Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

New vaccine for nicotine addiction

June 28, 2012
Researchers at Weill Cornell Medical College have developed and successfully tested in mice an innovative vaccine to treat nicotine addiction.

In the journal Science Translational Medicine, the scientists describe how a single dose of their novel vaccine protects mice, over their lifetime, against nicotine addiction. The vaccine is designed to use the animal's liver as a factory to continuously produce antibodies that gobble up nicotine the moment it enters the bloodstream, preventing the chemical from reaching the brain and even the heart.

"As far as we can see, the best way to treat chronic nicotine addiction from smoking is to have these Pacman-like antibodies on patrol, clearing the blood as needed before nicotine can have any biological effect," says the study's lead investigator, Dr. Ronald G. Crystal, chairman and professor of Genetic Medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College.

"Our vaccine allows the body to make its own monoclonal antibodies against nicotine, and in that way, develop a workable immunity," Dr. Crystal says.

Previously tested nicotine vaccines have failed in clinical trials because they all directly deliver nicotine antibodies, which only last a few weeks and require repeated, expensive injections, Dr. Crystal says. Plus, this kind of impractical, passive vaccine has had inconsistent results, perhaps because the dose needed may be different for each person, especially if they start smoking again, he adds.

"While we have only tested mice to date, we are very hopeful that this kind of vaccine strategy can finally help the millions of smokers who have tried to stop, exhausting all the methods on the market today, but find their nicotine addiction to be strong enough to overcome these current approaches," he says. Studies show that between 70 and 80 percent of smokers who try to quit light up again within six months, Dr. Crystal adds.

About 20 percent of adult Americans smoke, and while it is the 4,000 chemicals within the burning cigarette that causes the health problems associated with smoking -- diseases that lead to one out of every five deaths in the U.S. -- it is the nicotine within the tobacco that keeps the smoker hooked.

A New Kind of Vaccine

There are, in general, two kinds of vaccines. One is an active vaccine, like those used to protect humans against polio, the mumps, and so on. This kind of vaccine presents a bit of the foreign substance (a piece of virus, for example) to the immune system, which "sees" it and activates a lifetime immune response against the intruder. Since nicotine is a small molecule, it is not recognized by the immune system and cannot be built into an active vaccine.

The second type of vaccine is a passive vaccine, which delivers readymade antibodies to elicit an immune response. For example, the delivery of monoclonal (identically produced) antibodies that bind on to growth factor proteins on breast cancer cells shut down their activity.

The Weill Cornell research team developed a new, third kind -- a genetic vaccine -- that they initially tested in mice to treat certain eye diseases and tumor types. The team's new nicotine vaccine is based on this model.

The researchers took the genetic sequence of an engineered nicotine antibody, created by co-author Dr. Jim D. Janda, of The Scripps Research Institute, and put it into an adeno-associated virus (AAV), a virus engineered to not be harmful. They also included information that directed the vaccine to go to hepatocytes, which are liver cells. The antibody's genetic sequence then inserts itself into the nucleus of hepatocytes, and these cells start to churn out a steady stream of the antibodies, along with all the other molecules they make.

In mice studies, the vaccine produced high levels of the antibody continuously, which the researchers measured in the blood. They also discovered that little of the nicotine they administered to these mice reached the brain. Researchers tested activity of the experimental mice, treated with both a vaccine and nicotine, and saw that it was not altered; infrared beams in the animals' cages showed they were just as active as before the vaccine was delivered. In contrast, mice that received nicotine and not treated with the vaccine basically "chilled out" -- they relaxed and their blood pressure and heart activity were lowered -- signs that the nicotine had reached the brain and cardiovascular system.

The researchers are preparing to test the novel nicotine vaccine in rats and then in primates -- steps needed before it can be tested ultimately in humans.

Dr. Crystal says that, if successful, such a vaccine would best be used in smokers who are committed to quitting. "They will know if they start smoking again, they will receive no pleasure from it due to the nicotine vaccine, and that can help them kick the habit," he says.

He adds that it might be possible, given the complete safety of the vaccine, to use it to preempt nicotine addiction in individuals who have never smoked, in the same way that vaccines are used now to prevent a number of disease-producing infections. "Just as parents decide to give their children an HPV vaccine, they might decide to use a nicotine vaccine. But that is only theoretically an option at this point," Dr. Crystal says. "We would of course have to weight benefit versus risk, and it would take years of studies to establish such a threshold."

"Smoking affects a huge number of people worldwide, and there are many people who would like to quit, but need effective help," he says. "This novel vaccine may offer a much-needed solution."

New York- Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center/Weill Cornell Medical College


Related Nicotine Addiction Current Events and Nicotine Addiction News Articles


Overeating caused by a hormone deficiency in brain?
If you find yourself downing that extra piece of chocolate fudge cake even though you're not hungry, it might be the absence of a hormone in your brain that's causing you to overeat purely for pleasure.

'Not just a flavoring:' Menthol and nicotine, combined, desensitize airway receptors
Menthol acts in combination with nicotine to desensitize the type of nicotinic receptors found in lungs and airways that are responsible for nicotine's irritation, say Georgetown University Medical Center (GUMC) researchers.

Electronic cigarettes gaining in popularity among teens
Teens no longer smoke just cigarettes. They have branched out to using alternative tobacco products such as electronic cigarettes, hookahs and little cigars.

Scientists identify brain circuitry responsible for anxiety in smoking cessation
In a promising breakthrough for smokers who are trying to quit, neuroscientists at the University of Massachusetts Medical School and The Scripps Research Institute have identified circuitry in the brain responsible for the increased anxiety commonly experienced during withdrawal from nicotine addiction.

Many teens try e-cigs, but few become regular users
E-cigarettes are popular with teens, including those who have never smoked, but few of those who try them become regular users, while most of those who do so are also smokers.

E-cigarette use is not risk-free
E-cigarettes are not without health risks for people who vape or for bystanders. This is one of the conclusions from a new risk assessment report from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH).

Raising minimum age to buy cigarettes to at least 21 would reduce smoking and save lives
Increasing the minimum age of legal access (MLA) to tobacco products will prevent or delay initiation of tobacco use by adolescents and young adults, particularly those ages 15 to 17, and improve the health of Americans across the lifespan.

Cone snail venom holds promise for medical treatments for cancer and addiction
While considered a delicacy in some parts of the world, snails have found a more intriguing use to scientists and the medical profession offering a plethora of research possibilities.

E-cigarettes less addictive than cigarettes
E-cigarettes appear to be less addictive than cigarettes for former smokers and this could help improve understanding of how various nicotine delivery devices lead to dependence, according to researchers.

Miriam Hospital study finds smoking during pregnancy alters newborn stress hormones and DNA
Researchers from The Miriam Hospital have studied the effects of smoking during pregnancy and its impact on the stress response in newborn babies.
More Nicotine Addiction Current Events and Nicotine Addiction News Articles

Nicotine Addiction: Cure: How To Overcome Nicotine Addiction And Problem For Life (Addiction, Stop Smoking, Quit Smoking, Smoking Addiction, Addiction ... Cigarettes, Tobacco, Addiction Cure)

Nicotine Addiction: Cure: How To Overcome Nicotine Addiction And Problem For Life (Addiction, Stop Smoking, Quit Smoking, Smoking Addiction, Addiction ... Cigarettes, Tobacco, Addiction Cure)


Discover How To Overcome Nicotine Addiction For Life
Get this book for just $2.99. Read on your PC, Mac, smart phone, tablet or Kindle device.

You’re about to discover a proven strategy on how to overcome nicotine addiction and problem for the rest of your life. Millions of people suffer from nicotine addiction and throw away their life and destroy their family's future trough this destructive habit. Most people realize how much of a problem this is. But are unable to change their addiction, simply because it's been apart of their lifestyle for so long.

The truth is, if you are suffering from nicotine addiction and problem and haven't been able to change, it's because you are lacking an effective strategy and haven't yet change your associations to your...

Nicotine Addiction Cure: Proven Steps How to Overcome Nicotine Addiction for Life (nicotine addiction, nicotine dependence, smoking addiction, stop smoking, ... addiction recovery, nicotine replacement)

Nicotine Addiction Cure: Proven Steps How to Overcome Nicotine Addiction for Life (nicotine addiction, nicotine dependence, smoking addiction, stop smoking, ... addiction recovery, nicotine replacement)


Proven Steps on how to Overcome Nicotine Addiction For Life
Today only, get this Amazon bestseller for just $2.99. Regularly priced at $4.99. Read on your PC, Mac, smart phone, tablet or Kindle device.

You’re about to discover how to overcome nicotine addiction for the rest of your life.
There are so many people suffering from smoking addiction and spend much money on destroying their health but they don't know how to overcome it. Most people realize how much of a problem this is, but are unable to change their addiction simply because it's been their lifestyle for so long.

The truth is, if you are suffering from Nicotine Addition and haven't been able to change, it's because you are lacking an effective strategy and haven't yet changed your...

Allen Carr's Easy Way to Stop Smoking: The Easyway To Stop Smoking

Allen Carr's Easy Way to Stop Smoking: The Easyway To Stop Smoking
by Allen Carr (Author)


Allen Carr's Easy Way To Stop Smoking is one of the biggest selling self-help titles in publishing history having sold 13 million copies worldwide. The book is a complete guide to stopping smoking easily and permanently.

Quit Smoking: Naturally: How To Break Free From Nicotine Addiction For Life Without Side Effects (Stop The Smoking  Habit Permanently, The Easy Way, No ... Smoking Hypnosis, Stop Smoking Now, Cancer)

Quit Smoking: Naturally: How To Break Free From Nicotine Addiction For Life Without Side Effects (Stop The Smoking Habit Permanently, The Easy Way, No ... Smoking Hypnosis, Stop Smoking Now, Cancer)


Quit Smoking Naturally

On every literary corner, there’s an expert on how to quit smoking. But very few of their theories stick. Every day the weary smoker is inspired to quit, only to have his/her hopes dashed yet again. Quit Smoking Naturally is the book that may set everyone free! The genius of this book is the straightforward approach and authentic voice that provides the facts, dispels the fallacies and motivates the smoker to do what they've never done before—succeed at quitting!
.


Here Is A Preview Of What You'll Learn...
The Hazards of smokingWhy you should quit How How to create a plan to stop smokingHow identify what triggers your smoking How to deal With withdrawal symptomsHow to manage your cravings How to deal with weight...

The Nicotine Addiction Cure - How to Avoid Triggers, Manage Withdrawal Symptoms, and Quit Nicotine & Smoking for Life (tobacco addiction, nicotine addiction, ... recovery, smoking addiction, stop smoking,)

The Nicotine Addiction Cure - How to Avoid Triggers, Manage Withdrawal Symptoms, and Quit Nicotine & Smoking for Life (tobacco addiction, nicotine addiction, ... recovery, smoking addiction, stop smoking,)


Discover How to Cure A Nicotine Addiction and Stop Smoking For Life!
Help Your Friend or Loved One Through Their Recovery Process


Today only, get this eBook for just $2.99. Regularly priced at $9.99. Read on your PC, Mac, smart phone, tablet or Kindle device.

Quitting smoking is an easy decision to make, but the actual process can be as easy or hard as you wish to make it. In the same way smoking is a choice, quitting is your choice to make. It could be that you have tried in the past to stop, and if this is the case you know that this will not be easy. Funny how the things you really want rarely are!

Think of smoking in a different way: For example, if you were to stand in the road for long enough, a car will eventually hit you and...

How to Quit Smoking and Break the Nicotine Chains: Practical Solutions to Identify and Avoid Smoking Triggers (Nicotine Addiction)

How to Quit Smoking and Break the Nicotine Chains: Practical Solutions to Identify and Avoid Smoking Triggers (Nicotine Addiction)


Addiction to nicotine is serious business and should not be taken lightly. In addition to making your teeth yellow, drying out your skin and making you smell like an ashtray, smoking significantly increases your risk for lung cancer. That being said, everyone is now aware of these effects and still, some choose to continue their dangerous love affair with cigarettes. Or maybe they just can’t seem to be able to kick this bad habit.

Like any other kind of addiction, smoking is difficult to quit, especially on your own. Fortunately, you can get help and this e-book will provide it for you. This e-book was written for people who are struggling with addiction to nicotine and are in need of some tips and a little guidance on how to start the process and how to go about quitting...

Nicotine Addiction: "The essential guide to understand how nicotine addiction works"

Nicotine Addiction: "The essential guide to understand how nicotine addiction works"


Through substance abuse counselor notes, you may come to find that heroin addicts find it more difficult to quit the use of nicotine than heroin. The world has the perception that heroin is the most addictive drugs, but the deaths caused by nicotine make death's caused by heroin seem minuscule. Find out about the world's number one addiction, and how it eventually may be cured. I have a Bachelor's Degree of Business Administration, and I am also a nationally recognized personal trainer, certified by the National Federation of Professional Trainers (accredited by the NCAA), certificate number 45582.

Substance Abuse Six Pack  - Six Addiction Classics: Kubla Khan, Confessions of an English-Opium Eater, Tobacco and Alcohol, The Opium Habit, My Lady Nicotine and a Mark Twain speech (Illustrated)

Substance Abuse Six Pack - Six Addiction Classics: Kubla Khan, Confessions of an English-Opium Eater, Tobacco and Alcohol, The Opium Habit, My Lady Nicotine and a Mark Twain speech (Illustrated)


“Mirrors on the ceiling, the pink champagne on ice.
And she said, 'We are all just prisoners here, of our own device.’”
- Hotel California.

Intoxication has long been a questionable source of creativity for vice-loving artists, from hasheesh-smoking cave painters, mushroom-munching monks illuminating Medieval manuscripts with their hallucinatory visions, the narcotic memoirs of William S. Burroughs, the booze-fueled work of Hemingway to the anything goes spirit of post-World War II literature and beyond when it became more unusual for an artist to declare sobriety over addiction.

But it wasn’t until the early 1800s that authors began to write explicitly about their illicit vices. Thomas De Quincey kicked off the new dark sub-genre of...

End Your Addiction Now: The Proven Nutritional Supplement Program That Can Set You Free

End Your Addiction Now: The Proven Nutritional Supplement Program That Can Set You Free
by Charles Gant (Author), Greg Lewis (Author)


Whether it involves drugs, alcohol, smoking, or food, addiction is an overwhelming and destructive force. While many rehabilitation programs are available, the truth is that too many people return to their old habits. Why? End Your Addiction Now not only explores the biochemical factors that are the real cause of this problem, but offers proven advice on how to break addictions once and for all.

Based upon the research and experience of Dr. Charles Gantand other pioneers, this practical handbook provides simple step-by-step directions for kicking the habit. Perhaps most unique, End Your Addiction Now is designed both to guide its readers to effective physicians and treatment facilities, and to provide a path for those who wish to seek wellness on their own.

At the heart of...

Nicotine Anonymous:  The Book - Fourth Edition

Nicotine Anonymous: The Book - Fourth Edition
by Nicotine Anonymous


12-step program for nicotine addiction

© 2015 BrightSurf.com