Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Anti-HIV drug simulation offers 'realistic' tool to predict drug resistance and viral mutation

September 04, 2012

Computer model should help develop better anti-HIV drug combination therapies

Pooling data from thousands of tests of the antiviral activity of more than 20 commonly used anti-HIV drugs, AIDS experts at Johns Hopkins and Harvard universities have developed what they say is the first accurate computer simulation to explain drug effects. Already, the model clarifies how and why some treatment regimens fail in some patients who lack evidence of drug resistance. Researchers say their model is based on specific drugs, precise doses prescribed, and on "real-world variation" in how well patients follow prescribing instructions.

Johns Hopkins co-senior study investigator and infectious disease specialist Robert Siliciano, M.D., Ph.D., says the mathematical model can also be used to predict how well a patient is likely to do on a specific regimen, based on their prescription adherence. In addition, the model factors in each drug's ability to suppress viral replication and the likelihood that such suppression will spur development of drug-resistant, mutant HIV strains.

"With the help of our simulation, we can now tell with a fair degree of certainty what level of viral suppression is being achieved - how hard it is for the virus to grow and replicate - for a particular drug combination, at a specific dosage and drug concentration in the blood, even when a dose is missed," says Siliciano, a professor at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. This information, he predicts, will remove "a lot of the current trial and error, or guesswork, involved in testing new drug combination therapies."

Siliciano says the study findings, to be reported in the journal Nature Medicine online Sept. 2, should help scientists streamline development and clinical trials of future combination therapies, by ruling out combinations unlikely to work.

One application of the model could be further development of drug combinations that can be contained in a single pill taken once a day. That could lower the chance of resistance, even if adherence is not perfect. Such future drug regimens, he says, will ideally strike a balance between optimizing viral suppression and minimizing risk of drug resistance.

Researchers next plan to expand their modeling beyond blood levels of virus to other parts of the body, such as the brain, where antiretroviral drug concentrations can be different from those measured in the blood. They also plan to expand their analysis to include multiple-drug-resistant strains of HIV.

Besides Siliciano, Johns Hopkins joint medical-doctoral student Alireza Rabi was a co-investigator in this study. Other study investigators included doctoral candidates Daniel Rosenbloom, M.S.; Alison Hill, M.S.; and co-senior study investigator Martin Nowak, Ph.D. - all at Harvard University.

Funding support for this study, which took two years to complete, was provided by the National Institutes of Health, with corresponding grant numbers R01-MH54907, R01-AI081600, R01-GM078986; the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; the Cancer Research Institute; the National Science Foundation; the Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; the John Templeton Foundation; and J. Epstein.

Currently, an estimated 8 million of the more than 34 million people in the world living with HIV are taking antiretroviral therapy to keep their disease in check. An estimated 1,178,000 in the United States are infected, including 23,000 in the state of Maryland.

###

For additional information, go to:

http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/pharmacology_molecular_sciences/faculty/bios/siliciano.html

http://www.hhmi.org/research/investigators/siliciano_bio.html

http://www.nature.com/nm/index.html

Johns Hopkins Medicine


Related Combination Therapies Current Events and Combination Therapies News Articles


Ancient anti-inflammatory drug salicylic acid has cancer-fighting properties
Scientists from the Gladstone Institutes have identified a new pathway by which salicylic acid--a key compound in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs aspirin and diflunisal--stops inflammation and cancer.

Researchers reveal how a new class of drugs kills cancer cells
A team of Walter and Eliza Hall Institute researchers has worked out how a new class of anti-cancer drugs kills cancer cells, a finding that helps explain how cancer cells may become resistant to treatment.

A long-noncoding RNA regulates repair of DNA breaks in triple-negative breast cancer cells
The discovery of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) has dramatically changed the understanding of the biology of diseases such as cancer.

Researchers find method that could resurrect an abandoned pancreatic cancer targeted drug
Pancreatic cancer is on track to become the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths by 2020.

Curbing malaria resistance with multiple therapies
In order to preserve first-line drugs for treating malaria, multiple combination therapies should be deployed within a population to prevent resistance from developing, according to Maciej Boni from the Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, University of Oxford, UK, and colleagues in a Policy Forum article published in this week's PLOS Medicine.

Medication protects fertility and defense system during chemotherapy
While targeted cancer treatments have reduced side effects and improved efficacy, chemotherapy remains the backbone of combination therapies for many forms of cancer.

UA-led research: Prevention of macular degeneration possible
A University of Arizona-led study on age-related macular degeneration - the eye disease that gradually destroys the ability to read, drive, write and see close-up in 30 percent of older Americans - likely will lead to a way to delay or prevent the disease, researchers say.

Treatment restores some function in animal models of spinal muscular atrophy
In work involving several new generations of mouse model development, Jackson Laboratory (JAX) researchers have tested a therapeutic intervention for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) that restores some function lost due to a mutation in one gene (SMN1) and amplifies the levels of protective genes (SMN2).

Professor Janet Hemingway, outlines 15 years of malaria interventions in Africa
In an editorial in the weekly science journal Nature, LSTM's Director, Professor Janet Hemingway, looks at how the last 15 years of control measures have led to massive reductions in disease prevalence in Africa since 2000.

Breakthrough study demonstrates survival advantage with immune checkpoint inhibitor for advanced kidney cancer patients
For the first time, an immune checkpoint inhibitor has been proven to increase survival among patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC), a patient population for whom treatment options are currently limited.
More Combination Therapies Current Events and Combination Therapies News Articles

Insulin / Sulphonylurea: 2nd Symposium on Insulin / Sulphonylurea Combination Therapy in Type-II Diabetes, Munich, October 1986

Insulin / Sulphonylurea: 2nd Symposium on Insulin / Sulphonylurea Combination Therapy in Type-II Diabetes, Munich, October 1986
by W. Bachmann (Editor), N. Lotz (Editor), H. Mehnert (Editor)


Diabetes

Hematology - Oncology Therapy

Hematology - Oncology Therapy
by Michael Boyiadzis (Author), James Frame (Author), David R. Kohler (Author), Tito Fojo (Author)


The Essential Therapy Guide to Cancer, Hematologic Disorders, and Supportive Care--Updated with the Latest Treatment Regimens More than 500 treatment regimens Hematology-Oncology Therapy, Second Edition is an up-to-date, comprehensive therapy guide that delivers more than 500 treatment regimens in a succinct, uniform manner. The unique tabular design allows you to instantly locate and implement the proper treatment regimen. Supported by the latest practice guidelines, peer-reviewed literature, and the opinion of experts, Hematology-Oncology Therapy integrates extensive information that is critical to both office- and hospital-based practice of hematology and oncology. Hematology-Oncology Therapy is divided into three sections: Oncology:
Provides detailed information about the...

Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy

Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy
by David D. Burns (Author)


The good news is that anxiety, guilt, pessimism, procrastination, low self-esteem, and other "black holes" of depression can be cured without drugs. In Feeling Good, eminent psychiatrist, David D. Burns, M.D., outlines the remarkable, scientifically proven techniques that will immediately lift your spirits and help you develop a positive outlook on life. Now, in this updated edition, Dr. Burns adds an All-New Consumer′s Guide To Anti-depressant Drugs as well as a new introduction to help answer your questions about the many options available for treating depression.

- Recognise what causes your mood swings
- Nip negative feelings in the bud
- Deal with guilt
- Handle hostility and criticism
- Overcome addiction to love and approval
- Build self-esteem
-...

Textbook of Facial Rejuvenation: The Art of Minimally Invasive Combination Therapy

Textbook of Facial Rejuvenation: The Art of Minimally Invasive Combination Therapy
by Nicholas J. Lowe (Editor), Alastair Carruthers (Editor), Jean Carruthers (Editor), Zoe Diana Draelos (Editor), Richard Glogau (Editor), Christopher Griffiths (Editor), Arnold W. Klein (Editor), Gary Lask (Editor)


In recent years the demand for rejuvenating treatments for the face has grown dramatically for both men and women. Alongside that demand, a wide variety of treatments have evolved, and a combination of different treatments can often result in much greater improvement than single-treatment approaches. With contributions from an impressive cast of international experts, Textbook of Facial Rejuvenation details current treatments, recommends approaches, and suggests how they may be tailored towards individual needs and combined for optimum results.

Antiepileptic Drugs: Combination Therapy and Interactions

Antiepileptic Drugs: Combination Therapy and Interactions
by Jerzy Majkowski (Editor), Blaise F. D. Bourgeois (Editor), Philip N. Patsalos (Editor), Richard H. Mattson (Editor)


This book reviews the use of antiepileptic drugs focusing on the interactions between these drugs and between antiepileptics and other drugs. These interactions can be beneficial or can cause harm. The aim of this book is to increase awareness of the possible impact of combination pharmacotherapies. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions are discussed supported by clinical and experimental data. The book consists of five sections covering the general concepts and advantages of combination therapies, the principles of drug interactions, the mechanisms of interactions, drug interactions in specific populations or in patients with co-morbid health conditions, and concludes with a look at the future directions for this field of research. The book will be of interest to all who...

The Family Therapy Treatment Planner, with DSM-5 Updates, 2nd Edition (PracticePlanners)

The Family Therapy Treatment Planner, with DSM-5 Updates, 2nd Edition (PracticePlanners)
by Frank M. Dattilio (Author), Arthur E. Jongsma Jr. (Author), Sean D. Davis (Author)


This timesaving resource features: Treatment plan components for 40 behaviorally based presenting problems Over 1,000 prewritten treatment goals, objectives, and interventions—plus space to record your own treatment plan options A step-by-step guide to writing treatment plans that meet the requirements of most accrediting bodies, insurance companies, and third-party payors Includes new Evidence-Based Practice Interventions as required by many public funding sources and private insurers PracticePlanners® THE BESTSELLING TREATMENT PLANNING SYSTEM FOR MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS The Family Therapy Treatment Planner, Second Edition provides all the elements necessary to quickly and easily develop formal treatment plans that satisfy the demands of HMOs, managed care companies, third-party...

Rise from Darkness: How to Overcome Depression through Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Positive Psychology: Paths Out of Depression Toward Happiness

Rise from Darkness: How to Overcome Depression through Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Positive Psychology: Paths Out of Depression Toward Happiness
by Kristian Hall (Author)


Do you want to cure depression? Read Rise from Darkness and get the tools you need!This book will help you beat depression and increase your happinessThis self-help book about beating depression is special; it is not written by an academic, but by a person who overcame his own depression by following the techniques in the book. If you struggle with depression, you will be able to identify with the author and the text. "Rise from Darkness" was written by someone who really understands how you feel. 
Key contentHow to improve your mood here and nowLearn to utilize Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to eliminate negative thought patternsTechniques from Positive Psychology to help you change focus to the bright spots of your lifeLearn mediation and self-hypnosis to work with your...

Therapy and the Postpartum Woman: Notes on Healing Postpartum Depression for Clinicians and the Women Who Seek their Help

Therapy and the Postpartum Woman: Notes on Healing Postpartum Depression for Clinicians and the Women Who Seek their Help
by Karen Kleiman (Author)


This book provides a comprehensive look at effective therapy for postpartum depression. Using a blend of professional objectivity, evidence-based research, and personal, straight-forward suggestions gathered from years of experience, this book brings the reader into the private world of therapy with the postpartum woman. Based on Psychodynamic and Cognitive-Behavioral theories, and on D.W. Winnicott's "good-enough mother" and the "holding environment" in particular, the book is written by a therapist who has specialized in the treatment of postpartum depression for over 20 years. Therapy and the Postpartum Woman will serve as a companion tool for clinicians and the women they treat.

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Depression, Second Edition

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Depression, Second Edition
by Zindel V. Segal (Author), J. Mark G. Williams (Author), John D. Teasdale (Author), Jon Kabat-Zinn (Foreword)


This bestselling work, now in a new edition, has introduced tens of thousands of clinicians to mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for depression, an 8-week program with proven effectiveness. Step by step, the authors explain the "whys" and "how-tos" of conducting mindfulness practices and cognitive interventions that have been shown to bolster recovery from depression and prevent relapse. Clinicians are also guided to practice mindfulness themselves, an essential prerequisite to teaching others. More than 40 reproducible handouts are included. Purchasers get access to a companion website featuring downloadable audio recordings of the guided mindfulness practices (meditations and mindful movement), plus all of the reproducibles, ready to download and print in a convenient 8 1/2" x...

Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD: Emotional Processing of Traumatic Experiences (Treatments That Work)

Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD: Emotional Processing of Traumatic Experiences (Treatments That Work)
by Edna Foa (Author), Elizabeth Hembree (Author), Barbara Olaslov Rothbaum (Author)


An estimated 70% of adults in the United States have experienced a traumatic event at least once in their lives. Though most recover on their own, up to 20% develop chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. For these people, overcoming PTSD requires the help of a professional.

This guide gives clinicians the information they need to treat clients who exhibit the symptoms of PTSD. It is based on the principles of Prolonged Exposure Therapy, the most scientifically-tested and proven treatment that has been used to effectively treat victims of all types of trauma. Whether your client is a veteran of combat, a victim of a physical or sexual assault, or a casualty of a motor vehicle accident, the techniques and strategies outlined in this book will help.

In this treatment clients...

© 2016 BrightSurf.com