Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Baby galaxies grew up quickly

May 17, 2012

Baby galaxies from the young Universe more than 12 billion years ago evolved faster than previously thought, shows new research from the Niels Bohr Institute. This means that already in the early history of the Universe, there was potential for planet formation and life. The research results have been published in the scientific journal, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters.

For several thousand years after the Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago, the Universe consisted of a hot, dense primordial soup of gases and particles. But the Universe was expanding rapidly and the primordial soup became less dense and cooled. However, the primordial soup was not evenly distributed, but was denser in some areas than others. The density in some of the densest areas increased due to gravity and began to contract, forming the first stars and galaxies. This took place approximately 500 million years after the Big Bang.

The earliest galaxies were probably comprised of primitive, giant stars that consisted of only hydrogen and helium. There were no heavier elements. They first appeared later in the evolution of the Universe, created by nuclear processes in the stars.

Cosmic cycle

A star is a giant ball of glowing gas that produces energy by fusing hydrogen and helium into heavier and heavier elements. When no more energy can be extracted the star dies and massive clouds of dust and gas are flung out into space. These large clouds are condensed and recycled into new stars in a gigantic cosmic cycle. The new stars that are formed will have a higher content of heavier elements than the previous and for each generation of star formation there are more and more of the heavy elements and metals. And heavy elements (especially carbon and oxygen) are necessary for the formation of planets and life, as we know it.

Up until now, researchers thought that it had taken billions of years for stars to form and with that, galaxies with a high content of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium. But new research from the Niels Bohr Institute shows that this process went surprisingly quickly in some galaxies.

"We have studied 10 galaxies in the early Universe and analysed their light spectra. We are observing light from the galaxies that has been on a 10-12 billion year journey to Earth, so we see the galaxies as they were then. Our expectation was that they would be relatively primitive and poor in heavier elements, but we discovered somewhat to our surprise that the gas in some of the galaxies and thus the stars in them had a very high content of heavier elements. The gas was just as enriched as our own Sun," explains Professor Johan Fynbo from the Dark Cosmology Centre at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen.

Lighthouses of the Universe

The galaxies are so far away that you normally do not have the opportunity to observe them directly, but the researchers have used a special method.

"There are some extreme objects in the Universe called quasars. Quasars are gigantic black holes that are active and when matter falls into them, they emit light that is as strong as thousands of galaxies. They are like a kind of lighthouse that lights up in the Universe and can be seen very far away," explains Jens-Kristian Krogager, PhD student at the Dark Cosmology Centre at the Niels Bohr Institute, University Copenhagen. He explains that in order to use quasars as light sources the quasar must lie behind the galaxy you want to observe.

"We then look at the light from the quasar and can see that some light is missing. The missing quasar light in the image has been absorbed by the chemical elements in the galaxy in front of it. By analysing the spectral lines we can see which elements there are and by measuring the strength of each line we can see the amount of the elements," explains Jens-Kristian Krogager.

Life in the early Universe

They discovered not only that the galaxies from the very early Universe had a surprisingly large quantity of heavier elements, but also that one of the galaxies in particular was especially interesting.

"For one of the galaxies, we observed the outer regions and here there was also a high element content. This suggests that large parts of the galaxy are enriched with a high content of heavier elements and that means that already in the early history of the Universe there was potential for planet formation and life," says Johan Fynbo.

###

http://www.nbi.ku.dk/english/news/news11/baby_galaxies_grew_up_quickly/

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-3933.2012.01272.x/abstract

University of Copenhagen


Related Galaxies Current Events and Galaxies News Articles


Scientists discover how supermassive black holes keep galaxies turned off
An international team of scientists has identified a common phenomenon in galaxies that could explain why huge numbers of them turn into cosmic graveyards.

Supermassive black holes in 'red geyser' galaxies cause galactic warming
An international team of scientists, including the University of Kentucky's Renbin Yan, have uncovered a new class of galaxies, called "red geysers," with supermassive black hole winds so hot and energetic that stars can't form.

Supermassive black hole wind can stop new stars from forming
Scientists have uncovered a new class of galaxies with supermassive black hole winds that are energetic enough to suppress future star formation.

OU astrophysicists detect most luminous diffuse gamma-ray emission from Arp 220
A University of Oklahoma team has detected for the first time the most luminous gamma-ray emission from a galaxy--the merging galaxy Arp 220 is the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxy to Earth, and it reveals the hidden extreme energetic processes in galaxies.

Hubble finds clues to the birth of supermassive black holes
Astrophysicists have taken a major step forward in understanding how supermassive black holes formed. Using data from Hubble and two other space telescopes, Italian researchers have found the best evidence yet for the seeds that ultimately grow into these cosmic giants.

NASA scientist suggests possible link between primordial black holes and dark matter
Dark matter is a mysterious substance composing most of the material universe, now widely thought to be some form of massive exotic particle.

The dark side of the fluffiest galaxies
Galaxies, in all their forms from spirals to ellipticals from giants to dwarfs have been widely studied over the past Century.

Astronomers confirm faintest early-universe galaxy ever seen
An international team of scientists, including two professors and three graduate students from UCLA, has detected and confirmed the faintest early-universe galaxy ever. Using the W. M. Keck Observatory on the summit on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, the researchers detected the galaxy as it was 13 billion years ago.

A beautiful instance of stellar ornamentation
In this image from ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), light from blazing blue stars energises the gas left over from the stars' recent formation.

Hubble spies a spiral snowflake
Together with irregular galaxies, spiral galaxies make up approximately 60 percent of the galaxies in the local universe.
More Galaxies Current Events and Galaxies News Articles

Galaxy: Mapping the Cosmos

Galaxy: Mapping the Cosmos
by James Geach (Author)


Each night, we are able to gaze up at the night sky and look at the thousands of stars that stretch to the end of our individual horizons. But the stars we see are only those that make up our own Milky Way galaxy—but one of hundreds of billions in the whole of the universe, each separated  by inconceivably huge tracts of empty space. In this book, astronomer James Geach tells the rich stories of both the evolution of galaxies and our ability to observe them, offering a fascinating history of how we’ve come to realize humanity’s tiny place in the vast universe.
           
Taking us on a compelling tour of the state-of-the-art science involved in mapping the infinite, Geach offers a first-hand account of both the science itself and how it is done, describing what...

Galaxies, Galaxies!

Galaxies, Galaxies!
by Gail Gibbons (Author)


Planet Earth is in the Milky Way Galaxy, the cloudy band of light that stretches clear across the night sky. How many galaxies are there in the universe? For years astronomers thought that the Milky Way was the universe. Now we know that there are billions of them. Gail Gibbons takes the reader on a journey light-years away.

Galaxies

Galaxies
by Seymour Simon (Author)


This close-up look at our own Milky Way and other enormous clusters of stars describes the many different types of galaxies, how they were formed, and how they got their different shapes. "A dazzling photo-essay."--School Library Journal.

The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy

The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
by Douglas Adams (Author)


“Extremely funny . . . inspired lunacy . . . [and] over much too soon.”—The Washington Post Book World

Seconds before the Earth is demolished to make way for a galactic freeway, Arthur Dent is plucked off the planet by his friend Ford Prefect, a researcher for the revised edition of The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy who, for the last fifteen years, has been posing as an out-of-work actor.

Together this dynamic pair begin a journey through space aided by quotes from The Hitchhiker’s Guide (“A towel is about the most massively useful thing an interstellar hitchhiker can have”) and a galaxy-full of fellow travelers: Zaphod Beeblebrox—the two-headed, three-armed ex-hippie and totally out-to-lunch president of the galaxy; Trillian, Zaphod’s girlfriend...

Galaxies in the Universe: An Introduction

Galaxies in the Universe: An Introduction
by Linda S. Sparke (Author), John S. Gallagher III (Author)


This extensively illustrated book presents the astrophysics of galaxies since their beginnings in the early Universe. It has been thoroughly revised to take into account the most recent observational data, and recent discoveries such as dark energy. There are new sections on galaxy clusters, gamma ray bursts and supermassive black holes. The authors explore the basic properties of stars and the Milky Way before working out towards nearby galaxies and the distant Universe. They discuss the structures of galaxies and how galaxies have developed, and relate this to the evolution of the Universe. The book also examines ways of observing galaxies across the whole electromagnetic spectrum, and explores dark matter and its gravitational pull on matter and light. This book is self-contained and...

Cosmic Powers: The Saga Anthology of Far-Away Galaxies

Cosmic Powers: The Saga Anthology of Far-Away Galaxies
by John Joseph Adams (Editor)


A collection of original, epic science fiction stories by some of today’s best writers—for fans who want a little less science and a lot more action—and edited by two-time Hugo Award winner John Joseph Adams.

Inspired by movies like The Guardians of the Galaxy and Star Wars, this anthology features brand-new stories from some of science fiction’s best authors including Dan Abnett, Jack Campbell, Linda Nagata, Seanan McGuire, Alan Dean Foster, Charlie Jane Anders, Kameron Hurley, and many others.

Galaxy S8: The Complete Beginners Guide - Learn Everything You Need To Know About Your Samsung Galaxy S8

Galaxy S8: The Complete Beginners Guide - Learn Everything You Need To Know About Your Samsung Galaxy S8
by Andrew Simmons (Author)


Galaxy S8 The Complete Beginners Guide - Learn Everything You Need To Know About Your Samsung Galaxy S8 The long anticipated Galaxy S8 is about to hit the market, and the entire world is excited to see the wonderful things it’s going to bring. Although the Samsung Galaxy is nothing new, this new device promises to bring many wonderful things to the world of cell phone technology. But with all this new technology, how do you know how to operate it? There are so many new features, it’s easy to get overwhelmed, which can potentially cause you to want to go back to your old phone. That’s where this guide comes in. In it, you are going to learn everything you need to know about the new Galaxy S8, and exactly what you need to do to get the most out of the device from the beginning. ...

Marvel's Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2: The Art of the Movie

Marvel's Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2: The Art of the Movie
by Jacob Johnston (Author)




The Guardians are back! After saving the universe, Star-Lord, Gamora, Drax, Rocket and Groot find themselves with expunged records and a new mandate: Guard what needs guarding. Now, go inside the studio in this new collectible volume! Discover exclusive concept art, production stills, and commentary from cast and crew-including returning director James Gunn and Marvel's extraordinary Visual Development team. Complete your ART OF THE MOVIE collection with this latest installment as the Guardians soar to new heights!



Guardians of the Galaxy Classic: In the Year 3000 Vol. 3

Guardians of the Galaxy Classic: In the Year 3000 Vol. 3
by Michael Gallagher (Author), Kevin West (Illustrator), Scot Eaton (Illustrator), Sandu Florea (Illustrator), Jim Hall (Illustrator)


Concluding the adventures of the original Guardians of the Galaxy, heroes of the 31st century! When Charlie-27 is imprisoned for a crime he did not commit, Major Victory and the team stage a breakout with the aid of Cuchulain, the Irish Wolfhound - but Drax the Destroyer stands in the warrior's way! But if Charlie is innocent, who's guilty? Enter Ripjak: the interplanetary serial killer with a surprising connection to Spider-Man! Where will the Guardians stand in a tussle between Ripjak, Bubonicus and the High Evolutionary? Rancor strikes, Starhawk tackles the Silver Surfer, Yellowjacket heads for home, and the Guardians seize a chance to end the millennium-old War of the Worlds!

COLLECTING: GUARDIANS OF THE GALAXY (1990) 51-62, MATERIAL FROM GUARDIANS OF THE GALAXY ANNUAL...

Samsung Galaxy S8: A Complete Userguide with Amazing Tips and Tricks and Many More

Samsung Galaxy S8: A Complete Userguide with Amazing Tips and Tricks and Many More


Let's dive together to see what the whole new Samsung S8 and Samsung S8 Plus capable of!

In this book you'll find:

answers to your question:
What has changed in relation to previous Samsung mobiles?
How to setup my phone for the first time?

and lots of tips and tricks for using
- Bixby
- Iris Scanner
- Two bluetooth headsets at once
- Rapid Charging
...
and many more!

Scroll up, click on "buy" and get amazed by the new Samsung!

© 2017 BrightSurf.com