, sleep better and eat less


What is dopamine?

Are you interested in improving your daily life through the natural use of your brain chemicals? Then you can't ignore the dopamine effects, for they truly are amazing... that's why we call it the "reward hormone!".

How do your dopamine levels impact your life for the worst or for the best? What happens if you lack dopamine?

Meet your very own dopamine routine

This book will show you how to set up an easy dopamine diet and routine. Learn how dopamine works, what it can do for you, discover the dopamine-rich foods and recipes, and how you can change your life through little daily steps.

Enjoy!

The Craving Brain: A bold new approach to breaking free from *drug addiction *overeating *alcoholism *gambling

The Craving Brain: A bold new approach to breaking free from *drug addiction *overeating *alcoholism *gambling
by Ronald A. Ruden (Author)


Where do the roots of addictive behavior lie -- in our genes or in our environment, in our chemistry or in our character? In the Craving Brain, Dr. Ronald Ruden asserts that the roots of addiction most defintetly do not lie in our character. Rather, they lie in a complex chain reaction that originates in an ancient survival mechanism in the brain. When this system is inappropriately activated, it drives the body to crave, sometimes with addictive behavior as the end result. In clear, straightforward language, Dr. Ruden outlines his remarkable successful treatment program which he believes can cure this problem.The Craving Brain offers crucial insights into the world of addiction. This revolutionary book will bring hope to millions of people who suffer from a wide range of addictions,...

Why Isn't My Brain Working?: A Revolutionary Understanding of Brain Decline and Effective Strategies to Recover Your Brain's Health

Why Isn't My Brain Working?: A Revolutionary Understanding of Brain Decline and Effective Strategies to Recover Your Brain's Health
by Dr. Datis Kharrazian (Author)


Losing your memory? Can't focus or concentrate? Do you have brain fog or tire easily? Have you lost your zest for life or motivation? Do people tell you this is all a normal part of aging? If so, your brain may be growing old too fast, or degenerating. Modern diets, a stressful lifestyle, and environmental toxins all take their toll on the brain. This doesn't just happen to seniors-brain disorders and degeneration are on the rise for young and old alike. The good news is the brain is extremely adaptable and wants to get well. You simply have to know how to feed and care for your brain. How do you know if your brain isn't working? See if some of these signs and symptoms of brain degeneration apply to you: Memory loss • brain fog • depression • anxiety • difficulty learning • lack...

Dopamine 186 Success Secrets - 186 Most Asked Questions On Dopamine - What You Need To Know

Dopamine 186 Success Secrets - 186 Most Asked Questions On Dopamine - What You Need To Know
by Emereo Publishing


A breath of fresh Dopamine air. There has never been a Dopamine Guide like this. It contains 186 answers, much more than you can imagine; comprehensive answers and extensive details and references, with insights that have never before been offered in print. Get the information you need--fast! This all-embracing guide offers a thorough view of key knowledge and detailed insight. This Guide introduces what you want to know about Dopamine. A quick look inside of some of the subjects covered: Effects of physical exercise on memory - Dopamine, Dopamine agonist - Examples, Dopamine agonist - Side-effects, Dopamine receptor - D2-like family, Dopamine receptor D4, Dopaminergic system - Animals, Dopamine reuptake inhibitor - Pharmacotherapeutic uses, Dopamine receptor - Dopamine regulation,...

© 2015 BrightSurf.com