Genetic link to rapid weight gain from antipsychotics discovered
July 18, 2012
Toronto - Scientists have discovered two genetic variants associated with the substantial, rapid weight gain occurring in nearly half the patients treated with antipsychotic medications, according to two studies involving the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH).
These results could eventually be used to identify which patients have the variations, enabling clinicians to choose strategies to prevent this serious side-effect and offer more personalized treatment.
"Weight gain occurs in up to 40 per cent of patients taking medications called second-generation or atypical antipsychotics, which are used because they're effective in controlling the major symptoms of schizophrenia," says CAMH Scientist Dr. James Kennedy, senior author on the most recent study published online in the Archives of General Psychiatry.
This weight gain can lead to obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart problems and a shortened life span. "Identifying genetic risks leading to these side-effects will help us prescribe more effectively," says Dr. Kennedy, head of the new Tanenbaum Centre for Pharmacogenetics, which is part of CAMH's Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute. Currently, CAMH screens for two other genetic variations that affect patients' responses to psychiatric medications.
Each study identified a different variation near the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene, which is known to be linked to obesity.
In the Archives of General Psychiatry study, people carrying two copies of a variant gained about three times as much weight as those with one or no copies, after six to 12 weeks of treatment with atypical antipsychotics. (The difference was approximately 6 kg versus 2 kg.) The study had four patient groups: two from the U.S., one in Germany and one from a larger European study.
"The weight gain was associated with this genetic variation in all these groups, which included pediatric patients with severe behaviour or mood problems, and patients with schizophrenia experiencing a first episode or who did not respond to other antipsychotic treatments," says CAMH Scientist Dr. Daniel Müller. "The results from our genetic analysis combined with this diverse set of patients provide compelling evidence for the role of this MC4R variant. Our research group has discovered other gene variants associated with antipsychotic-induced weight gain in the past, but this one appears to be the most compelling finding thus far."
Three of the four groups had never previously taken atypical antipsychotics. Different groups were treated with drugs such as olanzapine, risperidone, aripiprazole or quetiapine, and compliance was monitored to ensure the treatment regime was followed. Weight and other metabolic-related measures were taken at the start and during treatment.
A genome-wide association study was conducted on pediatric patients by the study's lead researcher, Dr. Anil Malhotra, at the Zucker Hillside Hospital in Glen Oaks, NY. In this type of study, variations are sought across a person's entire set of genes to identify those associated with a particular trait. The result pointed to the MC4R gene.
This gene's role in antipsychotic-induced weight gain had been identified in a CAMH study published earlier this year in The Pharmacogenomics Journal, involving Drs. Müller and Kennedy, and conducted by PhD student Nabilah Chowdhury. They found a different variation on MC4R that was linked to the side-effect.
For both studies, CAMH researchers did genotyping experiments to identify the single changes to the sequence of the MC4R gene - known as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) - related to the drug-induced weight gain side-effect.
The MC4R gene encodes a receptor involved in the brain pathways regulating weight, appetite and satiety. "We don't know exactly how the atypical antipsychotics disrupt this pathway, or how this variation affects the receptor," says Dr. Müller. "We need further studies to validate this result and eventually turn this into a clinical application."
The CAMH researchers were supported by a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) grant and a NARSAD grant from the U.S. Brain and Behavior Fund.
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health
Related Weight Gain Current Events and Weight Gain News ArticlesSunshine may slow weight gain and diabetes onset, study suggests
Exposure to moderate amounts of sunshine may slow the development of obesity and diabetes, a study suggests.Mother's gestational diabetes linked to daughters being overweight later
Women who developed gestational diabetes and were overweight before pregnancy were at a higher risk of having daughters who were obese later in childhood, according to new research published today in Diabetes Care.Study Shows How Troubled Marriage, Depression History Promote Obesity
The double-whammy of marital hostility and a history of depression can increase the risk for obesity in adults by altering how the body processes high-fat foods, according to new research.Reading a Biological Clock in the Dark
Our species' waking and sleeping cycles - shaped in millions of years of evolution - have been turned upside down within a single century with the advent of electric lighting and airplanes.Weight gain study suggests polyunsaturated oil healthier option
Short-term modest weight gains in healthy, normal weight young adults was associated with more bad cholesterol levels in those who ate muffins cooked using saturated oil. Follow the leader: Insects benefit from good leadership too
Scientists have shown for the first time that when insect larvae follow a leader to forage for food, both leaders and followers benefit, growing much faster than if they are in a group of only leaders or only followers.Eating Breakfast Increases Brain Chemical Involved in Regulating Food Intake and Cravings, MU Researchers Find
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), many teens skip breakfast, which increases their likelihood of overeating and eventual weight gain. Diet and exercise during pregnancy has hidden benefits
It might not be obvious on the scales, but healthy eating and increased physical activity from walking during pregnancy is directly associated with a range of improved outcomes at birth, according to researchers from the University of Adelaide.Lose the weight, not the potatoes
Research published this week in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition demonstrates that people can eat potatoes and still lose weight. Slow enteral feeding protocol can reduce instances of death in extreme preterm infants
A standardized slow enteral feeding (SSEF) protocol significantly reduces the incidence of necrotizing enterocoltis (NEC), or death of intestinal tissue, and death in infants with extremely low birth weight, according to a new study.
More Weight Gain Current Events and Weight Gain News Articles
Gain Weight: Workout Guide & Diet Guide (Gain Weight, Workout Guide, Diet Guide, Build Muscle, Exercise, Fitness, Nutrition)|
by Gain Weight
A Proven, Step-By-Step Method To Gaining Weight And Building Muscle!
Today only, get this Amazon bestseller for just $2.99. Regularly priced at $4.99. Read on your PC, Mac, smart phone, tablet or Kindle device.
You’re about to discover...
The real reasons why it has been so hard for you to gain weight. Learn about the types of food you are putting into your body. Understand why it has been difficult for you to build muscle. Learn great exercises and workouts for putting on mass. Learn about nutrition and the types of food you should put in your body. Nutrition is extremely crucial in gaining weight and building muscle. Learn the psychological aspect during workouts. And lastly, learn great exercises to really put on mass and transform your body! ...
How to Gain Weight and Build Muscle in only 90 days - Special Edition for Skinny People|
Are you looking to dramatically change your physic by putting on mass and building muscle?
Do you want to be the guy all the girls say "That guy has sexy arms" (…I'm serious).
Do you want look good and feel comfortable naked?
Well if you are, then this book is for you.
In "How to gain weight and build muscle in only 90 days" you'll not only learn how to quickly put on mass but you'll also learn:
- How to develop your own personal diet to build your body
- How to use supplements for your body type
- How to correctly develop your form to ensure maximum benefit and injury avoidance
- What compound exercises you should use that will build your body faster
- How to maximize your gym session with...
Creative Calories and Recipes For Weight Gain: Featuring Distinguished Chefs|
by Debbie Kaufman (Author), LaurieAnn Scher MS RD CDE (Author), Melanie Katrinak RD CSP LDN (Author)
Creative Calories & Recipes for Weight Gain is a cookbook and resource created to help the millions of people who are struggling to gain weight due to a variety of conditions ranging from genetics and/or psychological reasons to temporary or on-going medical conditions and diseases. Weight loss may often result in people suffering from Cancer, Aging, Depression, Anxiety, ADD/ADHD, OCD, Growth Hormone Deficiency, Anorexia, Cystic Fibrosis, Parkinson's Disease or Post OP, to name a few. Creative Calories & Recipes for Weight Gain is a different kind of cookbook. It is the result of the passion of a mother of a child who lost excessive weight, and the knowledge and experience of two Registered Dietitians who know that there is an underserved segment of people dealing with...
30-Day Weight-Gain Plan|
Are you too skinny? Have you tried to gain weight and just can’t? If you answered “yes” to either of these questions, this book is for you!
Growing up the “skinniest kid on the block”, the author knows the frustrations of being underweight. Based on her own research, as well as knowledge gained through her work as a Registered Nurse and Certified Wellness Coach, Michelle has designed a whole-body weight-gain plan outlining the most effective strategies that can be used to help you gain healthy weight.
The first part of the 30-Day Weight-Gain Plan helps you determine if you are in fact underweight and outlines the typical causes of being underweight. A chapter is then devoted to each area that must be addressed in a successful, healthy weight gain plan – stimulating...
Dr. David Reuben's Quick Weight-Gain Program (tm): Safe, Easy Weight Gain for Every Age and Situation|
by David Reuben M.D. (Author)
Bestselling author, practicing physician, and nutrition expert Dr. David Reuben presents the first book for the 26 million Americans who need to gain weight for a variety of medical and cosmetic reasons. In a friendly, accessi ble style, Dr. Reuben shows how a scientific understanding of nutrition--and a few ingenious tips--will enable anyone to bulk up in six months or less.
Gaining Weight: How to Gain Weight Safely, Even with a Fast Metabolism|
Do you have a fast metabolism?
Are you trying to put on mass but having a difficult time?
Gaining weight is a lot more difficult than people first think. In this book I debunk how many calories to gain weight and I teach you about foods that make you gain weight. I go through numerous tips to gain weight and by the end of this book, if you put it all into practice, you should easily gain weight.
How to Gain Weight and Build Muscle for Men and Women|
In today's society with the rising rate of obesity there is by far a bigger focus on the importance of losing weight rather than gaining weight. However, for the person who is naturally thin, the struggles of how to gain weight are often as difficult as weight loss is for those individuals who are overweight.
As the beach season and warmer weather approaches and the sweaters are swapped out for skimpier clothing, the population of thin people will experience the same dread as others who aren’t confident in their physiques.
How to Gain Weight and Build Muscle is a guide designed to help both men and women gain weight, but stay healthy at the same time. Author Matt Crewe has trained both men and women in their quest to gain weight, and in this guide he will answer...
Muscle Meals: 15 Recipes for Building Muscle, Getting Lean, and Staying Healthy (The Build Muscle, Get Lean, and Stay Healthy Series)|
by Oculus Publishers
If you want to know how to build muscle and burn fat by eating healthy, delicious meals that are easy to cook and easy on your wallet, then you want to read this book.
Do you lack confidence in the kitchen and think that you just can’t cook great food?
Are you not sure of how to prepare food that is not only delicious and healthy but also effective in helping you build muscle and lose fat?
Are you afraid that cooking nutritious, restaurant-quality meals is too time-consuming and expensive?
Do you think that eating healthy means having to force down the same boring, bland food every day?
If you answered “yes” to any of those questions, don’t worry—you’re not alone. And this book is going to help. Inside you’ll...
Dancing Your Fat Away: How to loose Weight with Dancing (Ultimate Life Guides Book 7)|
Dance may have been created for enjoyment, aesthetic expression, and socialization; but these days, it is considered one of the most effective ways of exercising for fat loss. In this course – Dancing your Fats Away – you will learn some of the things that make dance or dancing an excellent method of getting fit and healthy. Get all the info you need here.
Scrawny to Brawny: The Complete Guide to Building Muscle the Natural Way|
by Michael Mejia (Author), John Berardi (Author)
A state-of-the-art weight-lifting and nutritional blueprint for "skinny" guys who want to pack on muscle
Let's face it, naturally skinny guys are at a distinct genetic disadvantage when it comes to building muscle mass. But with the proper advice, these "hardgainers" definitely can realize their fitness goals. In Scrawny to Brawny, the authors draw on their years of practical experience as private strength and nutrition coaches to provide hardgainers with:
o A progressive, state-of-the-art program that optimizes results with shorter, less frequent workouts that maximize compound exercises
o A unique, action-based perspective on nutrition that shows how to prepare quick muscle-building meals and snacks-and how to take advantage of several critical times in the day when muscle...