Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Genetic link to rapid weight gain from antipsychotics discovered

July 18, 2012
Toronto - Scientists have discovered two genetic variants associated with the substantial, rapid weight gain occurring in nearly half the patients treated with antipsychotic medications, according to two studies involving the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH).

These results could eventually be used to identify which patients have the variations, enabling clinicians to choose strategies to prevent this serious side-effect and offer more personalized treatment.

"Weight gain occurs in up to 40 per cent of patients taking medications called second-generation or atypical antipsychotics, which are used because they're effective in controlling the major symptoms of schizophrenia," says CAMH Scientist Dr. James Kennedy, senior author on the most recent study published online in the Archives of General Psychiatry.

This weight gain can lead to obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart problems and a shortened life span. "Identifying genetic risks leading to these side-effects will help us prescribe more effectively," says Dr. Kennedy, head of the new Tanenbaum Centre for Pharmacogenetics, which is part of CAMH's Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute. Currently, CAMH screens for two other genetic variations that affect patients' responses to psychiatric medications.

Each study identified a different variation near the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene, which is known to be linked to obesity.

In the Archives of General Psychiatry study, people carrying two copies of a variant gained about three times as much weight as those with one or no copies, after six to 12 weeks of treatment with atypical antipsychotics. (The difference was approximately 6 kg versus 2 kg.) The study had four patient groups: two from the U.S., one in Germany and one from a larger European study.

"The weight gain was associated with this genetic variation in all these groups, which included pediatric patients with severe behaviour or mood problems, and patients with schizophrenia experiencing a first episode or who did not respond to other antipsychotic treatments," says CAMH Scientist Dr. Daniel Müller. "The results from our genetic analysis combined with this diverse set of patients provide compelling evidence for the role of this MC4R variant. Our research group has discovered other gene variants associated with antipsychotic-induced weight gain in the past, but this one appears to be the most compelling finding thus far."

Three of the four groups had never previously taken atypical antipsychotics. Different groups were treated with drugs such as olanzapine, risperidone, aripiprazole or quetiapine, and compliance was monitored to ensure the treatment regime was followed. Weight and other metabolic-related measures were taken at the start and during treatment.

A genome-wide association study was conducted on pediatric patients by the study's lead researcher, Dr. Anil Malhotra, at the Zucker Hillside Hospital in Glen Oaks, NY. In this type of study, variations are sought across a person's entire set of genes to identify those associated with a particular trait. The result pointed to the MC4R gene.

This gene's role in antipsychotic-induced weight gain had been identified in a CAMH study published earlier this year in The Pharmacogenomics Journal, involving Drs. Müller and Kennedy, and conducted by PhD student Nabilah Chowdhury. They found a different variation on MC4R that was linked to the side-effect.

For both studies, CAMH researchers did genotyping experiments to identify the single changes to the sequence of the MC4R gene - known as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) - related to the drug-induced weight gain side-effect.

The MC4R gene encodes a receptor involved in the brain pathways regulating weight, appetite and satiety. "We don't know exactly how the atypical antipsychotics disrupt this pathway, or how this variation affects the receptor," says Dr. Müller. "We need further studies to validate this result and eventually turn this into a clinical application."

The CAMH researchers were supported by a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) grant and a NARSAD grant from the U.S. Brain and Behavior Fund.

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health


Related Weight Gain Current Events and Weight Gain News Articles


Brain response to appetizing food cues varies among obese people
People who have the most common genetic mutation linked to obesity respond differently to pictures of appetizing foods than overweight or obese people who do not have the genetic mutation, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (JCEM).

Vanderbilt study examines bacteria's ability to fight obesity
A probiotic that prevents obesity could be on the horizon. Bacteria that produce a therapeutic compound in the gut inhibit weight gain, insulin resistance and other adverse effects of a high-fat diet in mice, Vanderbilt University investigators have discovered.

Study shows new link between obesity in the young and the lowering of age of puberty
A new link has been identified between obesity in childhood and the lowering of the age of puberty.

Shift work linked to heightened risk of type 2 diabetes
Shift work is linked to a heightened risk of developing type 2 diabetes, with the risk seemingly greatest among men and those working rotating shift patterns, indicates an analysis of the available evidence published online in Occupational & Environmental Medicine.

Overweight and obese preschoolers lose more weight and keep it off when parent is also treated
Primary care treatment of overweight and obese preschoolers works better when treatment targets both parent and child compared to when only the child is targeted, according to research published this week in Pediatrics and conducted at the University at Buffalo and Women and Children's Hospital of Buffalo.

Targeting the brain to treat obesity
Unlocking the secrets to better treating the pernicious disorders of obesity and dementia reside in the brain, according to a paper from American University's Center for Behavioral Neuroscience.

Study examines therapeutic bacteria's ability to prevent obesity
A probiotic that prevents obesity could be on the horizon. Bacteria that produce a therapeutic compound in the gut inhibit weight gain, insulin resistance and other adverse effects of a high-fat diet in mice, Vanderbilt University investigators have discovered.

Parents rank their obese children as 'very healthy'
A University of California, San Diego School of Medicine-led study suggests that parents of obese children often do not recognize the potentially serious health consequences of childhood weight gain or the importance of daily physical activity in helping their child reach a healthy weight.

Weight Management Program Also Reduces Depression Among Black Women
An intervention program aimed at helping obese women maintain their weight without adding pounds also significantly reduced depression in nearly half the participants, according to a new study from Duke University.

Weighty issue: Stress and high-fat meals combine to slow metabolism in women
A new study in women suggests that experiencing one or more stressful events the day before eating a single high-fat meal can slow the body's metabolism, potentially contributing to weight gain.
More Weight Gain Current Events and Weight Gain News Articles

How to Gain Weight and Build Muscle in only 90 days - Special Edition for Skinny People

How to Gain Weight and Build Muscle in only 90 days - Special Edition for Skinny People


Are you looking to dramatically change your physic by putting on mass and building muscle?

Do you want to be the guy all the girls say "That guy has sexy arms" (…I'm serious).

Do you want look good and feel comfortable naked?

Well if you are, then this book is for you.

In "How to gain weight and build muscle in only 90 days" you'll not only learn how to quickly put on mass but you'll also learn:

- How to develop your own personal diet to build your body
- How to use supplements for your body type
- How to correctly develop your form to ensure maximum benefit and injury avoidance
- What compound exercises you should use that will build your body faster
- How to maximize your gym session with...

Muscle Meals: 15 Recipes for Building Muscle, Getting Lean, and Staying Healthy (The Build Muscle, Get Lean, and Stay Healthy Series)

Muscle Meals: 15 Recipes for Building Muscle, Getting Lean, and Staying Healthy (The Build Muscle, Get Lean, and Stay Healthy Series)


If you want to know how to build muscle and burn fat by eating healthy, delicious meals that are easy to cook and easy on your wallet, then you want to read this book.

Do you lack confidence in the kitchen and think that you just can't cook great food?
Are you not sure of how to prepare food that is not only delicious and healthy but also effective in helping you build muscle and lose fat?
Are you afraid that cooking nutritious, restaurant-quality meals is too time-consuming and expensive?
Do you think that eating healthy means having to force down the same boring, bland food every day?
If you answered "yes" to any of those questions, don't worry--you're not alone. And this book is going to help. Inside you'll find 15 fast, healthy, and...

Gain Weight & Build Muscle: Diet Guide for the Skinny Guy

Gain Weight & Build Muscle: Diet Guide for the Skinny Guy


Want to Learn How to Gain Weight and Gain Muscle?
You're in the right place. This is the second book in Rivers' series and is written specifically for the ectomorph and hardgainer who struggles to gain weight and who wants to get bigger through a correct workout and diet routine, but doesn't know where to start.

A Breakdown of the Content
While there is a lot of advice out there for this group of people, a lot of that advice is poor. It doesn't really provide a good diet guide for the skinny guy.

In this book, Rivers focuses on the principles that are mandatory for skinny guys in terms of diet. While a sample diet plan is included, the main focus is on how to create that diet plan through knowing what is most important for gaining weight and...

Creative Calories and Recipes For Weight Gain: Featuring Distinguished Chefs

Creative Calories and Recipes For Weight Gain: Featuring Distinguished Chefs
by Debbie Kaufman (Author), LaurieAnn Scher MS RD CDE (Author), Melanie Katrinak RD CSP LDN (Author)


Creative Calories & Recipes for Weight Gain is a cookbook and resource created to help the millions of people who are struggling to gain weight due to a variety of conditions ranging from genetics and/or psychological reasons to temporary or on-going medical conditions and diseases. Weight loss may often result in people suffering from Cancer, Aging, Depression, Anxiety, ADD/ADHD, OCD, Growth Hormone Deficiency, Anorexia, Cystic Fibrosis, Parkinson's Disease or Post OP, to name a few. Creative Calories & Recipes for Weight Gain is a different kind of cookbook. It is the result of the passion of a mother of a child who lost excessive weight, and the knowledge and experience of two Registered Dietitians who know that there is an underserved segment of people dealing with...

30-Day Weight-Gain Plan

30-Day Weight-Gain Plan


Are you too skinny? Have you tried to gain weight and just can’t? If you answered “yes” to either of these questions, this book is for you!
Growing up the “skinniest kid on the block”, the author knows the frustrations of being underweight. Based on her own research, as well as knowledge gained through her work as a Registered Nurse and Certified Wellness Coach, Michelle has designed a whole-body weight-gain plan outlining the most effective strategies that can be used to help you gain healthy weight.
The first part of the 30-Day Weight-Gain Plan helps you determine if you are in fact underweight and outlines the typical causes of being underweight. A chapter is then devoted to each area that must be addressed in a successful, healthy weight gain plan – stimulating...

Scrawny to Brawny: The Complete Guide to Building Muscle the Natural Way

Scrawny to Brawny: The Complete Guide to Building Muscle the Natural Way
by Michael Mejia (Author), John Berardi (Author)


A state-of-the-art weight-lifting and nutritional blueprint for "skinny" guys who want to pack on muscle

Let's face it, naturally skinny guys are at a distinct genetic disadvantage when it comes to building muscle mass. But with the proper advice, these "hardgainers" definitely can realize their fitness goals. In Scrawny to Brawny, the authors draw on their years of practical experience as private strength and nutrition coaches to provide hardgainers with:
o A progressive, state-of-the-art program that optimizes results with shorter, less frequent workouts that maximize compound exercises
o A unique, action-based perspective on nutrition that shows how to prepare quick muscle-building meals and snacks-and how to take advantage of several critical times in the day when muscle...

Gain Weight & Build Muscle: Workout Guide for the Skinny Guy

Gain Weight & Build Muscle: Workout Guide for the Skinny Guy


Looking to Learn More about How to Gain Weight and Gain Muscle?
You've come to the right place. This book is written specifically for the ectomorph or hardgainer who struggles gaining weight and who wants to get bigger by working out and dieting correctly, but doesn't know where to start.

A Breakdown of What You'll Learn
There's a lot of advice out there. You have most likely come across a workout guide that seemed to point in the right direction but didn't really live up to its glitter.

If you're a skinny guy, you can rest assured, knowing that this book doesn't just focus on theories. It focuses on principles that all skinny guys can use to see real weight gain and real results with consistent effort.

How about some specifics?
GAIN WEIGHT FAST

GAIN WEIGHT FAST


Gain weight, even when you have a fast metabolism
Do you tend to be more on the skinny side than you would like? Would you like to learn how to gain weight without having to constantly eat all day?

This book will tell you why eating more often actually might not be the answer. Learn how I was able to gain 12 pounds in just a couple of months. This book will teach you how you can gain weight the healthy way. You don't need to use supplements.

You will also learn which exercises are most effective for gaining muscle. You don't have to feel "doomed" by "bad genetics." You can gain weight if you learn how to do it the right way.

Build Muscle on the Raw Vegan Diet: How to Gain Muscle Mass, Get Big and Be Fit on the Raw Food Diet (Bodybuilding, Raw food, Raw vegan diet)

Build Muscle on the Raw Vegan Diet: How to Gain Muscle Mass, Get Big and Be Fit on the Raw Food Diet (Bodybuilding, Raw food, Raw vegan diet)


Discover How To Build Muscle On The Raw Vegan Diet!
Read on your PC, Mac, smart phone, tablet or Kindle device.

You're about to discover proven strategies on how to build muscle on the raw vegan diet and start your transformational journey toward your best physique ever. Way too many people struggle with building up their body. Most of them don't realize that while trying to do it, the things they eat and the way they train may be very harmful to their body in the long run. They just do all the wrong things.

If you are struggling to gain muscle and haven't been able to see any changes in your body, it's because you are lacking an effective strategy and powerful information.
This book will prove to be an invaluable resource to any newbie or veteran...

How To Gain Weight Fast: The Definitive Guide to GOMAD

How To Gain Weight Fast: The Definitive Guide to GOMAD
by Dave Irons


You should read this.ATTN: Once Upon a Time, I Was a Skinny GuyAnd it sucked. From as early as I can remember, I was always the littlest kid in the class. My mother would say things like, “You’re still growing!”But time passed and, of course, I realised that I wasn’t still growing. Everyone else was growing but I remained the scrawny, weak dweeb I’d always been. I so badly wanted to change.I tried many different ways to gain weight. I tried to simply “eat more food”as everyone suggested but I couldn’t. I didn’t even like food that much. Stuffing myself with more of it wasn’t very fun. I also tried dirty bulking. This is where you just eat junk food to gain weight and, while that technically works, I felt like crap. (If you’ve ever seen Supersize Me, you can get a...

© 2014 BrightSurf.com