Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Bee research sheds light on human sweet perception, metabolic disorders

July 02, 2012
Scientists at Arizona State University have discovered that honey bees may teach us about basic connections between taste perception and metabolic disorders in humans.

By experimenting with honey bee genetics, researchers have identified connections between sugar sensitivity, diabetic physiology and carbohydrate metabolism. Bees and humans may partially share these connections.

In a study published in the open-access journal PLoS Genetics (Public Library of Science), Gro Amdam, an associate professor, and Ying Wang, a research scientist, in the School of Life Sciences in ASU's College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, explain how for the first time, they've successfully inactivated two genes in the bees' "master regulator" module that controls food-related behaviors. By doing so, researchers discovered a possible molecular link between sweet taste perception and the state of internal energy.

"A bee's sensitivity to sugar reveals her attitude towards food, how old the bee is when she starts searching for nectar and pollen, and which kind of food she prefers to collect," said Wang, the lead author of the paper. "By suppressing these two 'master' genes, we discovered that bees can become more sensitive to sweet taste. But interestingly, those bees also had very high blood sugar levels, and low levels of insulin, much like people who have Type 1 diabetes."

In Amdam's honey bee lab at ASU, scientists suppressed two genes including vitellogenin, which is similar to a human gene called apolipoprotein B, and ultraspiracle, which partners with an insect hormone that has some functions in common with the human thyroid hormone. The team is the first in the world to accomplish this double gene-suppressing technique. Researchers used this method to understand how the master regulator works.

"Now, if one can use the bees to understand how taste perception and metabolic syndromes are connected, it's a very useful tool," said Amdam, who also has a honey bee laboratory at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences. "Most of what we know about deficits in human perceptions is from people who are very sick or have had a brain trauma. We know shockingly little about people in this area."

The researchers are now considering how, exactly, the bees' sweet taste was enhanced by the experiment. The most metabolically active tissue of the bee, called the fat body, may hold the key. The fat body is similar to the liver and abdominal fat in humans, in that it helps store nutrients and create energy.

Amdam explains that taste perception evolved as a survival mechanism, for bees as well as for people. For example, bitter foods may be poisonous or sweet taste may signal foods rich in calories for energy. For all animals, taste perception must communicate properly with one's internal energetic state to control food intake and maintain normal life functions. Without this, poorly functioning taste perception can contribute to unhealthy eating behaviors and metabolic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity.

"From this study, we realized we can take advantage of honey bees in understanding how food-related behaviors interact with internal metabolism, as well as how to manipulate these food-related behaviors in order to control metabolic disorders," added Amdam.

In addition to Amdam and Wang, the team included former ASU research partners Colin Brent, a research entomologist with the USDA, and Erin Fennern, now with Oregon Health Science University.

Arizona State University


Related Metabolic Disorders Current Events and Metabolic Disorders News Articles


Penn researchers unwind the mysteries of the cellular clock
Human existence is basically circadian. Most of us wake in the morning, sleep in the evening, and eat in between. Body temperature, metabolism, and hormone levels all fluctuate throughout the day, and it is increasingly clear that disruption of those cycles can lead to metabolic disease.

Newly discovered hormone with potential treatment for obesity, type 2 diabetes, liver disease
Researchers at the University of Michigan have discovered how a previously unknown hormone serves as a messenger from fat cells to the liver and are investigating the potential of developing a new treatment for metabolic disorders.

Penn-led Team Pieces Together Signaling Pathway Leading to Obesity
As scientists probe the molecular underpinnings of why some people are prone to obesity and some to leanness, they are discovering that weight maintenance is more complicated than the old "calories in, calories out" adage.

Resetting the circadian clock: Shift workers might want to skip high-iron foods
Workers punching in for the graveyard shift may be better off not eating high-iron foods at night so they don't disrupt the circadian clock in their livers.

Structure of an iron-transport protein revealed
For the first time, the three dimensional structure of the protein that is essential for iron import into cells, has been elucidated.

Pattern recognition receptors may be potent new drug targets for immune-mediated diseases
Chronic inflammation caused by activation of the human immune system contributes to a large and rapidly growing list of diseases including some cancers, cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders, and autoimmune diseases.

Scientists discover a 'good' fat that fights diabetes
Scientists at the Salk Institute and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in Boston have discovered a new class of molecules-produced in human and mouse fat-that protects against diabetes.

An apple a day could keep obesity away
Scientists at Washington State University have concluded that nondigestible compounds in apples - specifically, Granny Smith apples - may help prevent disorders associated with obesity.

Not enough vitamin B1 can cause brain damage
A deficiency of a single vitamin, B1 (thiamine), can cause a potentially fatal brain disorder called Wernicke encephalopathy.

Is a Gluten-Free Diet Enough to Control the Complications of Celiac Disease?
A lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD) is the conventional approach to managing celiac disease, a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting the small intestine that can result in malnutrition.
More Metabolic Disorders Current Events and Metabolic Disorders News Articles

Inborn Metabolic Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment

Inborn Metabolic Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment
by Jean-Marie Saudubray (Editor), Georges van den Berghe (Editor), John H. Walter (Editor)


Being up to Date: Status Quo and Trends of TreatmentFor those involved in the identification and management of patients with inborn errors of metabolism, this book is now recognised as the standard textbook in this interdisciplinary field. It has proved to be indispensable for professionals in specialities ranging from pediatrics, neonatology, pathological biochemistry and genetics to neurology, internal medicine, nursing, dietetics and psychology. This 5th edition has been extensively revised and updated.What´s new-          Additional chapter focusing on inborn errors affecting adults, particularly the late neurological presentations-          Numerous updates on diagnostic procedures and treatment-          Newly discovered disorders.As with previous...

Atlas of Inherited Metabolic Diseases 3E

Atlas of Inherited Metabolic Diseases 3E
by William L Nyhan (Author), Bruce A Barshop (Author), Aida I Al-Aqeel (Author)


In a field where even experts may find that years have elapsed since they last encountered a child with a given disorder, it is essential for the clinician to have a comprehensive source of practical and highly illustrated information covering the whole spectrum of metabolic disease to refer to. The third edition of this highly regarded book, authored by three of the foremost authorities in pediatric metabolic medicine, fulfils this need by providing an invaluable insight into the problems associated with metabolic diseases.

The Atlas of Metabolic Disease is divided into sections of related disorders, such as disorders of amino acid metabolism, lipid storage disorders and mitochondrial diseases, with an introductory outline where appropriate summarizing the biochemical features and...

It Starts With Food: Discover the Whole30 and Change Your Life in Unexpected Ways

It Starts With Food: Discover the Whole30 and Change Your Life in Unexpected Ways
by Melissa Hartwig (Author), Dallas Hartwig (Author)


IMAGINE YOURSELF HEALTHIER THAN YOU EVER THOUGHT POSSIBLE.
IT STARTS WITH FOOD.

It Starts With Food outlines a clear, balanced, sustainable plan to change the way you eat forever—and transform your life in profound and unexpected ways. Your success story begins with the Whole30®, Dallas and Melissa Hartwig’s powerful 30-day nutritional reset.
Since 2009, their underground Whole30 program has quietly led tens of thousands of people to weight loss, enhanced quality of life, and a healthier relationship with food—accompanied by stunning improvements in sleep, energy levels, mood, and self-esteem. More significant, many people have reported the “magical” elimination of a variety of symptoms, diseases, and conditions in just 30 days.
diabetes • high...

Nutrition Management of Patients With Inherited Metabolic Disorders

Nutrition Management of Patients With Inherited Metabolic Disorders
by Phyllis B. Acosta (Author)


5 Stars! Doody's Book Review Written by the foremost nutritionists in the United States, each of whom has more than 15 years of clinical experience providing nutrition management of patients with an inherited metabolic disorder (IMD), Nutrition Management of Patients with Inherited Metabolic Disorders supplies information to enhance the knowledge and skills needed by nutritionists/dietitians and other health care professionals who provide services to patients with IMDs. Many disorders that are disastrous to patients have been diagnosed and managed by diet, improving neurological and physical outcomes. However, nutrition problems still occur, whether due to the quality of the medical foods, inadequate prescription by health care providers or poor diet adherence by the patient. This book...

Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism

Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism
by Clifford J. Rosen (Editor), Roger Bouillon (Editor), Juliet E. Compston (Editor), Vicki Rosen (Editor)


Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, 8th Edition is the comprehensive revision of the field-leading reference on bone and mineral health. The eighth edition has been fully revised by the leading researchers and clinicians in the field to provide concise coverage of the widest possible spectrum of metabolic bone diseases and disorders of mineral metabolism. Chapters look to explain basic biological factors of healthy development and diseased states and make it easily translatable to clinical interventions. Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism is the definitive, one-stop reference for anyone working in the field of bone health and disease

The Metabolic Plan: Stay Younger Longer

The Metabolic Plan: Stay Younger Longer
by Stephen Cherniske (Author)


The choice is yours: You can add forty or more vigorous, fulfilling years to your life. It sounds like science fiction, but in fact it’s cutting-edge science grounded in exciting new research. In The Metabolic Plan, internationally renowned biochemist Stephen Cherniske reveals the medical breakthroughs that enable all of us to extend our lives—and the quality of our lives—starting today.

Far from giving out due to inevitable wear and tear, the human body is naturally endowed with astonishing powers of renewal, self-repair, and regeneration. The secret to unlocking these powers lies not in genetic tinkering or a high-tech fix but in “tricking” your body into adopting the metabolism of a twenty-year-old. The Metabolic Plan offers a comprehensive diet and exercise regimen...

Cancer as a Metabolic Disease: On the Origin, Management, and Prevention of Cancer

Cancer as a Metabolic Disease: On the Origin, Management, and Prevention of Cancer
by Thomas Seyfried (Author)


The book addresses controversies related to the origins of cancer and provides solutions to cancer management and prevention. It expands upon Otto Warburg's well-known theory that all cancer is a disease of energy metabolism. However, Warburg did not link his theory to the "hallmarks of cancer" and thus his theory was discredited. This book aims to provide evidence, through case studies, that cancer is primarily a metabolic disease requring metabolic solutions for its management and prevention. Support for this position is derived from critical assessment of current cancer theories. Brain cancer case studies are presented as a proof of principle for metabolic solutions to disease management, but similarities are drawn to other types of cancer, including breast and colon, due to the...

Metabolic Disorders in Poultry

Metabolic Disorders in Poultry
by J D Summer (Author), Clifford A. Adams (Author), S Leeson (Author)


Modern poultry production now has the ability to control most infectious diseases and it is evident that the economically significant issues relating to poultry health and welfare world-wide are non-infectious, most commonly referred to as metabolic disorders. General mortality of both meat birds and laying hens seem to affect birds with the greatest growth rate or the highest egg output, and is now most commonly due to disorders of various biological systems. Metabolic disorders such as those impacting skeletal development have also now become important animal welfare issues in many countries. This book addresses the problems of all the significant metabolic disorders such as ascites, sudden death syndrome, liver and kidney problems and skeletal disorders. In some instances we have...

Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders: Clinical Lab Testing Manual, Fourth Edition

Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders: Clinical Lab Testing Manual, Fourth Edition
by Robert F. Dons (Author), Frank H. Wians Jr. (Author)


Bottom Line Information to Effectively Diagnose Disorders The diagnosis, management, and clinical testing associated with old, traditional, and new endocrine disorders have seen numerous advances during the past 10 years since the publication of the previous edition of this bestselling resource. Updating its classic predecessor in content and format, Endocrine and Metabolic Testing Manual, Fourth Edition provides an authoritative and comprehensive resource on the clinical, diagnostic, and laboratory testing for endocrine disorders. Presents Relevant ICD-9 Codes for All Procedures and Tests Written by two widely respected authorities with more than 60 years of combined experience in diagnostic endocrinology, this medical guide is organized by endocrine organ system into 12 chapters. All...

The Pocket Guide to the DSM-5(TM) Diagnostic Exam

The Pocket Guide to the DSM-5(TM) Diagnostic Exam
by Abraham M. Nussbaum (Author)


The Pocket Guide to the DSM-5 Diagnostic Exam is the only interview book with DSM-5 criteria.The guide addresses the goals of the interview, provides an efficient structure for learning how to conduct one, reviews the screening questions, and then explains how DSM-5 impacts the interview. The sixth chapter, the core of the guide, walks the reader through a complete diagnostic exam that includes the follow-up questions for each DSM-5 disorder class. The book is for beginners learning the format and flow of the diagnostic interview and for seasoned clinicians conducting an interview consistent with DSM-5's significant revisions. The Pocket Guide to the DSM-5 Diagnostic Exam is a pragmatic and concise resource for diagnosing a person in mental distress while establishing a therapeutic...

© 2014 BrightSurf.com