Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Looking for Earths by looking for Jupiters

May 08, 2012
Washington, D.C.- In the search for Earth-like planets, it is helpful to look for clues and patterns that can help scientist narrow down the types of systems where potentially habitable planets are likely to be discovered. New research from a team including Carnegie's Alan Boss narrows down the search for Earth-like planets near Jupiter-like planets. Their work indicates that the early post-formation movements of hot-Jupiter planets probably disrupt the formation of Earth-like planets.

Their work is published the week of May 7 by Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The team, led by Jason Steffen of the Fermilab Center for particle Astrophysics, used data from NASA's Kepler mission to look at so-called "hot Jupiter" planets-those roughly Jupiter-sized planets with orbital periods of about three days. If a Jupiter-like planet has been discovered by a slight dimming of brightness in the star it orbits as it passes between the star and Earth, it is then possible-within certain parameters-to determine whether the hot-Jupiter has any companion planets.

Of the 63 candidate hot Jupiter systems identified by Kepler, the research team did not find any evidence for nearby companion planets. There are several possible explanations. One is that there are no companion planets for any of these hot Jupiters. Another is that the companions are too small in either size or mass to be detected using these methods. Lastly it is possible that there are companion planets, but that the configuration of their orbits makes them undetectable using these methods.

However, when expanding the search to include systems with either Neptune-like planets (known as "hot Neptunes"), or "warm Jupiters" (Jupiter-sized planets with slightly larger orbits than hot Jupiters), the team found some potential companions. Of the 222 hot Neptunes, there were two with possible companions, and of the 31 warm Jupiters, there were three with possible companions.

"The implications of these findings are that systems with Earth-like planets formed differently than systems with hot Jupiters," Boss said. "Since we believe that hot Jupiters formed farther out, and then migrated inward toward their stars, the inward migration disrupted the formation of Earth-like planets. If our sun had a hot Jupiter, we would not be here."

###

Funding for the Kepler mission is provided by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Support for some of the scientists was provided by NASA via the Kepler Participating Scientist program and Hubble Fellowship grants.

The Carnegie Institution for Science (carnegiescience.edu) is a private, nonprofit organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., with six research departments throughout the U.S. Since its founding in 1902, the Carnegie Institution has been a pioneering force in basic scientific research. Carnegie scientists are leaders in plant biology, developmental biology, astronomy, materials science, global ecology, and Earth and planetary science.

Carnegie Institution


Related Planetary Science Current Events and Planetary Science News Articles


Icelandic volcano sits on massive magma hot spot
Spectacular eruptions at Bárarbunga volcano in central Iceland have been spewing lava continuously since Aug. 31. Massive amounts of erupting lava are connected to the destruction of supercontinents and dramatic changes in climate and ecosystems.

Right place, right time: Cellular transportation compartments
Proteins are the machinery that accomplishes almost every task in every cell in every living organism. The instructions for how to build each protein are written into a cell's DNA.

Researchers Highlight Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter Technology for Balloon-Borne Platforms
Narrowband or hyperspectral imaging is a valuable technique used in planetary science for characterizing surfaces and surrounding environments.

Cell architecture: Finding common ground
When it comes to cellular architecture, function follows form. Plant cells contain a dynamic cytoskeleton which is responsible for directing cell growth, development, movement, and division.

Getting To Know Super-Earths
"If you have a coin and flip it just once, what does that tell you about the odds of heads versus tails?" asks Heather Knutson, assistant professor of planetary science at Caltech. "It tells you almost nothing. It's the same with planetary systems," she says.

Earth's magnetic field could flip within a human lifetime
Imagine the world waking up one morning to discover that all compasses pointed south instead of north.

NuSTAR Discovers Impossibly Bright Dead Star
Astronomers working with NASA's Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), led by Caltech's Fiona Harrison, have found a pulsating dead star beaming with the energy of about 10 million suns.

Solar cell compound probed under pressure
Gallium arsenide, GaAs, a semiconductor composed of gallium and arsenic is well known to have physical properties that promise practical applications.

Most stars are born in clusters, some leave 'home'
New modeling studies from Carnegie's Alan Boss demonstrate that most of the stars we see were formed when unstable clusters of newly formed protostars broke up.

Coral growth rate plummets in 30-year comparison
A team of researchers working on a Carnegie expedition in Australia's Great Barrier Reef has documented that coral growth rates have plummeted 40% since the mid-1970s.
More Planetary Science Current Events and Planetary Science News Articles

Fundamental Planetary Science: Physics, Chemistry and Habitability

Fundamental Planetary Science: Physics, Chemistry and Habitability
by Jack J. Lissauer (Author), Imke de Pater (Author)


A quantitative introduction to the Solar System and planetary systems science for advanced undergraduate students, this engaging new textbook explains the wide variety of physical, chemical, and geological processes that govern the motions and properties of planets. The authors provide an overview of our current knowledge and discuss some of the unanswered questions at the forefront of research in planetary science and astrobiology today. They combine knowledge of the Solar System and the properties of extrasolar planets with astrophysical observations of ongoing star and planet formation, offering a comprehensive model for understanding the origin of planetary systems. The book concludes with an introduction to the fundamental properties of living organisms and the relationship that life...

Planetary Sciences

Planetary Sciences
by Imke de Pater (Author), Jack J. Lissauer (Author)


An authoritative introduction for graduate students in the physical sciences, this textbook explains the wide variety of physical, chemical, and geological processes that govern the motions and properties of planets. The second edition of this award-winning textbook has been substantially updated and improved. It now contains a reorganized discussion of small bodies, including a detailed description of the Kuiper belt and asteroid belt; a significantly expanded chapter on extrasolar planets and what they tell us about planetary systems; and appendixes providing a glossary of acronyms, tables of key spacecraft, a summary of observing techniques, and a sampling of very recent images. With over 300 exercises to help students apply the concepts covered, this textbook is ideal for courses in...

Planetary Science: The Science of Planets around Stars, Second Edition

Planetary Science: The Science of Planets around Stars, Second Edition
by George H. A. Cole (Author), Michael M. Woolfson (Author)


Since the publication of the popular first edition, stellar and planetary scientists have produced numerous new observations, theories, and interpretations, including the "demotion" of our former ninth planet Pluto as a dwarf planet. Covering all of these new discoveries, Planetary Science: The Science of Planets around Stars, Second Edition explains the science associated with the planets, the stars they orbit, and the interactions between them. It examines the formation, evolution, and death of stars and the properties of the Sun that influence the planets of the Solar System. Along with more problems, this second edition adds new material and improves some analytical treatments. The book consists of two main components. For students unfamiliar with stellar properties or the overall...

Introduction to Planetary Science: The Geological Perspective

Introduction to Planetary Science: The Geological Perspective
by Gunter Faure (Author), Teresa M. Mensing (Author)


This textbook details basic principles of planetary science that help to unify the study of the solar system. It is organized in a hierarchical manner so that every chapter builds upon preceding ones. Starting with historical perspectives on space exploration and the development of the scientific method, the book leads the reader through the solar system. Coverage explains that the origin and subsequent evolution of planets and their satellites can be explained by applications of certain basic principles of physics, chemistry, and celestial mechanics and that surface features of the solid bodies can be interpreted by principles of geology.

Planetary Surface Processes (Cambridge Planetary Science)

Planetary Surface Processes (Cambridge Planetary Science)
by H. Jay Melosh (Author)


Planetary Surface Processes is the first advanced textbook to cover the full range of geologic processes that shape the surfaces of planetary-scale bodies. Using a modern, quantitative approach, this book reconsiders geologic processes outside the traditional terrestrial context. It highlights processes that are contingent upon Earth's unique circumstances and processes that are universal. For example, it shows explicitly that equations predicting the velocity of a river are dependent on gravity: traditional geomorphology textbooks fail to take this into account. This textbook is a one-stop source of information on planetary surface processes, providing readers with the necessary background to interpret new data from NASA, ESA and other space missions. Based on a course taught by the...

Planetary Geology: An Introduction (Second Edition)

Planetary Geology: An Introduction (Second Edition)
by Claudio Vita-Finzi (Author), Dominic Fortes (Author)


Recent planetary missions by NASA, the European Space Agency, and other national agencies have reaffirmed that the geological processes which are familiar from our studies of the Earth operate on many solid planets and satellites. Common threads link the internal structure, thermal evolution, and surface character of both rocky and icy worlds. Volcanoes, impact craters, ice caps, dunes, rift valleys, rivers, and oceans are features of extra-terrestrial worlds as diverse as Mercury and Titan. New data reveals that many of the supposedly inert planetary bodies were recently subject to earthquakes, landslides, and climate change, and that some of them display active volcanism. Moreover, our understanding of the very origins of the Solar System depends heavily on the composition of meteorites...

Guardian Awakening (Guardian Planetary AI Book 1)

Guardian Awakening (Guardian Planetary AI Book 1)


Following an unsuccessful and debilitating experiment by the Navy, Tristan Taylor’s now reclusive and desolate life takes a shocking turn with the arrival of an alien warrior whose ship has crash-landed behind his isolated cottage.

Discovering that his previously failed brain implant can interface with the alien's computers, Tristan resolves to accompany the enchanting Aesia in her quest to return to her people...little knowing what awaits him. And at what price...?





Undeniable: Evolution and the Science of Creation

Undeniable: Evolution and the Science of Creation
by Bill Nye (Author), Corey S. Powell (Editor)


"Evolution is one of the most powerful and important ideas ever developed in the history of science. Every question it raises leads to new answers, new discoveries, and new smarter questions. The science of evolution is as expansive as nature itself. It is also the most meaningful creation story that humans have ever found."—Bill Nye

Sparked by a controversial debate in February 2014, Bill Nye has set off on an energetic campaign to spread awareness of evolution and the powerful way it shapes our lives. In Undeniable: Evolution and the Science of Creation, he explains why race does not really exist; evaluates the true promise and peril of genetically modified food; reveals how new species are born, in a dog kennel and in a London subway; takes a stroll through 4.5 billion years...

Theory of Continuous Planetary Interaction: by

Theory of Continuous Planetary Interaction: by


Originally published in print in the 2014 Research Journal of the National Council for Geocosmic Research. This electronic edition contains over 60 live reference links. “A Theory of Continuous Planetary Interaction by Tony Waterfall is fascinating and intriguing. According to him each planet of our solar system has a surrounding interactive sphere with magnetic poles and auroral ovals. And it is through these auroral ovals the energy travels among the planets, and thus, influencing us through the electromagnetic field. Although it’s yet to be proven, it certainly offers explanations for possible planetary interactions through which all habitants of earth are influenced.” Jagdish Maheshri – NCGR Research Director. .

Planetary Sciences

Planetary Sciences
by Imke de Pater (Author), Jack J. Lissauer (Author)


An authoritative introduction for graduate students in the physical sciences, this award-winning textbook explains the wide variety of physical, chemical, and geological processes that govern the motions and properties of planets. This updated second edition has been revised and improved while maintaining its existing structure and organization. Many data tables and plots have been updated to account for the latest measurements. A new Appendix focuses on recent discoveries since the second edition was first published. These include results from Cassini, Kepler, MESSENGER, MRO, LRO, Dawn at Vesta, Curiosity, and others, as well as many ground-based observatories. With over 300 exercises to help students apply the concepts covered, this textbook is ideal for graduate courses in astronomy,...

© 2014 BrightSurf.com