Genetic link to rapid weight gain from antipsychotics discovered
July 18, 2012
Toronto - Scientists have discovered two genetic variants associated with the substantial, rapid weight gain occurring in nearly half the patients treated with antipsychotic medications, according to two studies involving the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH).
These results could eventually be used to identify which patients have the variations, enabling clinicians to choose strategies to prevent this serious side-effect and offer more personalized treatment.
"Weight gain occurs in up to 40 per cent of patients taking medications called second-generation or atypical antipsychotics, which are used because they're effective in controlling the major symptoms of schizophrenia," says CAMH Scientist Dr. James Kennedy, senior author on the most recent study published online in the Archives of General Psychiatry.
This weight gain can lead to obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart problems and a shortened life span. "Identifying genetic risks leading to these side-effects will help us prescribe more effectively," says Dr. Kennedy, head of the new Tanenbaum Centre for Pharmacogenetics, which is part of CAMH's Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute. Currently, CAMH screens for two other genetic variations that affect patients' responses to psychiatric medications.
Each study identified a different variation near the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene, which is known to be linked to obesity.
In the Archives of General Psychiatry study, people carrying two copies of a variant gained about three times as much weight as those with one or no copies, after six to 12 weeks of treatment with atypical antipsychotics. (The difference was approximately 6 kg versus 2 kg.) The study had four patient groups: two from the U.S., one in Germany and one from a larger European study.
"The weight gain was associated with this genetic variation in all these groups, which included pediatric patients with severe behaviour or mood problems, and patients with schizophrenia experiencing a first episode or who did not respond to other antipsychotic treatments," says CAMH Scientist Dr. Daniel Müller. "The results from our genetic analysis combined with this diverse set of patients provide compelling evidence for the role of this MC4R variant. Our research group has discovered other gene variants associated with antipsychotic-induced weight gain in the past, but this one appears to be the most compelling finding thus far."
Three of the four groups had never previously taken atypical antipsychotics. Different groups were treated with drugs such as olanzapine, risperidone, aripiprazole or quetiapine, and compliance was monitored to ensure the treatment regime was followed. Weight and other metabolic-related measures were taken at the start and during treatment.
A genome-wide association study was conducted on pediatric patients by the study's lead researcher, Dr. Anil Malhotra, at the Zucker Hillside Hospital in Glen Oaks, NY. In this type of study, variations are sought across a person's entire set of genes to identify those associated with a particular trait. The result pointed to the MC4R gene.
This gene's role in antipsychotic-induced weight gain had been identified in a CAMH study published earlier this year in The Pharmacogenomics Journal, involving Drs. Müller and Kennedy, and conducted by PhD student Nabilah Chowdhury. They found a different variation on MC4R that was linked to the side-effect.
For both studies, CAMH researchers did genotyping experiments to identify the single changes to the sequence of the MC4R gene - known as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) - related to the drug-induced weight gain side-effect.
The MC4R gene encodes a receptor involved in the brain pathways regulating weight, appetite and satiety. "We don't know exactly how the atypical antipsychotics disrupt this pathway, or how this variation affects the receptor," says Dr. Müller. "We need further studies to validate this result and eventually turn this into a clinical application."
The CAMH researchers were supported by a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) grant and a NARSAD grant from the U.S. Brain and Behavior Fund.
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health
Related Weight Gain Current Events and Weight Gain News ArticlesPlant chemicals may prevent liver damage caused by fat accumulated during menopause
Women going through menopause often struggle with weight gain that results when their estrogen levels drop, and many turn to weight-loss supplements to help them shed those extra pounds.Binge drinking is strongly associated with eating problems among Russian girls
Adolescent binge drinking has been linked to a host of problems, including worse school performance, risky sexual behaviors, illicit drugs, and a greater risk of suicide. Binge drinking may also be linked to problematic eating behavior, yet little research exists. Beating high blood pressure with a combination of coconut oil and physical exercise
Coconut oil is one of the few foods that can be classified as a "superfood." Its unique combination of fatty acids can have profound positive effects on health, including fat loss, better brain function and many other remarkable benefits. What's next in diets: Chili peppers?
Don't go chomping on a handful of chili peppers just yet, but there may be help for hopeful dieters in those fiery little Native American fruits.Obesity follows growth of big box retailers and restaurants, Georgia State economist finds
Big-box retailers Costco, Sam's Club, BJ's Wholesale and Walmart, along with full-service and fast-food restaurants, are key contributors to the nation's obesity epidemic, according to research by a health economist in the Andrew Young School of Policy Studies at Georgia State University.Both weight loss and weight gain linked with increased fracture risk
Both weight gain and weight loss in older (postmenopausal) women are associated with increased incidence of fracture, but at different anatomical sites, finds a study published in The BMJ this week.Women diagnosed with PCOS twice as likely to be hospitalized
Washington, DC--Women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome - the most common hormone disorder in women of reproductive age - face a heightened risk of developing heart disease, diabetes, mental health conditions, reproductive disorders and cancer of the lining of the uterus than healthy women.Seeing selves as overweight may be self-fulfilling prophecy for some teens
Teens who mistakenly perceive themselves as overweight are actually at greater risk of obesity as adults, according to research findings forthcoming in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.Experts recommend weight loss drugs, surgery as supplement to lifestyle interventions
The Endocrine Society today issued a Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) on strategies for prescribing drugs to manage obesity and promote weight loss.Researchers discover new 'trick' steroids use to suppress inflammation
A new "trick" steroids use to suppress inflammation, which could be used to make new anti-inflammatory drugs without the harmful side effects of steroids, has been discovered by researchers at Georgia State University.
More Weight Gain Current Events and Weight Gain News Articles
Muscle Meals: 15 Recipes for Building Muscle, Getting Lean, and Staying Healthy (The Build Muscle, Get Lean, and Stay Healthy Series)|
by Oculus Publishers
If you want to know how to build muscle and burn fat by eating healthy, delicious meals that are easy to cook and easy on your wallet, then you want to read this book.
Do you lack confidence in the kitchen and think that you just can’t cook great food?
Are you not sure of how to prepare food that is not only delicious and healthy but also effective in helping you build muscle and lose fat?
Are you afraid that cooking nutritious, restaurant-quality meals is too time-consuming and expensive?
Do you think that eating healthy means having to force down the same boring, bland food every day?
If you answered “yes” to any of those questions, don’t worry—you’re not alone. And this book is going to help. Inside you’ll...
How to Gain Weight and Build Muscle in only 90 days - Special Edition for Skinny People|
Are you looking to dramatically change your physic by putting on mass and building muscle?
Do you want to be the guy all the girls say "That guy has sexy arms" (…I'm serious).
Do you want look good and feel comfortable naked?
Well if you are, then this book is for you.
In "How to gain weight and build muscle in only 90 days" you'll not only learn how to quickly put on mass but you'll also learn:
- How to develop your own personal diet to build your body
- How to use supplements for your body type
- How to correctly develop your form to ensure maximum benefit and injury avoidance
- What compound exercises you should use that will build your body faster
- How to maximize your gym session with...
30-Day Weight-Gain Plan|
Are you too skinny? Have you tried to gain weight and just can’t? If you answered “yes” to either of these questions, this book is for you!
Growing up the “skinniest kid on the block”, the author knows the frustrations of being underweight. Based on her own research, as well as knowledge gained through her work as a Registered Nurse and Certified Wellness Coach, Michelle has designed a whole-body weight-gain plan outlining the most effective strategies that can be used to help you gain healthy weight.
The first part of the 30-Day Weight-Gain Plan helps you determine if you are in fact underweight and outlines the typical causes of being underweight. A chapter is then devoted to each area that must be addressed in a successful, healthy weight gain plan – stimulating...
Gain Weight & Build Muscle: Diet Guide for the Skinny Guy|
Want to Learn How to Gain Weight and Gain Muscle?
You're in the right place. This is the second book in Rivers' series and is written specifically for the ectomorph and hardgainer who struggles to gain weight and who wants to get bigger through a correct workout and diet routine, but doesn't know where to start.
A Breakdown of the Content
While there is a lot of advice out there for this group of people, a lot of that advice is poor. It doesn't really provide a good diet guide for the skinny guy.
In this book, Rivers focuses on the principles that are mandatory for skinny guys in terms of diet. While a sample diet plan is included, the main focus is on how to create that diet plan through knowing what is most important for gaining weight and...
Creative Calories and Recipes For Weight Gain: Featuring Distinguished Chefs|
by Debbie Kaufman (Author), LaurieAnn Scher MS RD CDE (Author), Melanie Katrinak RD CSP LDN (Author)
Creative Calories & Recipes for Weight Gain is a cookbook and resource created to help the millions of people who are struggling to gain weight due to a variety of conditions ranging from genetics and/or psychological reasons to temporary or on-going medical conditions and diseases. Weight loss may often result in people suffering from Cancer, Aging, Depression, Anxiety, ADD/ADHD, OCD, Growth Hormone Deficiency, Anorexia, Cystic Fibrosis, Parkinson's Disease or Post OP, to name a few. Creative Calories & Recipes for Weight Gain is a different kind of cookbook. It is the result of the passion of a mother of a child who lost excessive weight, and the knowledge and experience of two Registered Dietitians who know that there is an underserved segment of people dealing with...
Why do We Gain Fat, and How do We Lose it?: An Introduction to the Science of Body Fat|
A unique weight management system designed by obesity, sleep, activity, and behavior scientists. We focus on key factors that determine body fat levels to help you achieve and sustain your ideal weight.
The Quick Weight-Gain Program: Safe, easy, weight gain for every age and situation|
by David Reuben M.D. (Author)
The first and only medically-proven and guaranteed way to help anyone gain weight fast. Best-selling Author and Physician, David Reuben, M.D., reveals little-known scientific secrets that make putting on pounds fast, safe, and easy for everyone: children and adults, men and women. In his usual easy-to-read style, Dr. Reuben explains how the Magic 13 Minutes, the Opiate Feeding Drive, the Resting Energy Expenditure, and Specific Dynamic Action, can make weight gain fast, easy, and fun.
Gain Weight & Build Muscle: Workout Guide for the Skinny Guy|
Looking to Learn More about How to Gain Weight and Gain Muscle?
You've come to the right place. This book is written specifically for the ectomorph or hardgainer who struggles gaining weight and who wants to get bigger by working out and dieting correctly, but doesn't know where to start.
A Breakdown of What You'll Learn
There's a lot of advice out there. You have most likely come across a workout guide that seemed to point in the right direction but didn't really live up to its glitter.
If you're a skinny guy, you can rest assured, knowing that this book doesn't just focus on theories. It focuses on principles that all skinny guys can use to see real weight gain and real results with consistent effort.
How about some specifics?
Eat Clean, Look Clean: The Weight Control and Nutrition Super Manual: How to Lose Fat, Gain Muscle, and Be Perfectly Healthy Without Exercise (clean eating, healthy diet, lose weight, weight loss)|
"Fuel the muscles, starve the fat cells." Trying to lose weight and not seeing results? Do you have a hard time gaining weight? Well throw out everything you've heard about weight control and nutrition, because the experts are all wrong. All of them. That's why America is still overweight no matter how health conscious we become! The truly clean diet is here.
Where the so-called experts address one or two factors of your weight, The Body Mechanic addresses all 7 factors - pH, chemicals, calories, nutrients, hormones, muscle size and strength, and raw (vs. cooked food). You simply will not find this information anywhere else. This is the complete, big picture of your ideal, natural body weight and perfect health.
The Diet and Nutrition Super Manual exposes why...
One Thing Different (Dark Tales of Transformation)|
by Nockton Vale
“ROMPS ALONG AT A TIDY RATE”
Have you ever wondered what your life might have been like if just one thing had been different; if you hadn’t got the break you needed; if you’d gone out with someone other than your wife or husband? Have you ever regretted a missed opportunity and wished you could go back and change things? Or perhaps everything is good for you and the idea of anything in your past being altered fills you with fear?
Because little things can have huge consequences. Change one detail and your life might have taken a different path. You might not even recognise yourself. You could be living an entirely different life, for better... or for worse.
Kim, Gemma, Samantha, Anna and Christina are five beautiful women who have landed...