Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Secrets of the first practical artificial leaf

May 10, 2012

A detailed description of development of the first practical artificial leaf - a milestone in the drive for sustainable energy that mimics the process, photosynthesis, that green plants use to convert water and sunlight into energy - appears in the ACS journal Accounts of Chemical Research. The article notes that unlike earlier devices, which used costly ingredients, the new device is made from inexpensive materials and employs low-cost engineering and manufacturing processes.

Daniel G. Nocera points out that the artificial leaf responds to the vision of a famous Italian chemist who, in 1912, predicted that scientists one day would uncover the "guarded secret of plants." The most important of those, Nocera says, is the process that splits water into hydrogen and oxygen. The artificial leaf has a sunlight collector sandwiched between two films that generate oxygen and hydrogen gas. When dropped into a jar of water in the sunlight, it bubbles away, releasing hydrogen that can be used in fuel cells to make electricity. These self-contained units are attractive for making fuel for electricity in remote places and the developing world, but designs demonstrated thus far rely on metals like platinum and manufacturing processes that make them cost-prohibitive.

To make these devices more widely available, Nocera replaced the platinum catalyst that produces hydrogen gas with a less-expensive nickel-molybdenum-zinc compound. On the other side of the leaf, a cobalt film generates oxygen gas. Nocera notes that all of these materials are abundant on Earth, unlike the rare and expensive platinum, noble metal oxides and semiconducting materials others have used. "Considering that it is the 6 billion nonlegacy users that are driving the enormous increase in energy demand by midcentury, a research target of delivering solar energy to the poor with discoveries such as the artificial leaf provides global society its most direct path to a sustainable energy future," he says.

###

The author acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation and the Chesonis Family Foundation.

The American Chemical Society is a nonprofit organization chartered by the U.S. Congress. With more than 164,000 members, ACS is the world's largest scientific society and a global leader in providing access to chemistry-related research through its multiple databases, peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences. Its main offices are in Washington, D.C., and Columbus, Ohio.

American Chemical Society


Related Artificial Leaf Current Events and Artificial Leaf News Articles


Artificial 'plants' could fuel the future
Imagine creating artificial plants that make gasoline and natural gas using only sunlight. And imagine using those fuels to heat our homes or run our cars without adding any greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.

One step closer to artificial photosynthesis and 'solar fuels'
Caltech scientists, inspired by a chemical process found in leaves, have developed an electrically conductive film that could help pave the way for devices capable of harnessing sunlight to split water into hydrogen fuel.

Bionic leaf
Harvesting sunlight is a trick plants mastered more than a billion years ago, using solar energy to feed themselves from the air and water around them in the process we know as photosynthesis.

Toward a low-cost 'artificial leaf' that produces clean hydrogen fuel
For years, scientists have been pursuing "artificial leaf" technology, a green approach to making hydrogen fuel that copies plants' ability to convert sunlight into a form of energy they can use.

Unique catalysts for hydrogen fuel cells synthesized in ordinary kitchen microwave oven
Swedish and Chinese researchers show how a unique nano-alloy composed of palladium nano-islands embedded in tungsten nanoparticles creates a new type of catalysts for highly efficient oxygen reduction, the most important reaction in hydrogen fuel cells.

Molecular snapshots of oxygen formation in photosynthesis
Researchers from Umeå University have explored two different ways that allow unprecedented experimental insights into the reaction sequence leading to the formation of oxygen molecules in photosynthesis. The two studies have been published in the scientific journal Nature Communications.

Pioneering findings on the dual role of carbon dioxide in photosynthesis
Researchers at Umeå University have found that carbon dioxide, in its ionic form bicarbonate, has a regulating function in the splitting of water in photosynthesis.

Artificial leaf jumps developmental hurdle
In a recent early online edition of Nature Chemistry, ASU scientists, along with colleagues at Argonne National Laboratory, have reported advances toward perfecting a functional artificial leaf.

Graphene nanoscrolls are formed by decoration of magnetic nanoparticles
Researchers at Umeå University, together with researchers at Uppsala University and Stockholm University, show in a new study how nitrogen doped graphene can be rolled into perfect Archimedean nano scrolls by adhering magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on the surface of the graphene sheets.

Artificial Forest for Solar Water-Splitting
In the wake of the sobering news that atmospheric carbon dioxide is now at its highest level in at least three million years, an important advance in the race to develop carbon-neutral renewable energy sources has been achieved.
More Artificial Leaf Current Events and Artificial Leaf News Articles

Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach

Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach
by Stuart Russell (Author)


***** International Edition ***** ***** International Edition ***** ***** International Edition *****

Crochet Garden: Bunches of Flowers, Leaves, and Other Delights

Crochet Garden: Bunches of Flowers, Leaves, and Other Delights
by Suzann Thompson (Author)


Building on the success of her first book, Crochet Bouquet, Suzann Thompson presents a delightful collection of garden-inspired creations. After briefly reviewing the basics, Suzann arranges her designs in four distinct sections: Botanical Gardens, featuring well-known varieties; Inspired Gardens, based on decorative motifs; International Gardens, incorporating flowers from throughout the world; and Fun and Fantastic Gardens, with imaginative takes on traditional favorites. Simple and fun, they all use widely available yarns. Inspirational projects show how to use the motifs to decorate garments, accessories, and home décor items.

Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies

Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies
by Nick Bostrom (Author)


The human brain has some capabilities that the brains of other animals lack. It is to these distinctive capabilities that our species owes its dominant position. Other animals have stronger muscles or sharper claws, but we have cleverer brains.

If machine brains one day come to surpass human brains in general intelligence, then this new superintelligence could become very powerful. As the fate of the gorillas now depends more on us humans than on the gorillas themselves, so the fate of our species then would come to depend on the actions of the machine superintelligence.

But we have one advantage: we get to make the first move. Will it be possible to construct a seed AI or otherwise to engineer initial conditions so as to make an intelligence explosion survivable? How...

Mastering Algorithms with C: Useful Techniques from Sorting to Encryption

Mastering Algorithms with C: Useful Techniques from Sorting to Encryption
by Kyle Loudon (Author)


There are many books on data structures and algorithms, including some with useful libraries of C functions. Mastering Algorithms with C offers you a unique combination of theoretical background and working code. With robust solutions for everyday programming tasks, this book avoids the abstract style of most classic data structures and algorithms texts, but still provides all of the information you need to understand the purpose and use of common programming techniques. Implementations, as well as interesting, real-world examples of each data structure and algorithm, are included. Using both a programming style and a writing style that are exceptionally clean, Kyle Loudon shows you how to use such essential data structures as lists, stacks, queues, sets, trees, heaps, priority queues,...

Artificial Intelligence Programming

Artificial Intelligence Programming
by Eugene Charniak (Author), etc. (Author)


Artificial intelligence research has thrived in the years since this best-selling AI classic was first published. The revision encompasses these advances by adapting its coding to Common Lisp, the well-documented language standard, and by bringing together even more useful programming tools. Today's programmers in AI will find this volume's superior coverage of programming techniques and easily applicable style anything but common.


  Artificial Intelligence
by Winston (Author)


This book explains how it is possible for computers to reason and perceive, thus introducing the field called artificial intelligence. This book would appeal to programmers, professionals and students. This completely rewritten and updated edition reflects the revolutionary progress made since the previous edition was published.

Artificial Intelligence: A New Synthesis

Artificial Intelligence: A New Synthesis
by Nils J. Nilsson (Author)


Artificial Intelligence: A New Synthesis-Elsevier-Nils J. Nilsson-2009-EDN-1

Artificial Intelligence A Modern Approach

Artificial Intelligence A Modern Approach
by Stuart Russell (Author)


Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach-Pearson-Stuart Russell,Peter Norvig,Stuart J. Russell-2013-EDN-3

MATLAB Machine Learning

MATLAB Machine Learning
by Michael Paluszek (Author), Stephanie Thomas (Author)


This book is a comprehensive guide to machine learning with worked examples in MATLAB. It starts with an overview of the history of Artificial Intelligence and automatic control and how the field of machine learning grew from these. It provides descriptions of all major areas in machine learning.

The book reviews commercially available packages for machine learning and shows how they fit into the field. The book then shows how MATLAB can be used to solve machine learning problems and how MATLAB graphics can enhance the programmer’s understanding of the results and help users of their software grasp the results.
Machine Learning can be very mathematical. The mathematics for each area is introduced in a clear and concise form so that even casual readers can understand the math....

Machine Learning in Python: Essential Techniques for Predictive Analysis

Machine Learning in Python: Essential Techniques for Predictive Analysis
by Michael Bowles (Author)


Learn a simpler and more effective way to analyze data and predict outcomes with Python Machine Learning in Python shows you how to successfully analyze data using only two core machine learning algorithms, and how to apply them using Python. By focusing on two algorithm families that effectively predict outcomes, this book is able to provide full descriptions of the mechanisms at work, and the examples that illustrate the machinery with specific, hackable code. The algorithms are explained in simple terms with no complex math and applied using Python, with guidance on algorithm selection, data preparation, and using the trained models in practice. You will learn a core set of Python programming techniques, various methods of building predictive models, and how to measure the performance...

© 2017 BrightSurf.com