Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Cancer 'turns off' important immune cells, complicating experimental vaccine therapies

August 31, 2012
New research published in the Journal of Leukocyte Biology suggests monocyte-derived dendritic cells may not be as effective in inducing desired immune responses as previously expected

Bethesda, MD-A research report published in the September 2012 issue of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology offers a possible explanation of why some cancer vaccines are not as effective as hoped, while at the same time identifies a new therapeutic strategy for treating autoimmune problems. In the report, scientists suggest that cancer, even in the very early stages, produces a negative immune response from dendritic cells, which prevent lymphocytes from working against the disease. Although problematic for cancer treatment, these flawed dendritic cells could be valuable therapeutic tools for preventing the immune system from attacking what it should not, as is the case with autoimmune disorders and organ transplants.

"Immunotherapy of cancer has been an elusive research target that, though promising, never seems to 'get there,'" said José Alexandre M. Barbuto, Ph.D., from the Laboratory of Tumor Immunology, Department of Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences at the University of São Paulo, in São Paulo, Brazil. "This study helps us to better understand the mechanisms by which tumors avoid immune recognition and rejection and may, therefore, teach us how to actually engage effectively the immune system in the fight against tumors, thus achieving much better clinical responses and, consequently, quality of life, in our therapeutic approaches."

To make this discovery, researchers obtained a small sample of blood from breast cancer patients, and from healthy volunteers. The blood cells were then separated and induced to become dendritic cells. Researchers then used these laboratory-generated dendritic cells to induce responses from other immune system cells, namely lymphocytes. While dendritic cells from the healthy donors induced vigorous lymphocytic responses, dendritic cells from cancer patients induced mainly the activation of a specific type of lymphocyte, a regulatory lymphocyte that works as a "brake" for other types of lymphocytes.

"Understanding why the immune system does not recognize and eliminate cancer is critical to developing effective immunotherapies to fight the disease," said John Wherry, Ph.D., Deputy Editor of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology. "Immunologists have been trying to unravel the answer to this question for decades and have realized that the problem is both on the immune system side, and because cancer cells appear to actively 'fly under the radar' avoiding immune system detection. This article offers insights into the underlying mechanisms regulating a key immune cell type, the dendritic cell, involved in initiating anti-tumor responses."

Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology


Related Dendritic Cells Current Events and Dendritic Cells News Articles


Subcutaneous administration of multispecific antibody improves tumor treatment
As a rule, anti-tumor antibodies are administered to the patients intravenously. This usually takes several hours because otherwise a too rapid activation of the immune system can lead to significant adverse side effects.

Dendritic cells of elite controllers able to recognize, mount defense against HIV
Investigators from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard have added another piece to the puzzle of how a small group of individuals known as elite controllers are able to control HIV infection without drug treatment.

Research offers a new approach to improving HIV vaccines
In a scientific discovery that has significant implications for preventing HIV infections, researchers at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (Sanford-Burnham) have identified a protein that could improve the body's immune response to HIV vaccines and prevent transmission of the virus.

Maternal obesity compromises babies' immune system at time of birth
Almost 60 percent of women of childbearing age in the United States are overweight or obese. Obesity is a major public health issue, and has been linked to health problems like heart disease, cancer and hypertension.

TSRI scientists identify interferon beta as likely culprit in persistent viral infections
Interferon proteins are normally considered virus-fighters, but scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have found evidence that one of them, interferon beta (IFNβ), has an immune-suppressing effect that can help some viruses establish persistent infections.

Research shows how antibodies produce vaccine-like effect against tumors
The problem with traditional cancer treatments is that their effects don't always last: Stop the therapy and the disease may return.

Disrupting cancer pathway could enhance new immunotherapies
Understanding how to overrule a signaling pathway that can cause treatments to fail in metastatic melanoma patients should help physicians extend the benefits of recently approved immunity-boosting drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors to more patients.

Uncovering new functions of a gene implicated in cancer growth opens new therapeutic possibilities
Weill Cornell Medical College researchers have shown for the first time that a gene previously implicated in blood vessel formation during embryonic development and tumor growth also induces immune suppression during tumor development.

Understanding the body's response to worms and allergies
Research from The University of Manchester is bringing scientists a step closer to developing new therapies for controlling the body's response to allergies and parasitic worm infections.

Immunology: Macrophages as T-cell primers
New work by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researchers demonstrates that macrophages can effectively substitute for so-called dendritic cells as primers of T-cell-dependent immune responses. Indeed, they stimulate a broader-based response.
More Dendritic Cells Current Events and Dendritic Cells News Articles

Dendritic Cell Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology)

Dendritic Cell Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology)
by Shalin H. Naik (Editor)


Given the vital importance of immune system research, the gathering of clear, consistent, and informative protocols involving the study of dendritic cells is paramount. Bringing the popular first edition fully up to date, Dendritic Cell Protocols, Second Edition presents protocols from experts in the field that cover the basics and more complex forays into the exploration of DC development and function, both in mice and humans. The first section of the volume involving humans explores topics such as the isolation of blood DC subtypes, primary skin Langerhans cells, and the generation of gene-manipulated human DCs with the inclusion of more clinically relevant methods as well, while the second section involving rodent models delves into DC and precursor generation in vitro, isolation ex...

Dendritic Cells in Cancer

Dendritic Cells in Cancer
by Michael R Shurin (Editor), Russell D. Salter (Editor)


It covers all aspects of DC generation, function, survival and antitumor activity in the tumor environment both in vivo and in experimental in vitro systems. The goal in focusing on a spectrum of issues related to DC in cancer is to provide an extensive and expansive review rather than a collection of independent analyses from different authors. Specific topics to be covered include analysis of DC behavior in the tumor microenvironment, including endogenous and exogenous DC, multiple DC populations, molecular pathways responsible for DC dysfunction, tumor-derived factors altering DC polarization and activation, mechanisms of DC alterations, and the role of DC in tumor escape from immune recognition and elimination. Furthermore, additional chapters provide extensive analysis of the...

Macrophages and Dendritic Cells: Methods and Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology)

Macrophages and Dendritic Cells: Methods and Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology)
by Neil E. Reiner (Editor)


In light of the critical contributions of macrophages and dendritic cells to diverse inflammatory diseases and to immunity and host defense, state-of-the-art approaches to the investigation of their behavior are essential. In Macrophages and Dendritic Cells: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers contribute laboratory protocols involving these two vital cell types functioning at the junction of the innate and acquired immune systems. The volume delves first into isolation and cell culturing then continues with topics such as phagocytosis, genetic manipulation, macrophage activation, and lipid signaling. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology™ series format, chapters include brief introductions to their respective subjects, lists of the necessary materials and...

Dendritic Cells in Clinics

Dendritic Cells in Clinics
by Morikazu Onji (Author), Sk. Md. Fazle Akbar (Author)


The role of dendritic cells in pathogenesis and the treatment of human disease is set out in this book. Researchers are optimistic that DCs, now used to treat cancers, can soon be used on chronic infections, autoimmune diseases, and allergic manifestations.

Dendritic Cells, Second Edition: Biology and Clinical Applications

Dendritic Cells, Second Edition: Biology and Clinical Applications
by Michael T. Lotze (Editor), Angus W. Thomson (Editor)


Dendritic Cells, 2nd Edition is the new edition of the extremely successful book published in 1998. With the volume of literature on dendritic cells doubling every year, it is almost impossible to keep up. This book provides the most up-to-date synthesis of the literature, written by the very best authors. It is essential reading for any scientist working in immunology, cell biology, infectious diseases, cancer, transplantation, genetic engineering, or the pharmaceutical/biotechnology industry.

* An entirely new section on DC biology is included in this edition. Also new to this edition are chapters on:
* Imaging
* Interaction of dendritic cells with viruses
* Dendritic cells and dendrikines, chemokines and the endothelium
*...

Dendritic Cells (Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology)

Dendritic Cells (Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology)
by Giovanna Lombardi (Editor), Yanira Riffo-Vasquez (Editor)


The understanding of the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in immune responses has come a long way since Steinmann and colleagues described these cells in 1972. - tensive research during the intervening period has provided a good understanding of the complexity of the DC system and its pivotal role in immunity. It is also now clearer how different subsets of DCs interact and regulate each other and how DC populations affect the function of other cells of the immune system. The improved understanding of their role in immune response has led to the idea that modulation of DC functions by, for example, pharmacological agents could be used as a pot- tial therapeutic approach in some pathological conditions. The actual applicability and therapeutic potential of all these approaches is yet to be...

Balancing between immunity and tolerance: Interplay between dendritic cells, effector T cells and regulatory T cells

Balancing between immunity and tolerance: Interplay between dendritic cells, effector T cells and regulatory T cells
by Nathalie Cools (Author)


During the past 10 years, important progress has been made in the field of immunology, leading to a better notion of the relationship between the immune system and disease. While new immunotherapeutic efforts pave the way for the treatment of old diseases, understanding the biology, function and mechanisms of immune cell populations is of utmost concern for the development and optimisation of cellular immune therapies for the induction of effective immune responses in cancer and chronic infections on the one hand, and for the induction of T cell tolerance in autoimmune disorders and transplantation on the other hand. With the data presented in this book, we believe to have contributed to the knowledge on the role of immune effector cells, such as dendritic cells, in...

Dendritic Cells: Biology and Clinical Applications

Dendritic Cells: Biology and Clinical Applications
by Michael T. Lotze (Editor), Angus W. Thompson (Editor)


Dendritic Cells is the first definitive book on this subject, and brings together the most current information in the field for scientists and clinicians. It outlines research studies, the first reports of therapeutic applications of dendritic cells, and the enormous potential of these unique cells. Contributors are from the key research groups around the world who are working on the immunobiology of dendritic cells and in applied areas, striving to develop their therapeutic potential.

Key Features
* First book on the subject of dendritic cells, the most powerful tool for manipulating the immune system
* Discusses the origin of DCs, their function throughout the body, and how they interact with other cells
* Covers the role of DCs in...

Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy (Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology)

Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy (Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology)
by Glenn Dranoff (Editor)


The interplay between tumors and their immunologic microenvironment is complex, difficult to decipher, but its understanding is of seminal importance for the development of novel prognostic markers and therapeutic strategies. The present review discusses tumor-immune interactions in several human cancers that illustrate various aspects of this complexity and proposes an integrated scheme of the impact of local immune reactions on clinical outcome. Current active immunotherapy trials have shown durable tumor regressions in a fraction of patients. However, clinical efficacy of current vaccines is limited, possibly because tumors skew the immune system by means of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, inflammatory type 2 T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs), all of which prevent the generation...

The Biology of Dendritic Cells and HIV Infection

The Biology of Dendritic Cells and HIV Infection
by Sandra Gessani (Editor), Filippo Belardelli (Editor)


Dendritic cells play the most vital part in inducing anti-viral immune responses in HIV and AIDS among many other viruses. Research on dendritic cells (DCs) is emerging as a fundamental aspect for the comprehension of the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of viral diseases. This volume focuses on the role of DCs in the pathogenesis and immunity of HIV-1 infection. It is the only comprehensive volume on pathogenesis and immunity of Dendritic Cells that also focuses on HIV.

© 2015 BrightSurf.com