Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Scientists report promising new direction for cognitive rehabilitation in the elderly

August 21, 2012
Research has found that declines in temporal information processing (TIP), the rate at which auditory information is processed, underlies the progressive loss of function across multiple cognitive systems in the elderly, including new learning, memory, perception, attention, thinking, motor control, problem solving, and concept formation. In a new study, scientists have found that elderly subjects who underwent temporal training improved not only the rate at which they processed auditory information, but also in other cognitive areas. The study is published in the current issue of Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience.

"Our study showed for the first time significant benefits of temporal training on broad aspects of cognitive function in the elderly. The results were long-lasting, with effects confirmed 18 months after the training," says lead investigator Elzbieta Szelag, Professor, Head of Laboratory of Neuropsychology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology (www.nencki.gov.pl), and Warsaw School of Social Sciences and Humanities (www.swps.pl), Warsaw, Poland.

Thirty subjects between 65 and 75 years of age were randomly assigned to three groups. One group received temporal training using Fast ForWord Language® (FFW), a program comprised of several computer games designed to improve memory, attention, and sequencing abilities. The program was developed to help children who have trouble reading, writing, and learning. The second group participated in non-temporal training by playing common computer games. The third group, the control, underwent no training.

Prior to the training, all of the subjects went through a number of tests to measure their cognitive functioning. Two tasks assessed TIP by measuring sequencing abilities. Specifically, at which inter-stimulus-interval subjects could identify the order of two stimuli presented in rapid sequence, i.e. which of two tones was higher or lower, or whether they heard a sound in the right or left ear first. Three aspects of attention were assessed: the ability to sustain attention over a longer period of time (vigilance), the ability to pay attention to multiple processes (divided attention), and the ability to maintain a high level of attention in anticipation of a test stimulus (alertness). Short-term memory was assessed with tests to evaluate working memory span, the ability to match complex patterns, and the ability to recognize a pattern seen earlier.

Each subject in the temporal training group started with exercises from the basic module of FFW. When they reached 100% complete for each exercise, they moved onto an intermediate program, and then an advanced program. They trained for an hour a day, four days a week, for eight weeks. The non-temporal training group played computer games such as Solitaire or Internet games such as Mahjong for the same amount of time. The control group received no training but was tested before and after the eight-week period.

At the end of the training period, cognitive functioning was re-assessed. Prior to training, no significant differences were found among the three groups. After the training, improved temporal information processing was found on the tone task in the temporal training group. It was accompanied by improvements in some aspects of attention and short-term memory. In contrast, the non-temporal training group's attentional and memory resources scores remained at the pre-training level, while only the second measure of temporal information processing improved. Changes in the control group were nonsignificant.

The temporal training group was tested again 18 months after the training completion. The positive effects remained stable. TIP, divided attention, matching complex patterns, and working memory span remained at a similar level as in the post-training assessment. Although vigilance of attention declined from the post-training assessment, for all measures the results were not worse than in the pre-training assessment. "Although FFW does not train other cognitive functions directly, attention and short-term memory resources were necessary to perform the training tasks correctly," explain Professor Szelag and Dr Skolimowska. "To succeed in the FFW games, the temporal skills had to be accompanied by efficient basic cognitive processes."

Professor Szelag concludes, "These results show a new impact of temporal training on age-related cognitive decline in the senior population. Moreover, they foster a greater understanding of the relationships between timing and cognition, and they show new possibilities for the application of temporal training." On the basis of these results the Laboratory of Neuropsychology has recently initiated an innovative rehabilitation computer program that addresses improvement of a broad range of cognitive functions in children and adults.

IOS Press


Related Temporal Information Current Events and Temporal Information News Articles


In-brain monitoring shows memory network
Working with patients with electrodes implanted in their brains, researchers at the University of California, Davis, and The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) have shown for the first time that areas of the brain work together at the same time to recall memories.

When neurons fire up: Study sheds light on rhythms of the brain
In our brains, groups of neurons fire up simultaneously for just milliseconds at a time, in random rhythms, similar to twinkling lightning bugs in our backyards. New research from neuroscientists at Indiana University and the University of Montreal provides a model -- a rhyme and reason -- for this random synchronization.

Children's ability to describe past event develops over time
In the first study to examine how children talk about the time-related features of their experiences--when, how often, in what order events occur--researchers have found intriguing changes as children grow older.
More Temporal Information Current Events and Temporal Information News Articles

Temporal Information Systems in Medicine

Temporal Information Systems in Medicine
by Carlo Combi (Author), Elpida Keravnou-Papailiou (Author), Yuval Shahar (Author)


Temporal Information Systems in Medicine introduces the engineering of information systems for medically-related problems and applications. The chapters are organized into four parts; fundamentals, temporal reasoning & maintenance in medicine, time in clinical tasks, and the display of time-oriented clinical information. The chapters are self-contained with pointers to other relevant chapters or sections in this book when necessary. Time is of central importance and is a key component of the engineering process for information systems. This book is designed as a secondary text or reference book for upper -undergraduate level students and graduate level students concentrating on computer science, biomedicine and engineering. Industry professionals and researchers working in health care...

Statistics for Spatio-Temporal Data

Statistics for Spatio-Temporal Data
by Noel Cressie (Author), Christopher K. Wikle (Author)


A state-of-the-art presentation of spatio-temporal processes, bridging classic ideas with modern hierarchical statistical modeling concepts and the latest computational methodsNoel Cressie and Christopher K. Wikle, are winners of the 2011 PROSE Award in the Mathematics category, for the book “Statistics for Spatio-Temporal Data” (2011), published by John Wiley and Sons. (The PROSE awards, for Professional and Scholarly Excellence, are given by the Association of American Publishers, the national trade association of the US book publishing industry.)

From understanding environmental processes and climate trends to developing new technologies for mapping public-health data and the spread of invasive-species, there is a high demand for statistical analyses of data that take...

Spatial Temporal Information Systems: An Ontological Approach using STK®

Spatial Temporal Information Systems: An Ontological Approach using STK®
by Linda M. McNeil (Author), T.S. Kelso (Author)


Designed to be a high-level, approachable resource for engineers who need further insight into spatial temporal information systems from an ontological perspective, Spatial Temporal Information Systems: An Ontological Approach using STK® explains the dynamics of objects interaction from signal analysis to trajectory design, spatial modeling, and other spatial analytics by using STK®, which is a general-purpose modeling and analysis application for any type of space, defense, or intelligence system. Building a foundation to begin the study of spatial temporal information systems, the book details a form of analysis that is a powerful tool for modeling, engineering, and operations of space, cyberspace, satellites, missile defense, and electronic systems. It discusses the many applications...

Temporal Geographical Information Systems: Advanced Functions for Field-Based Applications

Temporal Geographical Information Systems: Advanced Functions for Field-Based Applications
by George Christakos (Author), Patrick Bogaert (Author), Marc Serre (Author)


The book focuses on the development of advanced functions for field-based Temporal Geographical Information Systems (TGIS). These fields describe natural, epidemiological, economic, and social phenomena distributed across space and time. The book is organized around 4 main themes: concepts, mathematical tools, computer programs, and applications.
The reader is also familiarized with the TGIS toolbox of advanced functions and the associated library of comprehensive computer programs, BMElib.

Spatial and Temporal Reasoning in Geographic Information Systems (Spatial Information Systems)

Spatial and Temporal Reasoning in Geographic Information Systems (Spatial Information Systems)
by Max J. Egenhofer (Editor), Reginald G. Golledge (Editor)


In an effort to further investigation into critical development facets of geographic information systems (GIS), this book explores the reasoning processes that apply to geographic space and time. As a result of an iniative sponsored by the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (NCGIA), it treats the computational, cognitive and social science applications aspects of spatial and temporal reasoning in GIS. Essays were contributed by scholars from a broad spectrum of disciplines including: geography, cartography, surveying and engineering, computer science, mathematics and environmental and cognitive psychology.

Managing Time in Relational Databases: How to Design, Update and Query Temporal Data

Managing Time in Relational Databases: How to Design, Update and Query Temporal Data
by Tom Johnston (Author), Randall Weis (Author)


Managing Time in Relational Databases shows how to make the rich information content of bi-temporal data available to business users, while simplifying the design, maintenance and retrieval of that data. Metadata declarations eliminate the need to directly model temporal data. Temporal data maintenance is isolated in code that can be invoked to update bi-temporal data in any database and from any application program, across the enterprise. Anyone who can write queries against conventional data will be able to write queries against the bi-temporal data structures described in this book.

KEY FEATURES

1. Integrates an enterprise-wide viewpoint with a strong conceptual model of temporal data management allowing for realistic implementation...

The Limits of Attention: Temporal Constraints on Human Information Processing

The Limits of Attention: Temporal Constraints on Human Information Processing
by Kimron Shapiro (Editor)


For psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists interested in 'attention', the debate over the temporal limits of our attentional mechanisms is one of great importance and topicality. In The limits of attention, Kimron Shapiro has brought together a high quality team of attention researchers to discuss the issues key to this area of attention research. The result is an important book for cognitive psychologists, cognitive neuroscientists, and philosophers.

Design for Information: An Introduction to the Histories, Theories, and Best Practices Behind Effective Information Visualizations

Design for Information: An Introduction to the Histories, Theories, and Best Practices Behind Effective Information Visualizations
by Isabel Meirelles (Author)


The visualization process doesn’t happen in a vacuum; it is grounded in principles and methodologies of design, cognition, perception, and human-computer-interaction that are combined to one’s personal knowledge and creative experiences. Design for Information critically examines other design solutions —current and historic— helping you gain a larger understanding of how to solve specific problems. This book is designed to help you foster the development of a repertoire of existing methods and concepts to help you overcome design problems. Learn the ins and outs of data visualization with this informative book that provides you with a series of current visualization case studies. The visualizations discussed are analyzed for their design principles and methods, giving you...

Temporal Verification of Reactive Systems: Safety

Temporal Verification of Reactive Systems: Safety
by Zohar Manna (Author), Amir Pnueli (Author)


This book presents an extensive verification methodology for proving that reactive systems meet their specifications, expressed as safety properties in the language of temporal logic. The methods include deductive approaches based on theorem proving and fully automatic approaches based on model checking. All researchers and students interested in the analysis and verification of reactive and concurrent systems will find this book to be a comprehensive guide on how formal techniques can be used to ensure the correctness of such systems.
An educational version of the Stanford Temporal Prover (STeP), a tool which supports the verification of reactive systems, is available for use with this book.

Temporal Structures in Individual Time Management: Practices to Enhance Calendar Tool Design (Premier Reference Source)

Temporal Structures in Individual Time Management: Practices to Enhance Calendar Tool Design (Premier Reference Source)
by Dezhi Wu (Author)


The association of personal time management research with calendar applications has remained a relatively under-researched area due to the complexity and challenges it faces. Temporal Structures in Individual Time Management: Practices to Enhance Calendar Tool Design covers the latest concepts, methodologies, techniques, tools, and perspectives essential to understanding individual time management experiences. Emphasizing personal temporal structure usage involving calendar tools, this book provides both qualitative and quantitative evidences and insights valuable for researchers and practitioners in enhancing current electronic calendar systems design and implementation.

© 2014 BrightSurf.com