Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Brain development is delayed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

July 31, 2012
Is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) due to a delay in brain development or the result of complete deviation from typical development? In the current issue of Biological Psychiatry, Dr. Philip Shaw and colleagues present evidence for delay based on a study by the National Institutes of Health.

The cerebral cortex is the folded gray tissue that makes up the outermost portion of the brain, covering the brain's inner structures. This tissue has left and right hemispheres and is divided into lobes. Each lobe performs specific and vitally important functions, including attention, thought, language, and sensory processing.

Two dimensions of this structure are cortical thickness and cortical surface area, both of which mature during childhood as part of the normal developmental process. This group of scientists had previously found that the thickening process is delayed in children diagnosed with ADHD. So in this study, they set out to measure whether surface area development is similarly delayed.

They recruited 234 children with ADHD and 231 typically developing children and scanned each up to 4 times. The first scan was taken at about age 10, and the final scan was around age 17. Using advanced neuroimaging technology, they were able to map the trajectories of surface area development at over 80,000 points across the brain.

They found that the development of the cortical surface is delayed in frontal brain regions in children with ADHD. For example, the typically developing children attained 50% peak area in the right prefrontal cortex at a mean age of 12.7 years, whereas the ADHD children didn't reach this peak until 14.6 years of age.

"As other components of cortical development are also delayed, this suggests there is a global delay in ADHD in brain regions important for the control of action and attention," said Dr. Shaw, a clinician studying ADHD at the National Institute of Mental Health and first author of this study.

"These data highlight the importance of longitudinal approaches to brain structure," commented Dr. John Krystal, Editor of Biological Psychiatry. "Seeing a lag in brain development, we now need to try to understand the causes of this developmental delay in ADHD."

Dr Shaw agrees, adding that this finding "guides us to search for genes that control the timing of brain development in the disorder, opening up new targets for treatment."

Additional work expanding these measures into adulthood will also be important. Such data would help determine whether or when a degree of normalization occurs, or if these delays translate into long-lasting cortical deficits.

Elsevier


Related Brain Development Current Events and Brain Development News Articles


Stress tied to change in children's gene expression related to emotion regulation, physical health
Children who have been abused or neglected early in life are at risk for developing both emotional and physical health problems.

International research team discovers genetic dysfunction connected to hydrocephalus
The mysterious condition once known as "water on the brain" became just a bit less murky this week thanks to a global research group led in part by a Case Western Reserve researcher.

Measuring nurture: Study shows how 'good mothering' hardwires infant brain
By carefully watching nearly a hundred hours of video showing mother rats protecting, warming, and feeding their young pups, and then matching up what they saw to real-time electrical readings from the pups' brains, researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center have found that the mother's presence and social interactions - her nurturing role - directly molds the early neural activity and growth of her offsprings' brain.

'Support' cells in brain play important role in Down syndrome
Researchers from UC Davis School of Medicine and Shriners Hospitals for Children - Northern California have identified a group of cells in the brain that they say plays an important role in the abnormal neuron development in Down syndrome.

Domestication syndrome: White patches, baby faces and tameness
More than 140 years ago, Charles Darwin noticed something peculiar about domesticated mammals.

Study shows link between inflammation in maternal blood and schizophrenia in offspring
Maternal inflammation as indicated by the presence in maternal blood of early gestational C-reactive protein-an established inflammatory biomarker-appears to be associated with greater risk for schizophrenia in offspring.

Exposure to BPA substitute causes hyperactivity and brain changes in fish
A chemical found in many "BPA free" consumer products, known as bisphenol S (BPS), is just as potent as bisphenol A (BPA) in altering brain development and causing hyperactive behavior, an animal study finds.

Hormone-disrupting activity of fracking chemicals worse than initially found
Many chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, can disrupt not only the human body's reproductive hormones but also the glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors, which are necessary to maintain good health, a new study finds.

Study finds association between maternal exposure to agricultural pesticides
Pregnant women who lived in close proximity to fields and farms where chemical pesticides were applied experienced a two-thirds increased risk of having a child with autism spectrum disorder or other developmental delay, a study by researchers with the UC Davis MIND Institute has found.

Childhood maltreatment associated with cerebral grey matter abnormalities
An international study has analysed the association between childhood maltreatment and the volume of cerebral grey matter, responsible for processing information. The results revealed a significant deficit in various late developing regions of the brain after abuse.
More Brain Development Current Events and Brain Development News Articles

The Whole-Brain Child: 12 Revolutionary Strategies to Nurture Your Child's Developing Mind

The Whole-Brain Child: 12 Revolutionary Strategies to Nurture Your Child's Developing Mind
by Daniel J. Siegel (Author), Tina Payne Bryson (Author)


“Simple, smart, and effective solutions to your child’s struggles.”—Harvey Karp, M.D.
 
“Daniel Siegel and Tina Payne Bryson have created a masterly, reader-friendly guide to helping children grow their emotional intelligence. This brilliant method transforms everyday interactions into valuable brain-shaping moments. Anyone who cares for children—or who loves a child—should read The Whole-Brain Child.”—Daniel Goleman, author of Emotional Intelligence
 
In this pioneering, practical book, Daniel J. Siegel, neuropsychiatrist and author of the bestselling Mindsight, and parenting expert Tina Payne Bryson offer a revolutionary approach to child rearing with twelve key strategies that foster healthy brain development, leading to calmer, happier children. The...

The Brain Book: Development, Function, Disorder, Health

The Brain Book: Development, Function, Disorder, Health
by Dr. Ken Ashwell (Editor), Richard Restak (Editor)


The brain (and mental health) is the most important medical issue of our time. Just two handfuls in size and made of billions of nerve and ganglial cells, the living brain controls our thoughts, movements, behavior and emotions. It is the seat of our consciousness, yet scientists are still discovering how the living brain actually works. The Brain Book combines the latest image technology with easy-to-understand authoritative text. Written by an international team of medical experts on brain science, it covers all aspects of brain function, from development and disorders, to the nature of consciousness, through to the aging brain and brain diseases. Topics include brain chemistry, memory, the teenage brain, illusions and hallucinations, music and the brain, sleep and...

Your Child's Growing Mind: Brain Development and Learning From Birth to Adolescence

Your Child's Growing Mind: Brain Development and Learning From Birth to Adolescence
by Jane Healy (Author)


The classic guide to understanding children’s mental development is now updated and better than ever!

Hailed by parents and educators, Your Child’s Growing Mind is a window into the fascinating process of brain development and learning. It looks at the roots of emotion, intelligence, and creativity, translating the most current scientific research into practical suggestions for parents and teachers.

Dr. Healy also addresses academic learning, offering countless suggestions for how parents can help without pushing. She explains the building blocks of reading, writing, spelling, and mathematics and shows how to help youngsters of all ages develop motivation, attention, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills.

Using the science of childhood development, she...

What's Going on in There? : How the Brain and Mind Develop in the First Five Years of Life

What's Going on in There? : How the Brain and Mind Develop in the First Five Years of Life
by Lise Eliot (Author)


As a research neuroscientist, Lise Eliot has made the study of the human brain her life's work. But it wasn't until she was pregnant with her first child that she became intrigued with the study of brain development. She wanted to know precisely how the baby's brain is formed, and when and how each sense, skill, and cognitive ability is developed. And just as important, she was interested in finding out how her role as a nurturer can affect this complex process. How much of her baby's development is genetically ordained--and how much is determined by environment? Is there anything parents can do to make their babies' brains work better--to help them become smarter, happier people? Drawing upon the exploding research in this field as well as the stories of real children, What's Going On in...

Welcome to Your Child's Brain: How the Mind Grows from Conception to College

Welcome to Your Child's Brain: How the Mind Grows from Conception to College
by Sam Wang (Author), Sandra Aamodt (Author)


How children think is one of the most enduring mysteries-and difficulties-encountered by parents. In an effort to raise our children smarter, happier, stronger, and better, parents will try almost anything, from vitamins to toys to DVDs. But how can we tell marketing from real science? And what really goes through your kid's growing mind-as an infant, in school, and during adolescence? Neuroscientists Sandra Aamodt and Sam Wang (who is also a parent) explain the facets and functions of the developing brain, discussing salient subjects such as sleep problems, language learning, gender differences, and autism. They dispel common myths about important subjects such as the value of educational videos for babies, the meaning of ADHD in the classroom, and the best predictor of...

The Learning Brain: Memory and Brain Development in Children

The Learning Brain: Memory and Brain Development in Children
by Torkel Klingberg (Author)


Despite all our highly publicized efforts to improve our schools, the United States is still falling behind. We recently ranked 15th in the world in reading, math, and science. Clearly, more needs to be done. In The Learning Brain, Torkel Klingberg urges us to use the insights of neuroscience to improve the education of our children.

The key to improving education lies in understanding how the brain works: that is where learning takes place, after all. The book focuses in particular on "working memory"--our ability to concentrate and to keep relevant information in our head while ignoring distractions (a topic the author covered in The Overflowing Brain). Research shows enormous variation in working memory among children, with some ten-year-olds performing at the level of a...

Neuroscience of Cognitive Development: The Role of Experience and the Developing Brain

Neuroscience of Cognitive Development: The Role of Experience and the Developing Brain
by Charles A. Nelson (Author), Kathleen M. Thomas (Author), Michelle de Haan (Author)


A new understanding of cognitive development from the perspective of neuroscience

This book provides a state-of-the-art understanding of the neural bases of cognitive development. Although the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience is still in its infancy, the authors effectively demonstrate that our understanding of cognitive development is and will be vastly improved as the mechanisms underlying development are elucidated.

The authors begin by establishing the value of considering neuroscience in order to understand child development and then provide an overview of brain development. They include a critical discussion of experience-dependent changes in the brain. The authors explore whether the mechanisms underlying developmental plasticity differ from those...

Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five

Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five
by John Medina (Author)


What’s the single most important thing you can do during pregnancy? What does watching TV do to a child’s brain? What’s the best way to handle temper tantrums? Scientists know.

In his New York Times bestseller Brain Rules, Dr. John Medina showed us how our brains really work—and why we ought to redesign our workplaces and schools. Now, in Brain Rules for Baby, he shares what the latest science says about how to raise smart and happy children from zero to five. This book is destined to revolutionize parenting. Just one of the surprises: The best way to get your children into the college of their choice? Teach them impulse control.

Brain Rules for Baby bridges the gap between what scientists know and what parents practice. Through fascinating and funny stories, Medina,...

Brain Rules for Baby (Updated and Expanded): How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five

Brain Rules for Baby (Updated and Expanded): How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five
by John Medina (Author)


What’s the single most important thing you can do during pregnancy? What does watching TV do to a child’s brain? What’s the best way to handle temper tantrums? Scientists know.

In his New York Times bestseller Brain Rules, Dr. John Medina showed us how our brains really work—and why we ought to redesign our workplaces and schools. Now, in Brain Rules for Baby, he shares what the latest science says about how to raise smart and happy children from zero to five. This book is destined to revolutionize parenting. Just one of the surprises: The best way to get your children into the college of their choice? Teach them impulse control.

Brain Rules for Baby bridges the gap between what scientists know and what parents practice. Through fascinating and funny stories, Medina,...

Neuroplasticity: Master the Art of Brain Plasticity! (Neuroplasticity, Brain Training, Healthy Brain Function, Memory Improvement) (Neuroplasticity, Brain ... Healthy Brain Function, Memory Improvement)

Neuroplasticity: Master the Art of Brain Plasticity! (Neuroplasticity, Brain Training, Healthy Brain Function, Memory Improvement) (Neuroplasticity, Brain ... Healthy Brain Function, Memory Improvement)
by JR Kindle Publishing


**BRAIN TRAINING FOR EXPLOSIVE RESULTS REVEALED!**
Today only, get this Amazon #1 bestseller for just $2.99. Regularly priced at $4.99. Read on your PC, Mac, Smartphone, Tablet, or Kindle device.


Ready to change your life?

This book will open your eyes to the remarkable truth about the awesome power of our brain as it continues to regenerate and learn, re-learn, and unlearn things around us from birth to death. It debunks the idea that the adult brain is a rigidly structured body organ that develops into full maturity only during the early stages of our lives.

This book reveals the fact that the brain can be trained to develop new pathways that will augment and strengthen knowledge action at any stage of our life span. It will also help...

© 2014 BrightSurf.com