Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Molecular subtypes and genetic alterations may determine response to lung cancer therapy

May 14, 2012

Cancer therapies targeting specific molecular subtypes of the disease allow physicians to tailor treatment to a patient's individual molecular profile. But scientists are finding that in many types of cancer the molecular subtypes are more varied than previously thought and contain further genetic alterations that can affect a patient's response to therapy.

A UNC-led team of scientists has shown for the first time that lung cancer molecular subtypes correlate with distinct genetic alterations and with patient response to therapy. These findings in pre-clinical models and patient tumor samples build on their previous report of three molecular subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer and refines their molecular analysis of tumors.

Their findings were published in the May 10, 2012 online edition of the Public Library of Science One.

Study senior author, Neil Hayes, MD, MPH, associate professor of medicine, says, "It has been known for about a decade of using gene expression arrays that "molecular subtypes" exist. These subtypes have molecular "fingerprints" and frequently have different clinical outcomes. However, the underlying etiologies of the subtypes have not been recognized. Why do tumors form subtypes?

"Our study shows that tumor subtypes have different underlying alterations of DNA as part of the difference. These differences are further evidence of the importance of subtypes and the way we will use them. For example, the mutations are different which may imply much more ability to target than previously recognized. Also, we are starting to get a suggestion that these subtypes may reflect different cells of origin that rely on different cancer pathways. This is further unlocking the diversity of this complex disease." Hayes is a member of UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center.

The team first defined and reported in 2006 on three lung cancer molecular subtypes, named according to their genetic pattern - bronchoid, squamoid and magnoid.

In this PLoS One paper they sought to determine if distinct genetic mutations co-occur with each specific molecular subtypes. They found that specific genetic mutations were associated with each subtype and that these mutations may have independent predictive value for therapeutic response.


University of North Carolina School of Medicine


Related Molecular Subtypes Current Events and Molecular Subtypes News Articles


Scientists uncover 4 different types of bowel cancer
Bowel cancer can be divided up into four distinct diseases, each with its own set of biological characteristics, a major new study reports.

Researchers show that genetic background regulates tumor differences
Researchers from Uppsala University, Sweden, and the Broad Institute, USA, have identified both similarities and differences between a single tumour type in multiple dogs breeds; a finding they believe parallels the situation in the cancer of human patients.

Complete resection of high-grade brain cancer yields better survival in children -- especially girls
For children with aggressive brain cancers called high-grade gliomas (HGG), the chances of survival are improved when surgery is successful in eliminating all visible cancer, reports a study in the September issue of Neurosurgery, official journal of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

New breast cancer screening analysis confirms biennial interval optimal for average risk women
Results from a second comprehensive analysis of mammography screening, this time using data from digital mammography, confirms findings from a 2009 analysis of film mammography: biennial (every two years) screening offers a favorable balance of benefits to harm for women ages 50 to 74 who have an average risk of developing breast cancer.

Whose numbers determine cost-effectiveness of targeted anti-cancer therapies?
Health economics helps insurers, health care systems and providers make treatment decisions based on the cost of extra "units" of health arising from a specific treatment.

Thyroid cancer genome analysis finds markers of aggressive tumors
A new comprehensive analysis of thyroid cancer from The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network has identified markers of aggressive tumors, which could allow for better targeting of appropriate treatments to individual patients.

TCGA study improves understanding of genetic drivers of thyroid cancer
A comprehensive analysis of the genomes of nearly 500 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) - the most common form of thyroid cancer - has provided new insights into the roles of frequently mutated cancer genes and other genomic alterations that drive disease development.

Researchers find why depression and aging linked to increased disease risk
Psychological stress and stress-related psychiatric disorders are associated with increased risk for aging-related diseases, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this relation are unknown.

Mayo Clinic: Ovarian cancer subtypes may predict response to bevacizumab
Molecular sequencing could identify ovarian cancer patients who are most likely to benefit from treatment with bevacizumab (Avastin), a Mayo Clinic-led study has found.

EORTC Breast cancer trial shows pathological complete response is independent predictor of favorable clinical outcome
Results of EORTC trial 10994 appearing in the Annals of Oncology show that pathological complete response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an independent predictive factor of favorable clinical outcomes in all molecular subtypes of breast cancer.
More Molecular Subtypes Current Events and Molecular Subtypes News Articles

Molecular Pathology with Online Resource: A Practical Guide for the Surgical Pathologist and Cytopathologist

Molecular Pathology with Online Resource: A Practical Guide for the Surgical Pathologist and Cytopathologist
by John M. S. Bartlett (Editor), Abeer Shaaban (Editor), Fernando Schmitt (Editor)


This practical manual provides a comprehensive yet concise guide to state-of-the-art molecular techniques and their applications. It starts with an overview of the essential principles of molecular techniques, followed by separate chapters detailing the use of these techniques in particular tissues and organs, and describing recommended treatment plans. Each chapter covers the tests available, their advantages, limitations, and use as diagnostic and prognostic tools, with key learning points at the end of each topic. Using both histologic and cytologic samples, it discusses how to interpret test results in a pathologic context and enables trainees and practicing pathologists to gain an in-depth understanding of molecular diagnostic techniques and how to incorporate them into routine...

Molecular Biology of Cancer: Mechanisms, Targets, and Therapeutics

Molecular Biology of Cancer: Mechanisms, Targets, and Therapeutics
by Lauren Pecorino (Author)


Cells in our body undergo tightly regulated replication to enable growth to occur in a precise, and to ensure that damaged or worn out tissues are replaced. Regulation is mediated via many different mechanisms; it is when these mechanisms fail, and regulation is lost, that cancer can result. Recent advances in molecular cell biology have greatly expanded our understanding of the processes and mechanisms that underpin the regulation of cell replication, and what is happening at the molecular level when these fail.

The third edition of The Molecular Biology of Cancer: Mechanisms, Targets, and Therapeutics offers a fresh approach to the study of the molecular basis of cancer, by showing how our understanding of the defective mechanisms that drive cancer is leading to the development...

Molecular and Cellular Physiology of Neurons, Second Edition

Molecular and Cellular Physiology of Neurons, Second Edition
by Gordon L. Fain (Author), Margery J. Fain (Illustrator), Thomas O'Dell (Illustrator)


Molecular and Cellular Physiology of Neurons, Second Edition is a comprehensive, up-to-date introduction to essential concepts of cellular neuroscience. Emphasizing experimental approaches and recent discoveries, it provides an in-depth look at the structure and function of nerve cells, from protein receptors and synapses to the biochemical processes that drive the mammalian nervous system.Starting with the basics of electrical current flow across cell membranes, Gordon Fain covers voltage gating and receptor activation in the context of channel diversity, excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, neuromodulation, and sensory transduction. Emphasizing long-term processes of synaptic potentiation and depression involved in memory, consciousness, and attention, he demonstrates how...

Molecular Medicine: An Introduction

Molecular Medicine: An Introduction
by Jens Kurreck (Author), Cy Aaron Stein (Author)


Easy to read, yet comprehensive, this is the perfect introduction into the molecular basis of disease and the novel treatment options that have become available. The authors, Jens Kurreck and Cy Stein, have both long-standing teaching experience on the subject, one from a biologist's angle, the other with a medical background. Together, they have produced a modern textbook for courses in Molecular Medicine that incorporates modules from immunology to signaling, from virology to gene therapy, and the latest development in personalized medicine.

Molecular Signatures of Lymph Node Status by Intrinsic Subtype: Gene Expression Analysis of Primary Breast Tumors From Patients With and Without Metastatic Lymph Nodes

Molecular Signatures of Lymph Node Status by Intrinsic Subtype: Gene Expression Analysis of Primary Breast Tumors From Patients With and Without Metastatic Lymph Nodes
by Applied Research Press (Author)


Identification of a gene expression signature in primary breast tumors that could classify patients by lymph node status would allow patients to avoid the morbidities of surgical disruption of the lymph nodes. Attempts to identify such a signature have, to date, been unsuccessful. Because breast tumor subtypes have unique molecular characteristics and different sites of metastasis, molecular signatures for lymph node involvement may vary by subtype. Gene expression patterns from the primary tumor are not able to stratify patients by lymph node status. Although the primary breast tumor may influence tumor cell dissemination, once metastatic cells enter the lymphatics, it is likely that characteristics of the lymph node microenvironment, such as establishment of a pre-metastatic niche and...

Diagnostic Molecular Pathology in Practice: A Case-Based Approach

Diagnostic Molecular Pathology in Practice: A Case-Based Approach
by Iris Schrijver (Editor)


This entirely case-based book covers a broad cross-section of the practical issues frequently encountered in the day-to-day activities of a molecular genetic pathologist. The book is divided into four sections on the principal areas addressed in molecular genetic pathology (MGP): inherited diseases, hematopathology, solid tumors, and infectious diseases. The topics covered by the cases in each section include test selection, qualitative and quantitative laboratory techniques, test interpretation, prognostic and therapeutic considerations, ethical considerations, technical troubleshooting, and result reporting.  This book will be ideal for trainees in MGP and clinical molecular genetics who require a practice-based preparation for board examinations. It will also be very useful for...

Molecular Biology of B Cells, Second Edition

Molecular Biology of B Cells, Second Edition
by Tasuku Honjo (Editor), Michael Reth (Editor), Andreas Radbruch (Editor), Frederick Alt (Editor)


Molecular Biology of B Cells, Second Edition is a comprehensive reference to how B cells are generated, selected, activated and engaged in antibody production. All of these developmental and stimulatory processes are described in molecular, immunological, and genetic terms to give a clear understanding of complex phenotypes. Molecular Biology of B Cells, Second Edition offers an integrated view of all aspects of B cells to produce a normal immune response as a constant, and the molecular basis of numerous diseases due to B cell abnormality.  The new edition continues its success with updated research on microRNAs in B cell development and immunity, new developments in understanding lymphoma biology, and therapeutic targeting of B cells for clinical application.  With updated research...

Diagnostic Pathology: Molecular Oncology, 1e

Diagnostic Pathology: Molecular Oncology, 1e
by Mohammad A Vasef MD (Author), Aaron Auerbach MD FRCPC Dipl. Epid. (Author)


This volume in the highly regarded Diagnostic Pathology series provides a clearer understanding of molecular pathology as it relates to the transformation and pathogenesis of cancer. Diagnostic Pathology: Molecular Oncology is the first reference to apply a practical and clinical approach to examining how molecular mutations affect common medical diseases. Additionally, it identifies the relevant and appropriate molecular tests to perform for a complete work-up in the era of molecular-targeted therapies. Easy to use and packed with outstanding illustrations, this is an essential resource for all pathologists or clinicians who need to keep up with the ever-evolving field of molecular medicine. Up-to-date information on a variety of topics Next-generation sequencing for determining gene...

Precision Molecular Pathology of Breast Cancer (Molecular Pathology Library)

Precision Molecular Pathology of Breast Cancer (Molecular Pathology Library)
by Ashraf Khan (Editor), Ian O. Ellis (Editor), Andrew M. Hanby (Editor), Ediz F. Cosar (Editor), Emad A. Rakha (Editor), Dina Kandil (Editor)


This volume provides a comprehensive review of the molecular mechanisms involved in precancerous lesions and benign and malignant breast tumors. Given the complex molecular pathways in breast cancer biology, the book simplifies these complex mechanisms and highlights the practical issues important for daily practice. Sections are structured to review breast carcinogenesis and the role of familial predisposition and stem cells in initiation and progression of breast cancer. In-depth chapters present morphologic and molecular correlations in precancerous and malignant breast lesions, while outlining highly practical issues that are in practice today in breast pathology, such as evaluation of estrogen, progesterone receptors, and HER-2.Written by experts in the field, Precision Molecular...

Molecular Diagnostics in Dermatology and Dermatopathology (Current Clinical Pathology)

Molecular Diagnostics in Dermatology and Dermatopathology (Current Clinical Pathology)
by Michael J. Murphy (Editor)


"Molecular Diagnostics in Dermatology and Dermatopathology" presents the basics of molecular biology and molecular diagnostic methods most commonly used in the clinical laboratory, with an emphasis on the concepts and testing most relevant to dermatological diseases. Topics include the integration of newer diagnostic and prognostic techniques with 'traditional' histologic approaches, and discussions of regulatory, ethical, legal, economic issues and 'newer' technologies. This important diagnostic tool outlines the clinically relevant uses (i.e.; diagnostic, staging and/or prognostic) applications of these techniques in the field of dermatology. Molecular studies that investigate the pathogenesis of skin diseases will be excluded, unless they also have a direct diagnostic utility. The book...

© 2016 BrightSurf.com