Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Bee research sheds light on human sweet perception, metabolic disorders

July 02, 2012

Scientists at Arizona State University have discovered that honey bees may teach us about basic connections between taste perception and metabolic disorders in humans.

By experimenting with honey bee genetics, researchers have identified connections between sugar sensitivity, diabetic physiology and carbohydrate metabolism. Bees and humans may partially share these connections.

In a study published in the open-access journal PLoS Genetics (Public Library of Science), Gro Amdam, an associate professor, and Ying Wang, a research scientist, in the School of Life Sciences in ASU's College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, explain how for the first time, they've successfully inactivated two genes in the bees' "master regulator" module that controls food-related behaviors. By doing so, researchers discovered a possible molecular link between sweet taste perception and the state of internal energy.

"A bee's sensitivity to sugar reveals her attitude towards food, how old the bee is when she starts searching for nectar and pollen, and which kind of food she prefers to collect," said Wang, the lead author of the paper. "By suppressing these two 'master' genes, we discovered that bees can become more sensitive to sweet taste. But interestingly, those bees also had very high blood sugar levels, and low levels of insulin, much like people who have Type 1 diabetes."

In Amdam's honey bee lab at ASU, scientists suppressed two genes including vitellogenin, which is similar to a human gene called apolipoprotein B, and ultraspiracle, which partners with an insect hormone that has some functions in common with the human thyroid hormone. The team is the first in the world to accomplish this double gene-suppressing technique. Researchers used this method to understand how the master regulator works.

"Now, if one can use the bees to understand how taste perception and metabolic syndromes are connected, it's a very useful tool," said Amdam, who also has a honey bee laboratory at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences. "Most of what we know about deficits in human perceptions is from people who are very sick or have had a brain trauma. We know shockingly little about people in this area."

The researchers are now considering how, exactly, the bees' sweet taste was enhanced by the experiment. The most metabolically active tissue of the bee, called the fat body, may hold the key. The fat body is similar to the liver and abdominal fat in humans, in that it helps store nutrients and create energy.

Amdam explains that taste perception evolved as a survival mechanism, for bees as well as for people. For example, bitter foods may be poisonous or sweet taste may signal foods rich in calories for energy. For all animals, taste perception must communicate properly with one's internal energetic state to control food intake and maintain normal life functions. Without this, poorly functioning taste perception can contribute to unhealthy eating behaviors and metabolic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity.

"From this study, we realized we can take advantage of honey bees in understanding how food-related behaviors interact with internal metabolism, as well as how to manipulate these food-related behaviors in order to control metabolic disorders," added Amdam.

In addition to Amdam and Wang, the team included former ASU research partners Colin Brent, a research entomologist with the USDA, and Erin Fennern, now with Oregon Health Science University.

Arizona State University


Related Metabolic Disorders Current Events and Metabolic Disorders News Articles


Flatworms left in sunlight spur investigations into rare metabolic disorders
A type of flatworm could be a new weapon in the hunt for better ways to treat a group of diseases that can cause extreme sensitivity to light, facial hair growth, and hallucinations, according to a study published in the journal eLife.

Vitamin nicotinamide riboside protects mice from diabetes complications
A naturally occurring vitamin, nicotinamide riboside (NR), can lower blood sugar levels, reduce fatty liver, and prevent peripheral nerve damage in mouse models of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D), according to a new study by researchers at the University of Iowa and the Iowa City VA Health Care System.

Study reveals protein that dials immune responses up and down
Research led by scientists at the Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP) has identified a new regulator of immune responses.

Epigenetic modification increases susceptibility to obesity and predicts fatty liver
Scientists of the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD) led by the German Institute of Human Nutrition (DIfE) have shown in a mouse model that the epigenetic modification of the Igfbp2 gene observed in the young animal precedes a fatty liver in the adult animal later in life.

Converting cells to burn fat, not store it
Researchers have uncovered a new molecular pathway for stimulating the body to burn fat - a discovery that could help fight obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Waist not weight -- the key to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
A new study presented today demonstrates that a build-up of fat around the waist can cause more serious complications than obesity in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Enzyme may reduce risk of cardiovascular disease caused by HIV medications
According to the World Health Organization, approximately 37 million people are living with HIV. Antiviral medications are used to control the disease and prevent its progression to AIDS.

Women with impaired stress hormone before pregnancy have lower-birthweight babies
Before women even become pregnant, their biological profile may predict a lower-birthweight baby, a UCLA-led research team reports.

Metabolism protein found to also regulate feeding behavior in the brain
The molecular intricacies of hunger and satiety, pivotal for understanding metabolic disorders and the problem of obesity, are not yet fully understood by scientists.

From huts to cities: Changes in dwellings impact microbe exposure for human immune system
The shift from living in jungle huts to cities has dramatically changed human exposure to certain microbes, which could have implications for healthy immune function, according to a study led by researchers from NYU Langone Medical Center and published online Feb. 12, 2016 in Science Advances.
More Metabolic Disorders Current Events and Metabolic Disorders News Articles

Inborn Metabolic Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment

Inborn Metabolic Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment
by Jean-Marie Saudubray (Editor), Georges van den Berghe (Editor), John H. Walter (Editor)


Being up to Date: Status Quo and Trends of TreatmentFor those involved in the identification and management of patients with inborn errors of metabolism, this book is now recognised as the standard textbook in this interdisciplinary field. It has proved to be indispensable for professionals in specialities ranging from pediatrics, neonatology, pathological biochemistry and genetics to neurology, internal medicine, nursing, dietetics and psychology. This 5th edition has been extensively revised and updated.What´s new-          Additional chapter focusing on inborn errors affecting adults, particularly the late neurological presentations-          Numerous updates on diagnostic procedures and treatment-          Newly discovered disorders.As with previous...

Ketogenic Diet and Metabolic Therapies: Expanded Roles in Health and Disease

Ketogenic Diet and Metabolic Therapies: Expanded Roles in Health and Disease
by Susan A Masino (Editor)


Ketogenic diets have been used to successfully treat epilepsy and stop seizures for nearly a century. When more traditional therapies, such as pharmacology, reach their limitations for treatment, the metabolic approach surpasses, targeting the overall physiology and homeostatic functions of the patient.

Ketogenic Diet and Metabolic Therapies is the first comprehensive scientific resource on the ketogenic diet, covering the latest research including the biomedical mechanisms, established and emerging applications, metabolic alternatives, and implications for health and disease. Experts in clinical and basic research share their research into mechanisms spanning from ion channels to epigenetics, their insights based on decades of experience with the ketogenic diet in epilepsy, and...

Cancer as a Metabolic Disease: On the Origin, Management, and Prevention of Cancer

Cancer as a Metabolic Disease: On the Origin, Management, and Prevention of Cancer
by Thomas Seyfried (Author)


The book addresses controversies related to the origins of cancer and provides solutions to cancer management and prevention. It expands upon Otto Warburg's well-known theory that all cancer is a disease of energy metabolism.  However, Warburg did not link his theory to the "hallmarks of cancer" and thus his theory was discredited.  This book aims to provide evidence, through case studies, that cancer is primarily a metabolic disease requring metabolic solutions for its management and prevention.  Support for this position is derived from critical assessment of current cancer theories.  Brain cancer case studies are presented as a proof of principle for metabolic solutions to disease management, but similarities are drawn to other types of cancer, including breast and colon, due...

Inborn Metabolic Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment

Inborn Metabolic Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment
by Jean-Marie Saudubray (Editor), Matthias R. Baumgartner (Editor), John Walter (Editor)


This work is recognised as the standard textbook for professionals involved in the diagnosis and management of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) and an essential resource in this multidisciplinary field. For the 6th edition all 43 chapters have been newly written or revised by authors with particular expertise in their subject areas. Contents: A clinical and biochemical approach to the recognition and diagnosis of IEM with algorithms to symptoms, signs, and syndromes in patients of all ages; Emergency treatments; Medications – Separate comprehensive sections on IEM of: Carbohydrates; Mitochondrial Energy; Amino and organic acids; Vitamin-responsive defects; Neurotransmitter and Small peptides, Lipid and Bile Acids; Nucleic Acid and Heme; Organelles – Disorders affecting the...

Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism

Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism
by Clifford J. Rosen (Editor), Roger Bouillon (Editor), Juliet E. Compston (Editor), Vicki Rosen (Editor)


Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, 8th Edition is the comprehensive revision of the field-leading reference on bone and mineral health. The eighth edition has been fully revised by the leading researchers and clinicians in the field to provide concise coverage of the widest possible spectrum of metabolic bone diseases and disorders of mineral metabolism. Chapters look to explain basic biological factors of healthy development and disease states and make it easily translatable to clinical interventions.

Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism is the definitive, one-stop reference for anyone working in the field of bone health and disease.

Visit the companion site to access supplementary...

Metabolic Disorders in Poultry

Metabolic Disorders in Poultry
by J D Summer (Author), Clifford A. Adams (Author), S Leeson (Author)


Modern poultry production now has the ability to control most infectious diseases and it is evident that the economically significant issues relating to poultry health and welfare world-wide are non-infectious, most commonly referred to as metabolic disorders. General mortality of both meat birds and laying hens seem to affect birds with the greatest growth rate or the highest egg output, and is now most commonly due to disorders of various biological systems. Metabolic disorders such as those impacting skeletal development have also now become important animal welfare issues in many countries. This book addresses the problems of all the significant metabolic disorders such as ascites, sudden death syndrome, liver and kidney problems and skeletal disorders. In some instances we have...

Metabolic Bone Disease and Clinically Related Disorders, Third Edition

Metabolic Bone Disease and Clinically Related Disorders, Third Edition
by Louis V. Avioli (Editor), Stephen M. Krane (Editor)


Metabolic Bone Disease, Third Edition is the new, expanded edition of the classic text, featuring the latest advancements and research information in this fast-moving field. The Third Edition includes the most up-to-date information on molecular mechanisms, basic biology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis and management strategies of metabolic bone disease.

Key Features
* Edited by "fathers of the field"
* An expanded version of a classic AP text
* Complete coverage of a fast-growing field

Fast Metabolism Food Rx: 7 Powerful Prescriptions to Feed Your Body Back to Health

Fast Metabolism Food Rx: 7 Powerful Prescriptions to Feed Your Body Back to Health
by Haylie Pomroy (Author)


WANT TO FEEL GREAT, DISEASE-PROOF YOUR BODY, AND LIVE AT YOUR IDEAL WEIGHT?  THEN, EAT YOUR MEDICINE
 
Haylie Pomroy, celebrated nutritionist, and #1 New York Times bestselling author of The Fast Metabolism Diet, shares a food prescription for the 7 most common ways your metabolism misfires and leads to exhaustion, excess weight, and illness. With her targeted eating plans you can feed your body back to a vibrant, energetic, and thriving state.
When multiple health challenges threatened the author’s life, it set her on an investigative journey that was life-changing—and lifesaving.  In this book, she shares her personal story for the first time, as well as the powerful food programs she created based on the methods and philosophies that saved her life and helped her...

Cracking the Metabolic Code: 9 Keys to Optimal Health

Cracking the Metabolic Code: 9 Keys to Optimal Health
by James B Lavalle R.P.H. C.C.N. N.D. (Author), Stacy Lundin Yale R.N. B.S.N. (Contributor)


Dr. LaValle offers a compelling new approach to solving the problems of heart disease, obesity, cancer, diabetes, depression, arthritis, allergies, asthma, and chronic fatigue syndrome. The answers lie in his breakthrough book Cracking The Metabolic Code, in which he brings together The Nine Key Factors within every human body that are essential for the creation and maintenance of a strong, healthy body at every age and stage of life.

Metabolic Syndrome and Neurological Disorders

Metabolic Syndrome and Neurological Disorders
by Akhlaq A. Farooqui (Editor), Tahira Farooqui (Editor)


Metabolic Syndrome and Neurological Disorders brings together information on the cluster of common pathologies which cause metabolic syndrome - abdominal obesity linked to an excess of visceral fat, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension - to provide a comprehensive and cutting edge exploration of the link between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders. Metabolic syndrome is recognized to play a role in neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and depression. For the first time in book form, Metabolic Syndrome and Neurological Disorders covers the molecular mechanisms thought to underlie this mirror relationship, as well as how lifestyle and other factors such as oxidative stress and inflammation may play a role in the disease. Grounded in a series of...

© 2016 BrightSurf.com