Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Weather prediction task: Learning achievement with and without stress

August 09, 2012
Stressed volunteers use different strategies and brain regions

Stressed and non-stressed persons use different brain regions and different strategies when learning. This has been reported by the cognitive psychologists PD Dr. Lars Schwabe and Professor Oliver Wolf from the Ruhr-Universität Bochum in the Journal of Neuroscience. Non-stressed individuals applied a deliberate learning strategy, while stressed subjects relied more on their gut feeling. "These results demonstrate for the first time that stress has an influence on which of the different memory systems the brain turns on," said Lars Schwabe.

The experiment: Stress due to ice-water

The data from 59 subjects were included in the study. Half of the participants had to immerse one hand into ice-cold water for three minutes under video surveillance. This stressed the subjects, as hormone assays showed. The other participants had to immerse one of their hands just in warm water. Then both the stressed and non-stressed individuals completed the so-called weather prediction task. The subjects looked at playing cards with different symbols and learned to predict which combinations of cards announced rain and which sunshine. Each combination of cards was associated with a certain probability of good or bad weather. People apply differently complex strategies in order to master the task. During the weather prediction task, the researchers recorded the brain activity with MRI.

Two routes to success

Both stressed and non-stressed subjects learned to predict the weather according to the symbols. Non-stressed participants focused on individual symbols and not on combinations of symbols. They consciously pursued a simple strategy. The MRI data showed that they activated a brain region in the medial temporal lobe - the hippocampus, which is important for long-term memory. Stressed subjects, on the other hand, applied a more complex strategy. They made their decisions based on the combination of symbols. They did this, however, subconsciously, i.e. they were not able to formulate their strategy in words. The result of the brain scans was also accordingly: In the case of the stressed volunteers the so-called striatum in the mid-brain was activated - a brain region that is responsible for more unconscious learning. "Stress interferes with conscious, purposeful learning, which is dependent upon the hippocampus," concluded Lars Schwabe. "So that makes the brain use other resources. In the case of stress, the striatum controls behaviour - which saves the learning achievement."

Ruhr-University Bochum


Related Weather Prediction Current Events and Weather Prediction News Articles


NASA's SDO Sees Returning Sunspot Produce Mid-Level Flare
The sun emitted a mid-level solar flare, peaking at 12:48 p.m. EST on Nov. 16, 2014. NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory, which watches the sun constantly, captured an image of the event. Solar flares are powerful bursts of radiation.

NASA's SDO Sees a Mid-Level Solar Flare: Nov. 3
The sun emitted a mid-level solar flare, peaking at 5:40 p.m. EST on Nov. 3, 2014. NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory, which watches the sun constantly, captured an image of the event. Solar flares are powerful bursts of radiation.

Research offers new way to predict hurricane strength, destruction
A new study by Florida State University researchers demonstrates a different way of projecting a hurricane's strength and intensity that could give the public a better idea of a storm's potential for destruction.

A Significant Flare Surges Off the Sun
The sun emitted a significant solar flare, peaking at 1:48 p.m. EDT on Sept. 10, 2014. NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory captured images of the event. Solar flares are powerful bursts of radiation.

Collecting just the right data
Much artificial-intelligence research addresses the problem of making predictions based on large data sets. An obvious example is the recommendation engines at retail sites like Amazon and Netflix.

K computer runs largest ever ensemble simulation of global weather
Ensemble forecasting is a key part of weather forecasting today. Computers typically run multiple simulations, called ensembles, using slightly different initial conditions or assumptions, and then analyze them together to try to improve forecasts.

Sun Emits a Mid-level Solar Flare
The sun emitted a mid-level solar flare, peaking at 9:03 a.m. EDT on April 18, 2014, and NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory captured images of the event.

NASA Releases Images of M-class Solar Flare
On April 2, 2014, the sun emitted a mid-level solar flare, peaking at 10:05 a.m. EDT, and NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory captured imagery of the event. Solar flares are powerful bursts of radiation.

NASA Releases Images of X-class Solar Flare
The sun emitted a significant solar flare, peaking at 1:48 p.m. EDT March 29, 2014, and NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory captured images of the event.

First sightings of solar flare phenomena confirm 3D models of space weather
Scientists have for the first time witnessed the mechanism behind explosive energy releases in the Sun's atmosphere, confirming new theories about how solar flares are created.
More Weather Prediction Current Events and Weather Prediction News Articles

Guide to Weather Forecasting: All the Information You'll Need to Make Your Own Weather Forecast (Firefly Pocket series)

Guide to Weather Forecasting: All the Information You'll Need to Make Your Own Weather Forecast (Firefly Pocket series)
by Storm Dunlop (Author)


A concise guide to weather systems and weather forecasting. As recent events have shown, weather can have very different consequences depending on where you live. b>Guide to Weather Forecasting covers every aspect of making a forecast and is a handy resource to understanding the professionals' daily weather predictions. Storm Dunlop provides detailed information and expert explanations, including: What causes weather
Weather systems and how they change
Recognizing clouds and sky appearance
Weather conditions, such as depressions, lows and highs, wind systems and direction, dew point, humidity, visibility, frost, anticyclones and snow
The readings meteorologists use when developing a forecast
Extreme weather and climate change Guide to Weather...

Numerical Weather and Climate Prediction

Numerical Weather and Climate Prediction
by Thomas Tomkins Warner (Author)


This textbook provides a comprehensive yet accessible treatment of weather and climate prediction, for graduate students, researchers and professionals. It teaches the strengths, weaknesses and best practices for the use of atmospheric models. It is ideal for the many scientists who use such models across a wide variety of applications. The book describes the different numerical methods, data assimilation, ensemble methods, predictability, land-surface modeling, climate modeling and downscaling, computational fluid-dynamics models, experimental designs in model-based research, verification methods, operational prediction, and special applications such as air-quality modeling and flood prediction. This volume will satisfy everyone who needs to know about atmospheric modeling for use in...

The Weather Wizard's Cloud Book: A Unique Way to Predict the Weather Accurately and Easily by Reading the Clouds

The Weather Wizard's Cloud Book: A Unique Way to Predict the Weather Accurately and Easily by Reading the Clouds
by Jim Duncan (Author), Louis D. Rubin Sr. (Author), Hiram J. Herbert (Contributor)


The Weather Wizard's Cloud Book offers a foolproof three-step system for predicting the weather. With amazing accuracy, this simple system can account for swiftly changing local weather developments more effectively than weather maps or official area forecasts, which are issued well in advance of weather conditions. Includes more than 120 photographs.

The Signal and the Noise: Why So Many Predictions Fail — but Some Don't

The Signal and the Noise: Why So Many Predictions Fail — but Some Don't
by Nate Silver (Author)


"Nate Silver's The Signal and the Noise is The Soul of a New Machine for the 21st century." —Rachel Maddow, author of Drift

Nate Silver built an innovative system for predicting baseball performance, predicted the 2008 election within a hair’s breadth, and became a national sensation as a blogger—all by the time he was thirty. He solidified his standing as the nation's foremost political forecaster with his near perfect prediction of the 2012 election. Silver is the founder and editor in chief of FiveThirtyEight.com.

Drawing on his own groundbreaking work, Silver examines the world of prediction, investigating how we can distinguish a true signal from a universe of noisy data. Most predictions fail, often at great cost to society, because most of us have a poor...

Weather For Dummies

Weather For Dummies
by John D. Cox (Author)


What's going on up there when the rain falls, when the wind blows, when the clouds roll in and the lightning flashes? How do hurricanes arise and where to tornadoes come from? Why do seasonal conditions sometimes vary so much from one year to the next? Our ways of life, our very existences depend on knowing the answers to questions like these. Economies have been wiped out, civilizations have risen and fallen, entire species have come into being or gone extinct because of a temperature shift of just a few degrees, or a brief shortage or glut of rainfall. With so much riding on the weather, it makes you wonder how you've lived this long without knowing more about it. Don't worry it's never too late to find out about what makes the weather tick. And there's never been an easier or more...

The Weather Book: An Easy-to-Understand Guide to the USA's Weather

The Weather Book: An Easy-to-Understand Guide to the USA's Weather
by Jack Williams (Author)


Featuring the full-color weather graphics of America's favorite newspaper, here is a newly revised edition of the most readable guide to our nation's weather. It also includes an updated state-by-state guide to weather patterns and scientifically accurate records. Online promo.

Fundamentals of Numerical Weather Prediction

Fundamentals of Numerical Weather Prediction
by Jean Coiffier (Author)


Numerical models have become essential tools in environmental science, particularly in weather forecasting and climate prediction. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the techniques used in these fields, with emphasis on the design of the most recent numerical models of the atmosphere. It presents a short history of numerical weather prediction and its evolution, before describing the various model equations and how to solve them numerically. It outlines the main elements of a meteorological forecast suite, and the theory is illustrated throughout with practical examples of operational models and parameterizations of physical processes. This book is founded on the author's many years of experience, as a scientist at Météo-France and teaching university-level courses. It is a...

Eric Sloane's Weather Book

Eric Sloane's Weather Book
by Eric Sloane (Author)


"Amateur weather forecasters (which includes just about everyone) will find this volume an informative and entertaining account of the why and how of the weather." — The Nation
In simple language, Eric Sloane explains the whys and wherefores of weather and weather forecasting — and does it in a style that's universally appealing.
With humor and common sense shining through in a book that's also lively and informative, Sloane shows readers how to predict the weather by "reading" such natural phenomena as winds, skies, and animal sounds. This beautifully illustrated and practical treasure trove of climate lore will enlighten outdoorsmen, farmers, sailors, and anyone else who has ever wondered what a large halo around the moon means, why birds "sit it out" before a storm, and...

Parameterization Schemes: Keys to Understanding Numerical Weather Prediction Models

Parameterization Schemes: Keys to Understanding Numerical Weather Prediction Models
by David J. Stensrud (Author)


Numerical weather prediction models play an increasingly important role in meteorology, both in short- and medium-range forecasting and global climate change studies. The most important components of any numerical weather prediction model are the subgrid-scale parameterization schemes, and the analysis and understanding of these schemes is a key aspect of numerical weather prediction. This book provides in-depth explorations of the most commonly used types of parameterization schemes that influence both short-range weather forecasts and global climate models. Several parameterizations are summarised and compared, followed by a discussion of their limitations. Review questions at the end of each chapter enable readers to monitor their understanding of the topics covered, and solutions are...

An Observer's Guide to Clouds and Weather: A Northeastern Primer on Prediction

An Observer's Guide to Clouds and Weather: A Northeastern Primer on Prediction
by Toby Carlson (Author), Paul Knight (Author), Celia Wyckoff (Author)


Today, most people look down when they want to check the weather, peeking at cell phones or popping open a browser, instead of looking up at one of the most accessible weather predictors of all—the sky. Knowing what the atmosphere has in store without relying on technology can be a gratifying experience, and now with An Observer’s Guide to Clouds and Weather, it is also one that is easy to learn.

This informative and accessible guide walks readers through the basics of making weather predictions through understanding cloud types and sky formations. It explains, in nontechnical terms, the science behind the weather, connecting fundamental meteorological concepts with the processes that shape weather patterns. Readers will learn how to develop their powers of observation and hone...

© 2014 BrightSurf.com