Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

A brain filter for clear information transmission

September 07, 2012

Every activity in the brain involves the transfer of signals between neurons. Frequently, as many as one thousand signals rain down on a single neuron simultaneously. To ensure that precise signals are delivered, the brain possesses a sophisticated inhibitory system. Stefan Remy and colleagues at the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases and the University Bonn have illuminated how this system works. "The system acts like a filter, only letting the most important impulses pass," explains Remy. "This produces the targeted neuronal patterns that are indispensible for long-term memory storage."

How does this refined control system work? How can inhibitory signals produce precise output signals? This was the question investigated by Remy and his colleagues. Scientists have known for some time that this inhibitory system is crucial for the learning process. For instance, newest research has shown that this system breaks down in Alzheimer's patients. Remy and his team investigated the nerve cells of the hippocampus, a region of the brain that plays a crucial role in memory formation.

The information we learn or remember is processed in the brain through nerve impulses. Incoming signals enter the cell as excitatory signals. Here, they are processed via branched structures, known as dendrites, and are sent selectively to neighboring neurons. The dendrites in this brain region serve as efficient amplifiers for synchronous signals.

"We were able to show that in specific dendrites, the 'strong' dendrites, clustered signals are amplified very well. 'Weak' dendrites only transmit signals in certain phases," says Christina Müller, postdoctoral student in Remy's working group and the lead author of the study to appear in Neuron. Dendrites are excitable to differing degrees. 'Strong' dendrites transmit synchronous excitatory signals precisely and very reliably. They can resist any inhibition. Thus ensures specific signals, perhaps most relevant for learning and memory, are reliably transmitted. This results in defined patterns of activity that are repeated regularly, creating simultaneous excitation and a combination of specific cell groups (assemblies).

"It is assumed that this coactivation of cell assemblies is a cellular correlate for learning," says Müller. If associations are to be stored in long-term memory, certain neuronal groups must be precisely and repeatedly activated in the same order. These activity patterns are enabled by the inhibitory system. It explains why the absence of this system in Alzheimer's patients has such dramatic consequences. Without it, the storage of associations in long-term memory cannot take place.

Signals that are received via 'weak' dendrites can only be passed forward during phases of weak inhibition. They can however be transformed into 'strong' dendrites during this process. According to Remy and his colleagues, only then can these dendrites provide precise signal transmission. Scientists call this "intrinsic plasticity". "This makes sense. Because this is how neuronal networks can be coupled with each other and the coupling made permanent," explains Remy. "This is a totally new learning mechanism. Here the change does not take place at the synapse - where it's already been observed - but at the dendrite." This mechanism mostly takes place during phases of heightened activity, such as when we experience something new.

The findings of Remy and his colleagues represent an important step toward better understanding the mechanisms of learning and memory.

Original publication:
Christina Müller, Heinz Beck, Douglas Coulter & Stefan Remy. Inhibitory control of linear and supralinear dendritic excitation in CA1 pyramidal neurons. Neuron, online publiziert am 5.9.2012. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2012.06.025

German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE)


Related Long-term Memory Current Events and Long-term Memory News Articles


The brain clock that keeps memories ticking
Just as members of an orchestra need a conductor to stay on tempo, neurons in the brain need well-timed waves of activity to organize memories across time. In the hippocampus--the brain's memory center--temporal ordering of the neural code is important for building a mental map of where you've been, where you are, and where you are going.

New findings from SUNY Downstate resolve controversy over PKMzeta in maintaining memory
New research led by SUNY Downstate Medical Center shows that mice devoid of PKMzeta, a molecule previously identified by SUNY Downstate scientists as essential to memory formation and storage, recruit a closely related molecule, PKCiota/lambda, to make up for the missing PKMzeta.

Long-term memory has back-up plan, researchers find
A team of scientists has identified the existence of a back-up plan for memory storage, which comes into play when the molecular mechanism of primary long-term memory storage fails.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy may help reduce memory problems in cancer survivors who have received chemotherapy
A new analysis indicates that a type of psychotherapy delivered by videoconference may help prevent some of the long-term memory issues caused by chemotherapy.

How the brain consolidates memory during deep sleep
Research strongly suggests that sleep, which constitutes about a third of our lives, is crucial for learning and forming long-term memories.

Invading the brain to understand and repair cognition
People are using brain-machine interfaces to restore motor function in ways never before possible - through limb prosthetics and exoskletons.

Aggression causes new nerve cells to be generated in the brain
A group of neurobiologists from Russia and the USA, including Dmitry Smagin, Tatyana Michurina, and Grigori Enikolopov from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), have proven experimentally that aggression has an influence on the production of new nerve cells in the brain.

Chronic stress and anxiety can damage the brain
A scientific review paper warns that people need to find ways to reduce chronic stress and anxiety in their lives or they may be at increased risk for developing depression and even dementia.

Four studies explore memory decline in people with epilepsy
Four studies presented at the American Epilepsy Society's (AES) 69th Annual Meeting uncover the biological factors that mediate memory decline in people with epilepsy, particularly those with seizures that affect the temporal lobe.

Can physical exercise enhance long-term memory?
Exercise can enhance the development of new brain cells in the adult brain, a process called adult neurogenesis.
More Long-term Memory Current Events and Long-term Memory News Articles

Home Care, Long-term Care, Memory Care Units, and Other Living Arrangements (Alzheimer's Roadmap Book 6)

Home Care, Long-term Care, Memory Care Units, and Other Living Arrangements (Alzheimer's Roadmap Book 6)
by Silver Hills Press


As individuals with Alzheimer’s disease progress to the later stages of the disease, they will become increasingly dependent on others for care. This increased need for care is often seen in the individual’s living arrangements. Most individuals with Alzheimer’s disease can live at home for some time, especially with the help of home services and home healthcare. Eventually, though, they will need 24-hour live-in care. If they don’t have a spouse or if their spouse is unable to provide the needed care, they may need to move in with a caregiver or move to an assisted living or long-term care facility. When your loved one needs advanced care, you may find that a memory care unit that specializes in caring for individuals with Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia is the...

Long-Term Memory Problems in Children and Adolescents: Assessment, Intervention, and Effective Instruction

Long-Term Memory Problems in Children and Adolescents: Assessment, Intervention, and Effective Instruction
by Milton J. Dehn (Author)


“This book will be a valuable resource for psychologists and educators who work with children or adolescents who are having difficulties with memory and learning. Translating theory and research into practice is a talent that Dr. Dehn possesses and we will benefit from his professional skills.”
— From the Foreword by Daniel C. Miller, PhD, ABPP, ABSNP, NCSP An indispensable guide that examines the effect of long-term memory functions on children's learning Long-Term Memory Problems in Children and Adolescents: Assessment, Intervention, and Effective Instruction is the first book of its kind for psychologists, school psychologists, and special education teachers who need an overview of long-term memory as it relates to learning and education. It presents the best practices for...

Short- and Long-Term Memory in Infancy and Early Childhood

Short- and Long-Term Memory in Infancy and Early Childhood
by Lisa M. Oakes (Author), Patricia J. Bauer (Author)


Despite early speculations that young infants are unable to form memories, since the 1950s developmental scientists have documented amazing memory abilities in infancy and explored how these abilities develop. This research on memory development in infancy and early childhood has recently moved in exciting new directions. Extensions of work on memory systems in adults and the use of behavioral and neuroscience methods to study early developing memory abilities have lead to an explosion of ideas about the neural underpinnings of memory, its development, and the mechanisms involved in these developmental changes. This book focuses on recent empirical and theoretical advances in the study of memory development in infancy and early childhood and on mechanisms of developmental change. Its...

Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory Consolidation (Studies in Neuroscience, Psychology and Behavioral Economics)

Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory Consolidation (Studies in Neuroscience, Psychology and Behavioral Economics)
by Nikolai Axmacher (Editor), Björn Rasch (Editor)


This edited volume provides an overview the state-of-the-art in the field of cognitive neuroscience of memory consolidation. In a number of sections, the editors collect contributions of leading researchers . The topical focus lies on current issues of interest such as memory consolidation including working and long-term memory. In particular, the role of sleep in relation to memory consolidation will be addressed. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of cognitive neuroscience but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

Human Memory: Second Edition

Human Memory: Second Edition
by Gabriel A. Radvansky (Author)


Provides students with a guide to human memory, its properties, theories about how it works, and how studying it can help us understand who we are and why we do the things that we do. For undergraduate and graduate courses in Human Memory. This book provides a very broad range of topics covering more territory than most books. In addition to some coverage of basic issues of human memory and cognition that are of interest to researchers in the field, the chapters also cover issues that will be relevant to students with a range of interests including those students interested in clinical, social, and developmental psychology, as well as those planning on going on to medical and law schools. The writing is aimed at talking directly to students (as opposed to talking down to them) in a clear...

Memory and Communication Aids for People with Dementia

Memory and Communication Aids for People with Dementia
by Michelle Bourgeois PhD CCC-SLP (Author)


Help people with memory loss communicate and function more independently with the useful memory aids in this book, with accompanying downloadable resources!

Discover how to use visual, written, and electronic memory aids to improve communication, independence, and quality of life for people with dementia and related memory impairments. These memory aids help convey the needs and preferences to care partners and increase engagement and social interaction. With 35 instantly downloadable guides, forms, templates, and memory aids!

INCLUDES: Simple instructions for selecting, developing, and implementing the optimal memory aid; both low-tech (memory-wallet, reminder cards) and high-tech (tablet, smartphone) options; full-color graphics; troublshooting tips to increase the use of...

Memory, Amnesia, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Neural Networks, Long Term Potentiation, Dissociation,  Confabulation, False Memories, Traumatic Stress: Brain, Mind, Neuroscience

Memory, Amnesia, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Neural Networks, Long Term Potentiation, Dissociation, Confabulation, False Memories, Traumatic Stress: Brain, Mind, Neuroscience
by University Press


Memory, Amnesia, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Neural Networks, Long Term Potentiation, Dissociation, Confabulation, False Memories, Traumatic Stress



Table of Contents



Part I. The Hippocampus, Amygdala, Memory, Amnesia,
Long Term Synaptic Potentiation, and Neural Networks -6
neural networks -
neural circuits & long term potentiation -
neural networks -
synaptic growth and dendritic spine proliferation -
long term potential & memory -
short & long term memory: the anterior & posterior hippocampus -
short vs long term verbal & visual memory loss & hippocampal damage -
bilateral hippocampal destruction & amnesia -
learning and memory in the absence of the hippocampus -
the...

Rapid Chinese: 200+ essential words and phrases anchored into your long-term memory and great music Library Edition (Earworms: Musical Brain Trainer (Playaway))

Rapid Chinese: 200+ essential words and phrases anchored into your long-term memory and great music Library Edition (Earworms: Musical Brain Trainer (Playaway))
by Earwormslearning (Author)




Memories.: Memories of a time I spent with a toxic person.

Memories.: Memories of a time I spent with a toxic person.


A memory project of my time within a toxic relationship. The aim is to help others who may have just been exactly where I was.

I don’t really know how to write this, but I figured, throughout my life, I’ve alwaaaayyyysss felt better writing stuff and getting it all out my system.

I’m still major struggling with something that happened years ago.

So, I will do this, and hope it helps.

You never know, it could help someone else who may have gone through something similar, and to be honest, it would make me proper happy if I knew I could help someone who could have been just as naive as I was.

I’m not even sure it was that bad, but from what I’ve learnt through the past few years, just because others have been through worse...

Prepper's Survival Handbook: The Ultimate Prepper's Handbook for Long-Term Survival and Self-Sufficient Living

Prepper's Survival Handbook: The Ultimate Prepper's Handbook for Long-Term Survival and Self-Sufficient Living
by Timothy S. Morris (Author)


Prepper's Survival Handbook: The Ultimate Prepper's Handbook for Long-Term Survival and Self-Sufficient Living Would you be able to survive for any length of time without modern amenities? If so, how would you do it? What tools and skills are required and how do you put it all together into a working survival plan? From Hollywood dramatizations to real-life catastrophes that seem to occur on a daily basis, there is no shortage of potential emergencies that could leave society in shambles. Maybe it's a blizzard that shuts down roads, supply routes and electricity for a week. Or maybe zombies really do take over the world – leaving a select few humans to rebuild society without modern amenities (just kidding – well, then again...). Whether or not you believe that “World War Z”...

© 2017 BrightSurf.com