Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Differences in dopamine may determine how hard people work

May 03, 2012
Human study suggests biological basis for individual differences in behavior

Washington, DC - Whether someone is a "go-getter" or a "slacker" may depend on individual differences in the brain chemical dopamine, according to new research in the May 2 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience. The findings suggest that dopamine affects cost-benefit analyses.

The study found that people who chose to put in more effort - even in the face of long odds - showed greater dopamine response in the striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, areas of the brain important in reward and motivation. In contrast, those who were least likely to expend effort showed increased dopamine response in the insula, a brain region involved in perception, social behavior, and self-awareness.

Researchers led by Michael Treadway, a graduate student working with David Zald, PhD, at Vanderbilt University, asked participants to rapidly press a button in order to earn varying amounts of money. Participants got to decide how hard they were willing to work depending on the odds of a payout and the amount of money they could win. Some accepted harder challenges for more money even against long odds, whereas less motivated subjects would forgo an attempt if it cost them too much effort.

In a separate session, the participants underwent a type of brain imaging called positron emission tomography (PET) that measured dopamine system activity in different parts of the brain. The researchers then examined whether there was a relationship between each individual's dopamine responsiveness and their scores on the motivational test described earlier.

Previous rodent research also showed that dopamine activity in motivational centers is important for long-shot decisions. However, in the current study, the researchers were surprised to find that those with increased dopamine activity in the insula were the least likely to expend effort on the task. "These results show for the first time that increased dopamine in the insula is associated with decreased motivation - suggesting that the behavioral effects of dopaminergic drugs may vary depending on where they act in the brain," said lead study author Treadway.

"Previous research has indicated that dopamine influences the motivation to seek out rewards. Now, this elegant new study provides the clearest evidence to date that individual differences in dopamine-related motivation might be a trait," said Marco Leyton, PhD, an expert on dopamine at McGill University, who was not involved in the study. "A striking implication highlighted by the authors is that abnormal dopamine transmission could affect a wide range of decision-making processes and susceptibility to depression."

Society for Neuroscience


Related Dopamine Current Events and Dopamine News Articles


Birth season affects your mood in later life
New research shows that the season you are born has a significant impact on your risk of developing mood disorders.

I have anxiety, why is my doctor prescribing an antipsychotic?
What's in a name? Doctors have found that the name of the drug you are prescribed significantly influences how the patient sees the treatment.

Aspirin shown to benefit schizophrenia treatment
A new study shows that some anti-inflammatory medicines, such as aspirin, estrogen, and Fluimucil, can improve the efficacy of existing schizophrenia treatments. This work is being presented at the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology conference in Berlin.

Rapid agent restores pleasure-seeking ahead of other antidepressant action
A drug being studied as a fast-acting mood-lifter restored pleasure-seeking behavior independent of - and ahead of - its other antidepressant effects, in a National Institutes of Health trial.

Eating Breakfast Increases Brain Chemical Involved in Regulating Food Intake and Cravings, MU Researchers Find
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), many teens skip breakfast, which increases their likelihood of overeating and eventual weight gain.

Parkinson: How toxic proteins stress nerve cells
Parkinson's Disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. In Germany alone, almost half a million people are affected.

UCLA researchers find that drug used for another disease slows progression of Parkinson's
A new study from UCLA found that a drug being evaluated to treat an entirely different disorder helped slow the progression of Parkinson's disease in mice.

How curiosity changes the brain to enhance learning
The more curious we are about a topic, the easier it is to learn information about that topic. New research publishing online October 2 in the Cell Press journal Neuron provides insights into what happens in our brains when curiosity is piqued.

Curiosity helps learning and memory
Curiosity helps us learn about a topic, and being in a curious state also helps the brain memorize unrelated information, according to researchers at the UC Davis Center for Neuroscience.

Quicker on the uptake
Defects in the gene FOXP2 result in a severe speech disorder. As LMU researchers now show, when the functional version of the human gene is introduced into mice, it facilitates learning, and alters neuronal circuits in the brain which may have played a role in the evolution of language.
More Dopamine Current Events and Dopamine News Articles

Meet Your Happy Chemicals: Dopamine, Endorphin, Oxytocin, Serotonin

Meet Your Happy Chemicals: Dopamine, Endorphin, Oxytocin, Serotonin
by Loretta Graziano Breuning (Author)


You can feel good more often by stimulating the brain chemicals that cause happiness. This book shows how. It would be nice if your happy chemicals just flowed all the time, but they were not designed for effortless happiness. Their job is to promote survival, though your brain defines survival in a quirky way. It cares about the survival of your genes, and it wires itself in youth. That’s why we do quirky things to stimulate our happy chemicals, despite our best intentions. You can build new neural pathways to turn on your dopamine, serotonin, endorphin, and oxytocin in new ways. Dopamine is the “I can do it!” feeling. Serotonin is the pleasure of getting respect. Endorphin is a euphoria that masks physical pain. Oxytocin is the security of social trust. These impulses are easy to...

The Willpower Instinct: How Self-Control Works, Why It Matters, and What You Can Do to Get More of It

The Willpower Instinct: How Self-Control Works, Why It Matters, and What You Can Do to Get More of It
by Kelly McGonigal Ph.D. (Author)


Based on Stanford University psychologist Kelly McGonigal's wildly popular course "The Science of Willpower," The Willpower Instinct is the first book to explain the new science of self-control and how it can be harnessed to improve our health, happiness, and productivity.

Informed by the latest research and combining cutting-edge insights from psychology, economics, neuroscience, and medicine, The Willpower Instinct explains exactly what willpower is, how it works, and why it matters. For example, readers will learn:
Willpower is a mind-body response, not a virtue. It is a biological function that can be improved through mindfulness, exercise, nutrition, and sleep. Willpower is not an unlimited resource. Too much self-control can actually be bad for your...

Dopamine Handbook

Dopamine Handbook
by Leslie Iversen (Author), Susan Iversen (Author), Stephen Dunnett (Author), Anders Bjorklund (Author)


The discovery of dopamine in 1957-1958 was one of the seminal events in the development of modern neuroscience, and has been extremely important for the development of modern therapies of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Dopamine has a fundamental role in almost all aspects of behavior: from motor control to mood regulation, cognition and addiction and reward, and dopamine research has been unique within the neurosciences in the way it has bridged basic science and clinical practice. Over the decades research into the role of dopamine in health and disease has been in the forefront of modern neuroscience. The Dopamine Handbook is the first single-volume publication to capture current progress and excitement in this dynamic research field.

Better living through dopamine: How to increase dopamine naturally to live happier, sleep better and eat less

Better living through dopamine: How to increase dopamine naturally to live happier, sleep better and eat less


What is dopamine?

Are you interested in improving your daily life through the natural use of your brain chemicals? Then you can't ignore the dopamine effects, for they truly are amazing... that's why we call it the "reward hormone!".

How do your dopamine levels impact your life for the worst or for the best? What happens if you lack dopamine?

Meet your very own dopamine routine

This book will show you how to set up an easy dopamine diet and routine. Learn how dopamine works, what it can do for you, discover the dopamine-rich foods and recipes, and how you can change your life through little daily steps.

Enjoy!

Dopamine For Dinner

Dopamine For Dinner
by Vidov Publishing


"Dopamine for Dinner," is the long-awaited first Malibu Beach Recovery Diet Cookbook, based on our famous low-glycemic diet.
Our clients arrive addicted to alcohol, street drugs and prescription pills, often depressed and anxious. Over the last six years we have seen the positive impact of not allowing them to eat sugar or white carbs, drink coffee or caffeinated drinks while in treatment. The diet, combined with a special nutracutical called SynaptaGenX, and daily practice of Kurma Yoga, helps clients begin to look good and feel good very quickly. They become mentally very clear, and are able to benefit from working with our stellar clinical teams.

"Your low glycemic lunch was out of this world," said Dr. Kenneth Blum PhD. In 1990 Dr. Blum, an eminent scientist and our...

The Brain That Changes Itself: Stories of Personal Triumph from the Frontiers of Brain Science

The Brain That Changes Itself: Stories of Personal Triumph from the Frontiers of Brain Science
by Norman Doidge M.D. (Author)


An astonishing new science called "neuroplasticity" is overthrowing the centuries-old notion that the human brain is immutable. In this revolutionary look at the brain, psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Norman Doidge, M.D., provides an introduction to both the brilliant scientists championing neuroplasticity and the people whose lives they've transformed. From stroke patients learning to speak again to the remarkable case of a woman born with half a brain that rewired itself to work as a whole, The Brain That Changes Itself will permanently alter the way we look at our brains, human nature, and human potential.

The Chemistry of Joy: A Three-Step Program for Overcoming Depression Through Western Science and Eastern Wisdom

The Chemistry of Joy: A Three-Step Program for Overcoming Depression Through Western Science and Eastern Wisdom
by M.D. Henry Emmons M.D. M.D. (Author), Rachel Kranz (Contributor)


The classic book that New York Times bestselling author Dr. Larry Dossey called “a valuable guide for anyone wishing to find greater exuberance and fulfillment in their life,” The Chemistry of Joy offers a unique blend of Western science and Eastern philosophy to show you how to treat depression more naturally and effectively, and what you can do TODAY to create a happier, more fulfilling life for yourself.

The Chemistry of Joy presents Dr. Emmons’s natural approach to depression—supplemented with medication if necessary—combining the best of Western medicine and Eastern teaching to create your body’s own biochemistry of joy. Integrating Western brain chemistry, natural and Ayurvedic medicine, Buddhist psychology, and his own joyful heart techniques, Dr. Emmons creates...

The Craving Brain: A bold new approach to breaking free from *drug addiction *overeating *alcoholism *gambling

The Craving Brain: A bold new approach to breaking free from *drug addiction *overeating *alcoholism *gambling
by Ronald A. Ruden (Author)


Where do the roots of addictive behavior lie -- in our genes or in our environment, in our chemistry or in our character? In the Craving Brain, Dr. Ronald Ruden asserts that the roots of addiction most defintetly do not lie in our character. Rather, they lie in a complex chain reaction that originates in an ancient survival mechanism in the brain. When this system is inappropriately activated, it drives the body to crave, sometimes with addictive behavior as the end result. In clear, straightforward language, Dr. Ruden outlines his remarkable successful treatment program which he believes can cure this problem.The Craving Brain offers crucial insights into the world of addiction. This revolutionary book will bring hope to millions of people who suffer from a wide range of addictions,...

Brainstem and Cerebellum: Medulla, Pons, Midbrain, Reticular Formation, Arousal, Vision, Hearing, Norepinephrine, Serotonin, Dopamine, Sleeping, Dreaming, REM, Cranial Nerves, Motor Control,

Brainstem and Cerebellum: Medulla, Pons, Midbrain, Reticular Formation, Arousal, Vision, Hearing, Norepinephrine, Serotonin, Dopamine, Sleeping, Dreaming, REM, Cranial Nerves, Motor Control,
by University Press


Part I. Brainstem: -5
Medulla, Pons, Midbrain, Reticular Formation, Arousal,
Vision, Hearing, Sex, Vocalization, Norepinephrine, Serotonin,
Dopamine, Sleeping, Dreaming, REM, PGO Waves, Sensory-Motor Neurons,
Evolution, Superior Colliculus, Inferior Colliculus, Brainstem Auditory Perception,
Brainstem and Speech, Cries & Laughter, Coma, Lethargy, Frontal-Thalamic System, Pain, Stress, Stress & Psychosis, Depression, Rhythmic Activities, Narcolepsy, Cataplexy, Somnambulism,
Cranial Nerves of the Midbrain, Cranial Nerves of the Pons, Cranial Nerves of the Medulla, Lateral Medullary Syndrome, Tinnitus, Deafness, Vestibular Abnormalities, Eye Movement, Vision, Olfaction...


Part II. Cerebellum -91
Evolution, Structure,
Dopamine and Behavioral Flexibility: The Problem of Modifying Established Behavior

Dopamine and Behavioral Flexibility: The Problem of Modifying Established Behavior


If dopamine were a politician, it might have an image problem. The organizing metaphor for dopamine function is reward. Implicit in this formulation is that a system that drives appetitive pursuit toward needed resources is essential for survival. Dopamine is the go-and-get-it neurotransmitter. In it's association with addiction and compulsive behavior—a “hijacked reward system”—dopamine has become neuroscience's version of Freud's id, driving appetitive pursuit without regard to consequences.

However, some evidence suggests that dopamine is not essential for basic reward related behaviors. Even with diminished dopamine transmission, animals still like food, still eat, and can still learn about rewards. Dopamine is not at the root of these functions; rather, it is...

© 2014 BrightSurf.com