Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Safer radiologic imaging of otolaryngologic disease in children

July 02, 2012

Alexandria, VA -- Advances in diagnostic imaging have benefited children with otolaryngologic disease, allowing shorter hospital stays, fewer invasive procedures, more targeted surgical procedures, and earlier and more precise diagnoses. However, despite improved technology, concerns about exposure of children to ionizing radiation have recently come to the forefront, according to a commentary in the July 2012 issue of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.

Children have more radiosensitive body tissues than adults, and also tend to live longer, giving the effects of radiation exposure time to manifest. According to sources cited in the study, about seven million CT scans are performed on children every year in the United States alone, and medical source radiation exposure accounts for almost half our total radiation exposure in the United States.

This commentary discusses efforts "to reduce the exposure of children to radiation from diagnostic imaging, with focus on the responsibilities of the otolaryngologist in such efforts." The challenge lies, the authors write, in determining when CT scans are necessary and making this information widely available to otolaryngologists and others.

Several suggestions and resources are provided. The authors discuss the ALARA principle (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) and suggest that reducing radiation dosage is as simple as scanning only the indicated area. Two online resources exist: The American College of Radiology has provided Appropriateness Criteria (http://acr.org/ac) and the Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging has created the site www.imagegently.org.

Other sources cited in the study provide three strategies to reduce radiation exposure from CT scans: 1) order fewer CT scans, 2) use another imaging modality that does not use ionizing radiation when possible, 3) reduce the radiation dose of each study.

The authors conclude that "safer imaging of children is a shared responsibility." It is important to order the right test at the right time, and to "consider the appropriateness of imaging, assuring that the best modality is being ordered, that the imaging actually influences management, and that the timing of imaging is ideal."

American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery


Related Radiation Exposure Current Events and Radiation Exposure News Articles


Heavy smokers who quit more than 15 years ago still at high risk for lung cancer and should be screened
Expanding lung cancer screening to include people who quit smoking more than 15 years ago could detect more cases and further reduce associated mortality, according to a study by Mayo Clinic researchers published in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology.

Thyroid cancer patients report poor quality of life despite 'good' diagnosis
Thyroid cancer survivors report poor quality of life after diagnosis and treatment compared with other patients who are diagnosed with more lethal cancers, according to new research from the University of Chicago Medicine.

Reduced blood flow seen in brain after clinical recovery of acute concussion
Some athletes who experience sports-related concussions have reduced blood flow in parts of their brains even after clinical recovery, according to a study presented today at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

Gravity, who needs it?
What happens to your body in space? NASA's Human Research Program has been unfolding answers for over a decade.

Concussions in kids are detectable by blood test
Researchers at Orlando Health have developed a blood test that can detect even the most subtle signs of a concussion in children, correctly identifying the presence of traumatic brain injuries 94 percent of the time in a recent study.

Study provides more precise estimates of cancer risks associated with low level radiation
More precise estimates of cancer risks associated with prolonged, low level exposure to ionising radiation among nuclear industry workers are published by The BMJ today.

New decision instruments could help avoid unnecessary scans after chest trauma
Two new clinical decision instruments (DIs) may allow physicians to rule out chest injury before resorting to computed tomography (CT) scans, avoiding unnecessary chest CT-associated costs and radiation exposure in approximately one-third of blunt trauma patients, according to a study appearing in this week's PLOS Medicine by Dr Robert Rodriguez of the University of California, San Francisco, and colleagues.

Low-cost blood test good predictor of increased bleeding risk in pediatric trauma patients
A team of researchers from the Trauma Program at Children's Hospital Los Angeles conclude that an admission hematocrit provides a reliable screening test for identifying pediatric patients who are at an increased risk of bleeding after injury.

Cellular contamination pathway for plutonium, other heavy elements, identified
Scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have reported a major advance in understanding the biological chemistry of radioactive metals, opening up new avenues of research into strategies for remedial action in the event of possible human exposure to nuclear contaminants.

New drug protects against the deadly effects of nuclear radiation 24 hours after exposure
An interdisciplinary research team led by The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston reports a new breakthrough in countering the deadly effects of radiation exposure.
More Radiation Exposure Current Events and Radiation Exposure News Articles

Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation:: BEIR VII Phase 2

Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation:: BEIR VII Phase 2
by Committee to Assess Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation (Author), Board on Radiation Effects Research (Author), Division on Earth and Life Studies (Author), National Research Council (Author)


BEIR VII develops the most up-to-date and comprehensive risk estimates for cancer and other health effects from exposure to low-level ionizing radiation. It is among the first reports of its kind to include detailed estimates for cancer incidence in addition to cancer mortality. In general, BEIR VII supports previously reported risk estimates for cancer and leukemia, but the availability of new and more extensive data have strengthened confidence in these estimates. A comprehensive review of available biological and biophysical data supports a "linear-no-threshold" (LNT) risk modelâ€"that the risk of cancer proceeds in a linear fashion at lower doses without a threshold and that the smallest dose has the potential to cause a small increase in risk to humans. The report is from the...

Radiation Exposure and Image Quality in X-Ray Diagnostic Radiology: Physical Principles and Clinical Applications

Radiation Exposure and Image Quality in X-Ray Diagnostic Radiology: Physical Principles and Clinical Applications
by Horst Aichinger (Author), Joachim Dierker (Author), Sigrid Joite-Barfuß (Author), Manfred Säbel (Author)


This completely updated second edition of Radiation Exposure and Image Quality in X-ray Diagnostic Radiology provides the reader with detailed guidance on the optimization of radiological imaging. The basic physical principles of diagnostic radiology are first presented in detail, and their application to clinical problems is then carefully explored. The final section is a supplement containing tables of data and graphical depictions of X-ray spectra, interaction coefficients, characteristics of X-ray beams, and other aspects relevant to patient dose calculations. In addition, a complementary CD-ROM contains a user-friendly Excel file database covering these aspects that can be used in the reader’s own programs. This book will be an invaluable aid to medical physicists when performing...

Radiographic Imaging and Exposure, 4e (Fauber, Radiographic Imaging & Exposure)

Radiographic Imaging and Exposure, 4e (Fauber, Radiographic Imaging & Exposure)
by Terri L. Fauber EdD RT(R)(M) (Author)


With comprehensive coverage of both digital radiography and conventional film-screen radiography, RADIOGRAPHIC IMAGING AND EXPOSURE, 4th Edition helps you master the fundamental principles of imaging, produce clear images, and reduce the number of repeat radiographs. This practical text also includes Important Relationship, Mathematical Application, and Patient Protection Alert features throughout to provide helpful information every step of the way. Comprehensive coverage of both digital radiography and conventional film-screen radiography helps students and radiographers master the fundamental principles of imaging, produce clear images, and reduce the number of repeat radiographs. UNIQUE! Integrated digital radiography coverage includes information on how to acquire, process, and...

Radiography In the Digital Age: Physics - Exposure - Radiation Biology (2nd Ed.)

Radiography In the Digital Age: Physics - Exposure - Radiation Biology (2nd Ed.)
by Quinn B. Carroll (Author)


Long overdue, this new work provides just the right focus and scope for the practice of radiography in this digital age, covering four entire courses in a typical radiography program. The entire emphasis of foundational physics has been adjusted in order to properly support the specific information on digital imaging that will follow. The paradigm shift in imaging terminology is reflected by the careful phrasing of concepts, accurate descriptions and clear illustrations throughout the book. There are 713 illustrations, including meticulous color line drawings, numerous photographs and stark radiographs. The two chapters on digital image processing alone include 60 beautifully executed illustrations. Foundational chapters on math and basic physics maintain a focus on energy physics....

Radiation Exposure Level and Effects

Radiation Exposure Level and Effects
by Ronald L. Conte Jr. (Author)


This booklet examines different levels of radiation exposure and their effects. The radiation might be from a nuclear power plant disaster, or a dirty bomb, or fallout from a nuclear explosion. The different levels of radiation are categorized by the associated negative health effects, risk of cancer, and risk of death. This booklet also proposes a new method of classifying radiation exposure level (REL), based on the range of accumulated dosage. Each level of exposure is designated by a letter, a word or phrase, a color code, and a range of accumulated radiation exposure in sieverts.

REL = Radiation Exposure Level (A through F3)
A: Normal -- less than 15 mSv/year [green]
B: Elevated -- 15 to 50 mSv [green]
C: Caution -- 50 to 100 mSv [yellow]
D: Danger -- 100 to...

Radiation - Exposure and its treatment: A modern handbook

Radiation - Exposure and its treatment: A modern handbook
by Butterfly Sciences


If you have bought this book, you can get the updates for free. However, Amazon has made it a bit difficult. First, you have set your device settings to accept updates. Click here and select the devices tab. www.amazon.com/gp/digital/fiona/manage After you have done that, see if you can get it. If not, complain to customer support. They assure me that they will get you your updates that way.

This book has been tested on Kindles, emulator for iPhone, and the free Calibre e-book reader available from calibre-ebook.com. Most any reading app should work, but some of them don't show the TOC properly. This book's TOC has multiple levels. If the reading app won't show it, try another one.

Thanks to my readers for their interest and questions that led to this new...

Radiography in the Digital Age: Physics - Exposure - Radiation Biology

Radiography in the Digital Age: Physics - Exposure - Radiation Biology
by Quinn B. Carroll (Author)




Multiple Exposures: Chronicles of the Radiation Age

Multiple Exposures: Chronicles of the Radiation Age
by Catherine Caufield (Author)


"Catherine Caufield has written an important book on an important topic:
the history behind the safety standards limiting the effects of high energy
radiation on human beings. . . . Provides an immense amount of information
in a very readable form."—W. Alan Runciman, Prometheus

"From fallout and radon to radioactive smoke detectors and dental X-rays,
Caufield traces the proliferation of the uses of radiation in medicine,
industry and the military, and in generating energy. An intelligent,
non-alarmist history."—Publishers Weekly

Radiation Protection in Medical Radiography, 7e

Radiation Protection in Medical Radiography, 7e
by Mary Alice Statkiewicz Sherer AS RT(R) FASRT (Author), Paula J. Visconti PhD DABR (Author), E. Russell Ritenour PhD DABR FAAPM FACR (Author), Kelli Haynes MSRS RT(R) (Author)


"..well written and easy to comprehend". Reviewed by Kirsten Farrell on behalf of RAD Magazine, March 2015Full-color illustrations reinforce important information.Convenient, easy-to-use features include chapter outlines and objectives, highlighting of key terms, and bulleted summaries and review questions to enhance comprehension and retention.Clear and concise writing style covers complex concepts in radiation protection, biology, and physics in a building-block approach from basic to more complex concepts. Review questions are included at the end of chapters to assess your comprehension, with answers on the Evolve companion website.Coverage of historical radiological disasters includes photos and text on Hiroshoma, Chernobyl, and Three-Mile Island. UPDATED! NCRP and ICRP content...

Principles of Radiographic Imaging: An Art and A Science (Carlton,Principles of Radiographic Imaging)

Principles of Radiographic Imaging: An Art and A Science (Carlton,Principles of Radiographic Imaging)
by Richard R. Carlton (Author), Arlene McKenna Adler (Author)


An overview of imaging modalities, PRINCIPLES OF RADIOGRAPHIC IMAGING: AN ART & A SCIENCE, 5th Edition delivers essential information on radiographic contrast, density, detail, and distortion, as well as the latest instrumentation and technology used in the imaging sciences. Building logically from the simplest concepts to the more complex, the book ties topics together visually and conceptually in a thorough presentation of radiographic exposure.

© 2016 BrightSurf.com