Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

New vaccine for nicotine addiction

June 28, 2012
Researchers at Weill Cornell Medical College have developed and successfully tested in mice an innovative vaccine to treat nicotine addiction.

In the journal Science Translational Medicine, the scientists describe how a single dose of their novel vaccine protects mice, over their lifetime, against nicotine addiction. The vaccine is designed to use the animal's liver as a factory to continuously produce antibodies that gobble up nicotine the moment it enters the bloodstream, preventing the chemical from reaching the brain and even the heart.

"As far as we can see, the best way to treat chronic nicotine addiction from smoking is to have these Pacman-like antibodies on patrol, clearing the blood as needed before nicotine can have any biological effect," says the study's lead investigator, Dr. Ronald G. Crystal, chairman and professor of Genetic Medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College.

"Our vaccine allows the body to make its own monoclonal antibodies against nicotine, and in that way, develop a workable immunity," Dr. Crystal says.

Previously tested nicotine vaccines have failed in clinical trials because they all directly deliver nicotine antibodies, which only last a few weeks and require repeated, expensive injections, Dr. Crystal says. Plus, this kind of impractical, passive vaccine has had inconsistent results, perhaps because the dose needed may be different for each person, especially if they start smoking again, he adds.

"While we have only tested mice to date, we are very hopeful that this kind of vaccine strategy can finally help the millions of smokers who have tried to stop, exhausting all the methods on the market today, but find their nicotine addiction to be strong enough to overcome these current approaches," he says. Studies show that between 70 and 80 percent of smokers who try to quit light up again within six months, Dr. Crystal adds.

About 20 percent of adult Americans smoke, and while it is the 4,000 chemicals within the burning cigarette that causes the health problems associated with smoking -- diseases that lead to one out of every five deaths in the U.S. -- it is the nicotine within the tobacco that keeps the smoker hooked.

A New Kind of Vaccine

There are, in general, two kinds of vaccines. One is an active vaccine, like those used to protect humans against polio, the mumps, and so on. This kind of vaccine presents a bit of the foreign substance (a piece of virus, for example) to the immune system, which "sees" it and activates a lifetime immune response against the intruder. Since nicotine is a small molecule, it is not recognized by the immune system and cannot be built into an active vaccine.

The second type of vaccine is a passive vaccine, which delivers readymade antibodies to elicit an immune response. For example, the delivery of monoclonal (identically produced) antibodies that bind on to growth factor proteins on breast cancer cells shut down their activity.

The Weill Cornell research team developed a new, third kind -- a genetic vaccine -- that they initially tested in mice to treat certain eye diseases and tumor types. The team's new nicotine vaccine is based on this model.

The researchers took the genetic sequence of an engineered nicotine antibody, created by co-author Dr. Jim D. Janda, of The Scripps Research Institute, and put it into an adeno-associated virus (AAV), a virus engineered to not be harmful. They also included information that directed the vaccine to go to hepatocytes, which are liver cells. The antibody's genetic sequence then inserts itself into the nucleus of hepatocytes, and these cells start to churn out a steady stream of the antibodies, along with all the other molecules they make.

In mice studies, the vaccine produced high levels of the antibody continuously, which the researchers measured in the blood. They also discovered that little of the nicotine they administered to these mice reached the brain. Researchers tested activity of the experimental mice, treated with both a vaccine and nicotine, and saw that it was not altered; infrared beams in the animals' cages showed they were just as active as before the vaccine was delivered. In contrast, mice that received nicotine and not treated with the vaccine basically "chilled out" -- they relaxed and their blood pressure and heart activity were lowered -- signs that the nicotine had reached the brain and cardiovascular system.

The researchers are preparing to test the novel nicotine vaccine in rats and then in primates -- steps needed before it can be tested ultimately in humans.

Dr. Crystal says that, if successful, such a vaccine would best be used in smokers who are committed to quitting. "They will know if they start smoking again, they will receive no pleasure from it due to the nicotine vaccine, and that can help them kick the habit," he says.

He adds that it might be possible, given the complete safety of the vaccine, to use it to preempt nicotine addiction in individuals who have never smoked, in the same way that vaccines are used now to prevent a number of disease-producing infections. "Just as parents decide to give their children an HPV vaccine, they might decide to use a nicotine vaccine. But that is only theoretically an option at this point," Dr. Crystal says. "We would of course have to weight benefit versus risk, and it would take years of studies to establish such a threshold."

"Smoking affects a huge number of people worldwide, and there are many people who would like to quit, but need effective help," he says. "This novel vaccine may offer a much-needed solution."

New York- Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center/Weill Cornell Medical College


Related Nicotine Addiction Current Events and Nicotine Addiction News Articles


Cone snail venom holds promise for medical treatments for cancer and addiction
While considered a delicacy in some parts of the world, snails have found a more intriguing use to scientists and the medical profession offering a plethora of research possibilities.

E-cigarettes less addictive than cigarettes
E-cigarettes appear to be less addictive than cigarettes for former smokers and this could help improve understanding of how various nicotine delivery devices lead to dependence, according to researchers.

Miriam Hospital study finds smoking during pregnancy alters newborn stress hormones and DNA
Researchers from The Miriam Hospital have studied the effects of smoking during pregnancy and its impact on the stress response in newborn babies.

Scientists show that nicotine withdrawal reduces response to rewards across species
Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable death worldwide and is associated with approximately 440,000 deaths in the United States each year, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, but nearly 20 percent of the U.S. population continues to smoke cigarettes.

Menthol cigarettes linked to increased smoking among teens
Teens who use menthol cigarettes smoke more cigarettes per day than their peers who smoke non-menthols, says a new study.

Study shows cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation counseling during hospitalization
In a recent study published in Tobacco Control, researchers at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute have demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of the Ottawa Model for Smoking Cessation (OMSC), an intervention that includes in-hospital counseling, pharmacotherapy and post-hospital follow-up, compared to usual care among smokers hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, heart failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

E-Cigarettes Far Less Harmful Than Cigarettes, says London School of Economics Researcher at INFORMS Decision/Analytics Conference
A London School of Economics researcher examining the public and private dangers of drugs argues against demonizing e-cigarettes in a presentation being given at a conference of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS).

Maternal stress hormones and maternal smoking increase daughter's risk of nicotine dependence
Tobacco smoking by pregnant women has long been viewed as a public health risk because of smoking's adverse effects on the development of a fetus.

The smoking gun: Fish brains and nicotine
In researching neural pathways, it helps to establish an analogous relationship between a region of the human brain and the brains of more-easily studied animal species.

Electronic cigarettes: New route to smoking addiction for adolescents
E-cigarettes have been widely promoted as a way for people to quit smoking conventional cigarettes. Now, in the first study of its kind, UC San Francisco researchers are reporting that, at the point in time they studied, youth using e-cigarettes were more likely to be trying to quit, but also were less likely to have stopped smoking and were smoking more, not less.
More Nicotine Addiction Current Events and Nicotine Addiction News Articles

The Nicotine Addiction Cure - How to Stop Using Tobacco for Life and Achieve Recovery: How to Stop Using Tobacco for Life and Achieve Recovery (Recovery, Treatment)

The Nicotine Addiction Cure - How to Stop Using Tobacco for Life and Achieve Recovery: How to Stop Using Tobacco for Life and Achieve Recovery (Recovery, Treatment)


Discover How to Overcome Nicotine Addiction for Life!
Read this incredible ebook on your PC, MAC, smartphone, tablet, or Kindle Device.

You're about to discover proven recovery strategies on how to stay clean from all tobacco in it's various forms for the rest of your life. Hundreds of millions of people suffer from nicotine addiction, and tobacco is the second leading cause of death each year. More than 35 million people try to quit annually. This book has proven methods that have worked for millions of people on how to stop, and stay that way. Have you or a loved one tried to quit, but have been unsuccessful? This book maybe the answer that you have been searching for. Just like how not all humans learn the same way, not one single recovery strategy works for all...

The Addicted Brain: Why We Abuse Drugs, Alcohol, and Nicotine (FT Press Science)

The Addicted Brain: Why We Abuse Drugs, Alcohol, and Nicotine (FT Press Science)
by Michael Kuhar (Author)


Addiction destroys lives. In The Addicted Brain, leading neuroscientist Michael Kuhar, Ph.D., explains how and why this happens–and presents advances in drug addiction treatment and prevention. Using breathtaking brain imagery and other research, Kuhar shows the powerful, long-term brain changes that drugs can cause, revealing why it can be so difficult for addicts to escape their grip. Discover why some people are far more susceptible to addiction than others as the author illuminates striking neural similarities between drugs and other pleasures potentially capable of causing abuse or addiction–including alcohol, gambling, sex, caffeine, and even Internet overuse. Kuhar concludes by outlining the 12 characteristics most often associated with successful drug addiction treatment. ...

Nicotine Anonymous: The Book -Fourth Edition

Nicotine Anonymous: The Book -Fourth Edition
by Members of Nicotine Anonymous (Author), Nicotine Anonymous (Editor)


Nicotine Anonymous:The Book is a must buy for anyone contemplating using our 12 step program to quit abusing nicotine.

Nicotine Rage: A Guide to Quitting Chewing Tobacco

Nicotine Rage: A Guide to Quitting Chewing Tobacco
by Jason Aaron Baca (Author)


The average chewing tobacco addict will use an average of one can of snuff per day. The nicotine content in a can of dip or snuff is approximately 144 milligrams, which is equal to about eighty cigarettes! Most smokers have a hard enough time kicking a two-pack a day habit, let alone four. If you want to quit chewing tobacco and need some help getting started, this book is for you. You may realize that quitting some things in your life are actually good for you.

HOW TO QUIT SMOKING: A Quick Guide To Free Your Mind And Body From Nicotine Addiction And To Stop Smoking Cigarettes

HOW TO QUIT SMOKING: A Quick Guide To Free Your Mind And Body From Nicotine Addiction And To Stop Smoking Cigarettes


"Smoking causes lung cancer, heart disease, emphysema, and may complicate pregnancy"--you have read it countless times on your cigarette pack. "Smoking is killing you"--you have heard it from your family and well-meaning friends. So why is it so hard to quit smoking? It is because smokers who try to quit often focus on the wrong things. Once you fully understand the mind tricks that your own brain is conjuring up to further your addiction, you can better equip yourself to tackle the process of quitting smoking. This book will explain the important points that you need to understand to stop smoking for good. The points are explained in a concise quick-guide format so that you can get started right away in your first step to freedom and health.

Nicotine Addiction: "The essential and best selling guide to understand how nicotine addiction works"

Nicotine Addiction: "The essential and best selling guide to understand how nicotine addiction works"


Through substance abuse counselor notes, you may come to find that heroin addicts find it more difficult to quit the use of nicotine than heroin. The world has the perception that heroin is the most addictive drugs, but the deaths caused by nicotine make death's caused by heroin seem minuscule. Find out about the world's number one addiction, and how it eventually may be cured. I have a Bachelor's Degree of Business Administration, and I am also a nationally recognized personal trainer, certified by the National Federation of Professional Trainers (accredited by the NCAA), certificate number 45582.

If Only I Could Quit: Recovering From Nicotine Addiction

If Only I Could Quit: Recovering From Nicotine Addiction
by Karen Casey (Author)


This complete resource brings together personal stories of recovery, Twelve Step guidance, and 90 daily meditations to help us become nicotine-free. If Only I Could Quit is written by one of Hazelden's most popular meditation authors and a recovering nicotine addict.

Quit Smoking Now! - The Easy Way To Naturally Stop Your Smoking Addiction Forever (Tips to Stop Smoking, Quit Smoking For Life, Fast Guide To Stop Smoking)

Quit Smoking Now! - The Easy Way To Naturally Stop Your Smoking Addiction Forever (Tips to Stop Smoking, Quit Smoking For Life, Fast Guide To Stop Smoking)


Discover How To Overcome Smoking Addiction For Life
Today only, get this Kindle Book for just $2.99. Regularly priced
at $4.99. Read on your PC, Mac, smart phone, tablet or Kindle device.

You’re about to discover the proven step by step method of getting rid of your nicotine addiction forever, With the plan provided in this groundbreaking book, and a minimum commitment from your side, the smoking addiction will be forever gone!

Millions of people suffer from this very problem, and you are the one of very few that have decided to take action and for that, I respect you! "Quit Smoking Now!" and it's authentic methods will help you overcome the smoking addiction you have been struggling with, and enable you to join millions of others that indulge in...

Nicotine Addiction: Principles and Management

Nicotine Addiction: Principles and Management
by C. Tracy Orleans (Editor), John Slade (Editor)


Despite persistent warnings from the medical profession about the health risks involved in cigarette smoking, millions of people continue to smoke cigarettes. With contributions from renowned experts, this ground-breaking work defines and explains nicotine addiction as a primary problem or disease, instead of as a habit or risk factor for other diseases. A comprehensive, clinical text on tobacco dependence, this book provides clinicians with essential information on how to diagnose and treat nicotine addicted patients. It also offers the medical, epidemiological and behavioral science backgrounds necessary for understanding the process and dynamics of tobacco dependence. Following the traditional format of medical texts, the book first covers etiology, pathogenesis and complications, then...

Addiction Treatment: A Strengths Perspective (SW 393R 23-Treatment of Chemical Dependency)

Addiction Treatment: A Strengths Perspective (SW 393R 23-Treatment of Chemical Dependency)
by Katherine van Wormer (Author), Diane Rae Davis (Author)


ADDICTION TREATMENT covers the biological, psychological, and social aspects of alcoholism, eating disorders, compulsive gambling, and other addictions. As symbolized by the image on the book's cover, the authors bridge the gap between the popular twelve-step and harm-reduction approaches, thus illuminating how practitioners can guide clients down a trusted path that is tailored towards the client's particular needs. Through a number of first-person narratives about the experience of addiction, you will discover a realism and depth not commonly found in textbooks. In addition, the authors include topics such as the case against so-called underage drinking laws, that will draw you into the material and illustrate the importance of reducing harm within the biopsychological framework that...

© 2015 BrightSurf.com