Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Chemical exposure in the womb from household items may contribute to obesity

August 31, 2012
Pregnant women who are highly exposed to common environmental chemicals - polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) - have babies that are smaller at birth and larger at 20 months of age, according to a study from Emory University's Rollins School of Public Health published online in the August 30 edition of Environmental Health Perspectives.

PFCs are used in the production of fluoropolymers and are found widely in protective coatings of packaging products, clothes, furniture and non-stick cookware. They are persistent compounds found abundantly in the environment and human exposure is common. PFCs have been detected in human sera, breast milk and cord blood.

The study, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, included 447 British girls and their mothers in the United Kingdom participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large-scale health research project that has provided a vast amount of genetic and environmental information since it began in the early 1990s.

The researchers found that even though girls with higher exposure were smaller than average (43rd percentile) at birth, they were heavier than average (58th percentile) by 20 months of age. The authors say this path may lead to obesity at older ages.

"Previous animal and human research suggests prenatal exposures to PFCs may have harmful effects on fetal and postnatal growth," says lead researcher Michele Marcus, MPH, PhD, a professor of epidemiology in Emory's Rollins School of Public Health and the assistant program director at Kaiser Permanente's Center for Health Research.

"Our findings are consistent with these studies and emerging evidence that chemicals in our environment are contributing to obesity and diabetes and demonstrate that this trajectory is set very early in life for those exposed."

According to Marcus, a recent study in Denmark found that women exposed to PFCs in the womb were more likely to be overweight at age 20. And experimental studies with mice have shown that exposure in the womb led to higher levels of insulin and heavier body weight in adulthood.

Marcus and her colleagues focused on the three most studied PFCs: perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS).

The researchers measured maternal serum concentrations of PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS during pregnancy and obtained data on the weight and length of the girls at birth, 2, 9 and 20 months. They explored associations between prenatal PFC concentrations and weight at birth as well as changes in weight-for-age scores between birth and 20 months.

Emory University


Related Public Health Current Events and Public Health News Articles


The result of eating too much salt can be measured in blood pressure
People who gradually increase the amount of salt in their diet and people who habitually eat a higher salt diet both face an increased risk of developing high blood pressure, according to a study published in the Journal of the American Heart Association.

Long telomere length associated with increased lung cancer risk
A large-scale genetic study of the links between telomere length and risk for five common cancers finds that long telomeres are associated with an increased risk of lung adenocarcinoma.

Ongoing recovery efforts take toll on hurricane survivors
Superstorm Sandy continues to affect the lives of tens of thousands of New Jersey residents, in the form of unfinished repairs, disputed claims, and recurrent mold.

Early prosocial behavior good predictor of kids' future
Kindergarteners' social-emotional skills are a significant predictor of their future education, employment and criminal activity, among other outcomes, according to Penn State researchers.

Report examines Medicare and Medicaid programs at 50 years and challenges ahead
Although Medicare and Medicaid are playing a role in health care payment and delivery reform innovation, it will be difficult to enact large-scale program changes because of the conflicting priorities of beneficiaries, health practitioners and organizations, and policy makers.

Switching off street lights at night does not increase car crashes and crime
Reduced street lighting in England and Wales is not associated with road traffic collisions or crime, according to research published in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.

Doctor warns about lead poisoning risk from recycling older electronic equipment
The disposal and recycling of electronic devices has increased exposure to lead and other toxicants and created "an emerging health concern," according to a pediatrician who directs the Environmental Health and Lead Clinic at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center.

Some vaccines support evolution of more-virulent viruses
Scientific experiments with the herpesvirus such as the one that causes Marek's disease in poultry have confirmed, for the first time, the highly controversial theory that some vaccines could allow more-virulent versions of a virus to survive, putting unvaccinated individuals at greater risk of severe illness.

Malaria's key to the liver uncovered
Scientists uncover a port of liver entry for malaria parasites in a report published in The Journal of Experimental Medicine. If these results hold up in humans, drugs that target this entry protein might help prevent the spread of disease.

Some adverse drug events not reported by manufacturers to FDA by 15-day mark
About 10 percent of serious and unexpected adverse events are not reported by drug manufacturers to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration under the 15-day timeframe set out in federal regulations, according to an article published online by JAMA Internal Medicine.
More Public Health Current Events and Public Health News Articles

Introduction To Public Health

Introduction To Public Health
by Mary-Jane Schneider (Author)


Introduction to Public Health, Fourth Edition offers a thorough, accessible overview of the expanding field of public health for students new to its concepts and actors. Written in engaging, nontechnical language, this best-selling text explains in clear terms the multi-disciplinary strategies and methods used for measuring, assessing, and promoting public health. Packed with illustrative real-world examples, this updated edition provides students with informative discussions of the current technical issues and practical obstacles facing public health practitioners and policymakers alike. Through coverage of new approaches to research and data collection, current best practices in the field, and the social and ethical challenges of devising public policy, Introduction to Public Health,...

101 Careers in Public Health

101 Careers in Public Health
by Beth Seltzer MD MPH (Author)


"First rate advice. --APHA What sort of training do you need to work in public health? What kinds of jobs are out there right now? And what exactly is an epidemiologist, anyway? Answering these questions and more, this career guide provides an overview of the numerous options in public health and the many different roads to get there. Whether you're a student who wants to launch a career or a professional looking to change careers, this guide offers an easy introduction to the field. It details the training, salary ranges, and degree requirements for each job, and alerts readers to alternative pathways beyond the traditional MPH. ...

To Repair the World: Paul Farmer Speaks to the Next Generation (California Series in Public Anthropology)

To Repair the World: Paul Farmer Speaks to the Next Generation (California Series in Public Anthropology)
by Paul Farmer (Author), Jonathan Weigel (Editor), Bill Clinton (Editor)


Here, for the first time, is a collection of short speeches by the charismatic doctor and social activist Paul Farmer. One of the most passionate and influential voices for global health equity and social justice, Farmer encourages young people to tackle the greatest challenges of our times. Engaging, often humorous, and always inspiring, these speeches bring to light the brilliance and force of Farmer’s vision in a single, accessible volume.

A must-read for graduates, students, and everyone seeking to help bend the arc of history toward justice, To Repair the World:

• Challenges readers to counter failures of imagination that keep billions of people without access to health care, safe drinking water, decent schools, and other basic human rights;

• ...

Public Health: What It Is and How It Works

Public Health: What It Is and How It Works
by Bernard J. Turnock (Author)


Using a straightforward systems approach, Public Health: What It Is and How It Works explores the inner workings of the complex, modern U.S. public health system―what it is, what it does, how it works, and why it is important. The book covers the origins and development of the modern pubic health system; the relationship of public health to the overall health system; how the system is organized at the federal, state, and local levels; its core functions and how well these are currently being addressed; evidence-based practice and an approach to program planning and evaluation for public health interventions; public health activities such as epidemiological investigation, biomedical research, environmental assessment, policy development, and more. Updated and New Information in the...

A History of Public Health

A History of Public Health
by George Rosen (Author), Elizabeth Fee (Introduction), Pascal James Imperato (Introduction)


Since publication in 1958, George Rosen’s classic book has been regarded as the essential international history of public health. Describing the development of public health in classical Greece, imperial Rome, England, Europe, the United States, and elsewhere, Rosen illuminates the lives and contributions of the field’s great figures. He considers such community health problems as infectious disease, water supply and sewage disposal, maternal and child health, nutrition, and occupational disease and injury. And he assesses the public health landscape of health education, public health administration, epidemiological theory, communicable disease control, medical care, statistics, public policy, and medical geography.Rosen, writing in the 1950s, may have had good reason to believe that...

Introduction To Public Health

Introduction To Public Health
by Mary-Jane Schneider (Author)


As public health concerns and controversies have continued to evolve, the new Third Edition of this best-selling text offers new and updated discussions of current topics, recent events, and the most up-to-date data to illustrate the key issues that affect the public’s health. Key Features: The author uses a reader-friendly, narrative style making the text engaging and accessible to a broad range of students. The text illustrates the multidisciplinary nature of public health and the complex ethical and political issues central to it. It includes discussions of epidemiological investigation, biomedical research, environmental assessment, analyses of individual and group behavior, massive data collection efforts, and policy developments. New to this Edition: New discussions about U.S....

Public Health 101: Healthy PeopleHealthy Populations

Public Health 101: Healthy PeopleHealthy Populations
by Richard Riegelman (Author), Brenda Kirkwood (Author)


From clean drinking water, to seat belts, to immunizations, the impact of public health on every individual is undeniable. For undergraduates, an understanding of the foundations of public health is an essential step toward becoming an educated citizen. Public Health 101: Healthy People––Healthy Populations provides a big-picture, population perspective on the determinants of health and disease and the tools available to protect and promote health. It examines the full range of options for intervention including use of the healthcare system, the public health system, and society-wide systems such as laws and taxation. Through case studies, vignettes, and extensive examples, readers will come away with a clear understanding of how public health affects them in their everyday lives....

Jekel's Epidemiology, Biostatistics, Preventive Medicine, and Public Health: With STUDENT CONSULT Online Access, 4e (Jekel's Epidemiology, Biostatistics, Preventive Medicine, Public Health)

Jekel's Epidemiology, Biostatistics, Preventive Medicine, and Public Health: With STUDENT CONSULT Online Access, 4e (Jekel's Epidemiology, Biostatistics, Preventive Medicine, Public Health)
by David L. Katz MD MPH (Author), Dorothea Wild MD MPH Dr. Med (Author), Joann G. Elmore MD MPH (Author), Sean C Lucan MD MPH MS (Author)


Jekel's Epidemiology, Biostatistics, Preventive Medicine, and Public Health is the only textbook that combines the disciplines of medical epidemiology, biostatistics, preventive medicine, and public health in one convenient resource. Written by renowned epidemiologists and public health experts, this text presents the information you need with a clinical focus, using real-life medical examples throughout. With review questions in each chapter to maximize knowledge retention and target key areas of review, it serves as an outstanding resource for USMLE prep - and is recommended by the American Board of Preventive Medicine as a top review source for its core specialty examination! Grasp and retain vital information easily thanks to quick-reference boxes that showcase key concepts and...

Epidemiology For Public Health Practice (Friis, Epidemiology for Public Health Practice)

Epidemiology For Public Health Practice (Friis, Epidemiology for Public Health Practice)
by Robert H. Friis (Author), Thomas Sellers (Author)


Now in its Fifth Edition, this best-selling text offers comprehensive coverage of all the major topics in introductory epidemiology. With extensive treatment of the heart of epidemiology―from study designs to descriptive epidemiology to quantitative measures―this reader-friendly text is accessible and interesting to a wide range of beginning students in all health-related disciplines. A unique focus is given to real-world applications of epidemiology and the development of skills that students can apply in subsequent course work and in the field. The Fifth Edition is a thorough revision with updated data throughout including: the top 10 leading causes of death, motor vehicle traffic death rates, mortality ratios, infant mortality rates, cancer deaths rates, tuberculosis incidence,...

Health Behavior: Theory, Research, and Practice (Jossey-Bass Public Health)

Health Behavior: Theory, Research, and Practice (Jossey-Bass Public Health)
by Karen Glanz (Editor), Barbara K. Rimer (Editor), K. Viswanath (Editor)


The essential health behavior text, updated with the latest theories, research, and issues Health Behavior: Theory, Research and Practice provides a thorough introduction to understanding and changing health behavior, core tenets of the public health role. Covering theory, applications, and research, this comprehensive book has become the gold standard of health behavior texts. This new fifth edition has been updated to reflect the most recent changes in the public health field with a focus on health behavior, including coverage of the intersection of health and community, culture, and communication, with detailed explanations of both established and emerging theories. Offering perspective applicable at the individual, interpersonal, group, and community levels, this essential guide...

© 2015 BrightSurf.com