Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Weather prediction task: Learning achievement with and without stress

August 09, 2012
Stressed volunteers use different strategies and brain regions

Stressed and non-stressed persons use different brain regions and different strategies when learning. This has been reported by the cognitive psychologists PD Dr. Lars Schwabe and Professor Oliver Wolf from the Ruhr-Universität Bochum in the Journal of Neuroscience. Non-stressed individuals applied a deliberate learning strategy, while stressed subjects relied more on their gut feeling. "These results demonstrate for the first time that stress has an influence on which of the different memory systems the brain turns on," said Lars Schwabe.

The experiment: Stress due to ice-water

The data from 59 subjects were included in the study. Half of the participants had to immerse one hand into ice-cold water for three minutes under video surveillance. This stressed the subjects, as hormone assays showed. The other participants had to immerse one of their hands just in warm water. Then both the stressed and non-stressed individuals completed the so-called weather prediction task. The subjects looked at playing cards with different symbols and learned to predict which combinations of cards announced rain and which sunshine. Each combination of cards was associated with a certain probability of good or bad weather. People apply differently complex strategies in order to master the task. During the weather prediction task, the researchers recorded the brain activity with MRI.

Two routes to success

Both stressed and non-stressed subjects learned to predict the weather according to the symbols. Non-stressed participants focused on individual symbols and not on combinations of symbols. They consciously pursued a simple strategy. The MRI data showed that they activated a brain region in the medial temporal lobe - the hippocampus, which is important for long-term memory. Stressed subjects, on the other hand, applied a more complex strategy. They made their decisions based on the combination of symbols. They did this, however, subconsciously, i.e. they were not able to formulate their strategy in words. The result of the brain scans was also accordingly: In the case of the stressed volunteers the so-called striatum in the mid-brain was activated - a brain region that is responsible for more unconscious learning. "Stress interferes with conscious, purposeful learning, which is dependent upon the hippocampus," concluded Lars Schwabe. "So that makes the brain use other resources. In the case of stress, the striatum controls behaviour - which saves the learning achievement."

Ruhr-University Bochum


Related Weather Prediction Current Events and Weather Prediction News Articles


NASA's SDO sees mid-level solar flare
The sun emitted a mid-level solar flare, peaking at 4:16 a.m. EDT on June 25, 2015. NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory, which watches the sun constantly, captured an image of the event.

Sun unleashes mid-level flare
The sun emitted a mid-level solar flare, peaking at 2:23 EDT on June 22, 2015.

Comparative analyses of current three-dimensional numerical solar wind models
Space Weather research programs began around the world in the 1990's. Presently, three larger research groups are modeling key portions of the solar-terrestrial environment (i.e. solar wind).

Sun emits significant solar flare
The sun emitted a significant solar flare, peaking at 12:22 p.m. EDT on March 11, 2015. NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory, which watches the sun constantly, captured an image of the event.

NASA's SDO captures images of a mid-level solar flare
The sun emitted a mid-level solar flare, peaking at 5:22 pm EST on March 7, 2015. NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory, which watches the sun constantly, captured an image of the event.

NASA snaps picture of Eastern US in a record-breaking 'freezer'
NASA's Terra satellite captured an image of the snow-covered eastern U.S. that looks like the states have been sitting in a freezer. In addition to the snow cover, Arctic and Siberian air masses have settled in over the Eastern U.S. triggering many record low temperatures in many states.

UI researchers link smoke from fires to tornado intensity
Can smoke from fires intensify tornadoes? "Yes," say University of Iowa researchers, who examined the effects of smoke--resulting from spring agricultural land-clearing fires in Central America--transported across the Gulf of Mexico and encountering tornado conditions already in process in the United States.

NASA releases images of 1st notable solar flare of 2015
The sun emitted a mid-level solar flare, peaking at 11:24 p.m. EST on Jan. 12, 2015. NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory, which watches the sun constantly, captured an image of the event.

NASA's ISS-RapidScat looks at the winds in US east coast's 'wind chill'
The strong cold front that ushered in frigid Arctic air to two-thirds of the eastern U.S. brought in strong winds and bitter wind chills. NASA's ISS-RapidScat instrument measured those winds off the coastal Atlantic.

Satellite shows the snow-covered US deep freeze
NOAA's GOES-East satellite provided a look at the frigid eastern two-thirds of the U.S. on Jan. 7, 2015, that shows a blanket of northern snow, lake-effect snow from the Great Lakes and clouds behind the Arctic cold front.
More Weather Prediction Current Events and Weather Prediction News Articles

Guide to Weather Forecasting: All the Information You'll Need to Make Your Own Weather Forecast (Firefly Pocket series)

Guide to Weather Forecasting: All the Information You'll Need to Make Your Own Weather Forecast (Firefly Pocket series)
by Storm Dunlop (Author)


A concise guide to weather systems and weather forecasting. As recent events have shown, weather can have very different consequences depending on where you live. b>Guide to Weather Forecasting covers every aspect of making a forecast and is a handy resource to understanding the professionals' daily weather predictions. Storm Dunlop provides detailed information and expert explanations, including: What causes weather
Weather systems and how they change
Recognizing clouds and sky appearance
Weather conditions, such as depressions, lows and highs, wind systems and direction, dew point, humidity, visibility, frost, anticyclones and snow
The readings meteorologists use when developing a forecast
Extreme weather and climate change Guide to Weather...

National Geographic Kids Everything Weather: Facts, Photos, and Fun that Will Blow You Away

National Geographic Kids Everything Weather: Facts, Photos, and Fun that Will Blow You Away
by Kathy Furgang (Author)


Weather can be wild, freaky, and fascinating! Powerful twisters roar through homes; earthquakes shatter whole cities; hurricanes fly through towns. How does it all happen and how do we know what we do? All you need to know about weather and all of its wildness will be found in the pages of this colorful, energetic, and accessible book. Kids will also learn about real-life encounters with wild weather from National Geographic tornado chaser, Tim Samaras, featured in "Explorer's Corners" throughout the book. Packed with fun facts and amazing photographs, this book gives kids an in-depth look at these amazing natural phenomena.

National Geographic supports K-12 educators with ELA Common Core Resources.
Visit www.natgeoed.org/commoncore for more information.

Numerical Weather and Climate Prediction

Numerical Weather and Climate Prediction
by Thomas Tomkins Warner (Author)


This textbook provides a comprehensive yet accessible treatment of weather and climate prediction, for graduate students, researchers and professionals. It teaches the strengths, weaknesses and best practices for the use of atmospheric models. It is ideal for the many scientists who use such models across a wide variety of applications. The book describes the different numerical methods, data assimilation, ensemble methods, predictability, land-surface modeling, climate modeling and downscaling, computational fluid-dynamics models, experimental designs in model-based research, verification methods, operational prediction, and special applications such as air-quality modeling and flood prediction. This volume will satisfy everyone who needs to know about atmospheric modeling for use in...

The Emergence of Numerical Weather Prediction: Richardson's Dream

The Emergence of Numerical Weather Prediction: Richardson's Dream
by Peter Lynch (Author)


Lewis Fry Richardson dreamt that scientific weather prediction would one day become a practical reality. Before his ideas could bear fruit several advances were needed: better understanding of the dynamics of the atmosphere; stable computational algorithms to integrate the equations; regular observations of the free atmosphere; and powerful automatic computer equipment. By 1950 advances in all these fronts were sufficient to permit the first computer forecast to be made. Over the ensuing fifty years progress in numerical weather prediction has been dramatic. Weather prediction and climate modelling have now reached a high level of sophistication. This book, first published in 2006, tells the story of Richardson's trial forecast, and the fulfilment of his dream of practical numerical...

Weather Wisdom: Being an Illustrated Practical Volume Wherein Is Contained Unique Compilation and Analysis of the Facts and Folklore of Natural Weather Prediction

Weather Wisdom: Being an Illustrated Practical Volume Wherein Is Contained Unique Compilation and Analysis of the Facts and Folklore of Natural Weather Prediction
by Albert Lee (Author)




Parameterization Schemes: Keys to Understanding Numerical Weather Prediction Models

Parameterization Schemes: Keys to Understanding Numerical Weather Prediction Models
by David J. Stensrud (Author)


Numerical weather prediction models play an increasingly important role in meteorology, both in short- and medium-range forecasting and global climate change studies. The most important components of any numerical weather prediction model are the subgrid-scale parameterization schemes, and the analysis and understanding of these schemes is a key aspect of numerical weather prediction. This book provides in-depth explorations of the most commonly used types of parameterization schemes that influence both short-range weather forecasts and global climate models. Several parameterizations are summarised and compared, followed by a discussion of their limitations. Review questions at the end of each chapter enable readers to monitor their understanding of the topics covered, and solutions are...

Climate Confusion: How Global Warming Hysteria Leads to Bad Science, Pandering Politicians and Misguided Policies That Hurt the Poor

Climate Confusion: How Global Warming Hysteria Leads to Bad Science, Pandering Politicians and Misguided Policies That Hurt the Poor
by Roy W. Spencer (Author)



The current frenzy over global warming has galvanized the public and cost taxpayers billons of dollars in federal expenditures for climate research. It has spawned Hollywood blockbusters and inspired major political movements. It has given a higher calling to celebrities and built a lucrative industry for scores of eager scientists. In short, ending climate change has become a national crusade.

And yet, despite this dominant and sprawling campaign, the facts behind global warming remain as confounding as ever.

In Climate Confusion, distinguished climatologist Dr. Roy Spencer observes that our obsession with global warming has only clouded the issue. Forsaking blindingly technical statistics and doomsday scenarios, Dr. Spencer explains in simple terms how the climate...

The Weather Experiment: The Pioneers Who Sought to See the Future

The Weather Experiment: The Pioneers Who Sought to See the Future
by Peter Moore (Author)


In 1865 Admiral Robert FitzRoy locked himself in his dressing room and cut his throat. His grand meteorological project had failed. Yet only a decade later, FitzRoy's storm warning system and "forecasts" would return, the model for what we use today.
In an age when a storm at sea was evidence of God's wrath, nineteenth-century meteorologists had to fight against convention and religious dogma. Buoyed by the achievements of the Enlightenment, a generation of mavericks set out to decipher the secrets of the atmosphere and predict the future. Among them were Luke Howard, the first to classify clouds; Francis Beaufort, who quantified the winds; James Glaisher, who explored the upper atmosphere in a hot-air balloon; Samuel Morse, whose electric telegraph gave scientists the means by which...

Numerical Weather Prediction

Numerical Weather Prediction
by George J. Haltiner (Author)




Weather!

Weather!
by Rebecca Rupp (Author)


Do you know what would happen if the Earth's atmosphere suddenly disappeared? Deprived of oxygen and bombarded by ultraviolet radiation, our bodies would swell, our blood would boil, and our eardrums would explode. Is there a kid on the planet who wouldn't think that information was just too cool for words? As a homeschooling mom (with a Ph.D. in microbiology), author Rebecca Rupp learned first-hand that kids respond best to scientific information when it is presented in a way that is fun, lively, and off-beat. Rupp's approach is as much fun for grownups as it is for kids. Who doesn't want to know whether the flapping of a butterfly's wings can eventually set off a tornado? Or why snow that fell white turned pink on the ground? Or that the Hindenberg exploded after lightning ignited the...

© 2015 BrightSurf.com