Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

New technique to improve quality control of lithium-ion batteries

May 10, 2013
WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. - Researchers have created a new tool to detect flaws in lithium-ion batteries as they are being manufactured, a step toward reducing defects and inconsistencies in the thickness of electrodes that affect battery life and reliability.

The electrodes, called anodes and cathodes, are the building blocks of powerful battery arrays like those used in electric and hybrid vehicles. They are copper on one side and coated with a black compound to store lithium on the other. Lithium ions travel from the anode to the cathode while the battery is being charged and in the reverse direction when discharging energy.

The material expands as lithium ions travel into it, and this expansion and contraction causes mechanical stresses that can eventually damage a battery and reduce its lifetime, said Douglas Adams, Kenninger Professor of Mechanical Engineering and director of the Purdue Center for Systems Integrity.

The coating is a complex mixture of carbon, particulates that store lithium, chemical binders and carbon black. The quality of the electrodes depends on this "battery paint" being applied with uniform composition and thickness.

"A key challenge is to be able to rapidly and accurately sense the quality of the battery paint," said James Caruthers, Reilly Professor of Chemical Engineering and co-inventor of the new sensing technology.

The Purdue researchers have developed a system that uses a flashbulb-like heat source and a thermal camera to read how heat travels through the electrodes. The "flash thermography measurement" takes less than a second and reveals differences in thickness and composition.

"This technique represents a practical quality-control method for lithium-ion batteries," Adams said. "The ultimate aim is to improve the reliability of these batteries."

Findings are detailed in a research paper being presented during the 2013 annual meeting of the Society for Experimental Mechanics, which is June 3-5 in Lombard, Ill. The paper was written by doctoral students Nathan Sharp, Peter O'Regan, Anand David and Mark Suchomel, and Adams and Caruthers.

The method uses a flashing xenon bulb to heat the copper side of the electrode, and an infrared camera reads the heat signature on the black side, producing a thermal image.

The researchers found that the viscous compound is sometimes spread unevenly, producing a wavelike pattern of streaks that could impact performance. Findings show the technology also is able to detect subtle differences in the ratio of carbon black to the polymer binder, which could be useful in quality control.

The technique also has revealed various flaws, such as scratches and air bubbles, as well as contaminants and differences in thickness, factors that could affect battery performance and reliability.

"We showed that we can sense these differences in thickness by looking at the differences in temperature," Adams said. "When there is a thickness difference of 4 percent, we saw a 4.8 percent rise in temperature from one part of the electrode to another. For 10 percent, the temperature was 9.2 percent higher, and for 17 percent it was 19.2 percent higher."

The thermal imaging process is ideal for a manufacturing line because it is fast and accurate and can detect flaws prior to the assembly of the anode and cathodes into a working battery.

"For example, if I see a difference in temperature of more than 1 degree, I can flag that electrode right on the manufacturing floor," Adams said. "The real benefit, we think, is not just finding flaws but also being able to fix them on the spot."

Purdue has applied for a patent on the technique.

Purdue University


Related Lithium-ion Batteries Current Events and Lithium-ion Batteries News Articles


Using Sand to Improve Battery Performance
Researchers at the University of California, Riverside's Bourns College of Engineering have created a lithium ion battery that outperforms the current industry standard by three times. The key material: sand. Yes, sand.

Silicon sponge improves lithium-ion battery performance
The lithium-ion batteries that power our laptops and electric vehicles could store more energy and run longer on a single charge with the help of a sponge-like silicon material.

Charging Portable Electronics in 10 Minutes
Researchers at the University of California, Riverside Bourns College of Engineering have developed a three-dimensional, silicon-decorated, cone-shaped carbon-nanotube cluster architecture for lithium ion battery anodes that could enable charging of portable electronics in 10 minutes, instead of hours.

Seeing how a lithium-ion battery works
New observations by researchers at MIT have revealed the inner workings of a type of electrode widely used in lithium-ion batteries. The new findings explain the unexpectedly high power and long cycle life of such batteries, the researchers say.

Controlling thermal conductivities can improve energy storage
Controlling the flow of heat through materials is important for many technologies. While materials with high and low thermal conductivities are available, materials with variable and reversible thermal conductivities are rare, and other than high pressure experiments, only small reversible modulations in thermal conductivities have been reported.

New lithium battery created in Japan
The long life of lithium ion batteries makes them the rechargeable of choice for everything from implantable medical devices to wearable consumer electronics.

Liberating devices from their power cords
Imagine a future in which our electrical gadgets are no longer limited by plugs and external power sources. This intriguing prospect is one of the reasons for the current interest in building the capacity to store electrical energy directly into a wide range of products, such as a laptop whose casing serves as its battery, or an electric car powered by energy stored in its chassis, or a home where the dry wall and siding store the electricity that runs the lights and appliances.

Silly Putty Material Inspires Better Batteries
Using a material found in Silly Putty and surgical tubing, a group of researchers at the University of California, Riverside Bourns College of Engineering have developed a new way to make lithium-ion batteries that will last three times longer between charges compared to the current industry standard.

Relieving electric vehicle range anxiety with improved batteries
Electric vehicles could travel farther and more renewable energy could be stored with lithium-sulfur batteries that use a unique powdery nanomaterial.

How electrodes charge and discharge
The electrochemical reactions inside the porous electrodes of batteries and fuel cells have been described by theorists, but never measured directly. Now, a team at MIT has figured out a way to measure the fundamental charge transfer rate - finding some significant surprises.
More Lithium-ion Batteries Current Events and Lithium-ion Batteries News Articles

Lithium-Ion Batteries: Science and Technologies

Lithium-Ion Batteries: Science and Technologies
by Masaki Yoshio (Editor), Ralph J. Brodd (Editor), Akiya Kozawa (Editor)


This book is a compilation of up-to-date information relative to Li-Ion technology. It provides the reader with a single source covering all important aspects of Li-Ion battery operations. It fills the gap between the old original Li-Ion technology and present state of the technology that has developed into a high state of practice. The book is designed to provide a single source for an up-to-date description of the technology associated with the Li-Ion battery industry. It will be useful to researchers interested in energy conversion for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy as a textbook. University people will find a comprehensive description of the state-of-the-art of the Li-Ion system.

Lithium-Ion Batteries Hazard and Use Assessment (SpringerBriefs in Fire)

Lithium-Ion Batteries Hazard and Use Assessment (SpringerBriefs in Fire)
by Celina Mikolajczak (Author), Michael Kahn (Author), Kevin White (Author), Richard Thomas Long (Author)


Lithium-Ion Batteries Hazard and Use Assessment examines the usage of lithium-ion batteries and cells within consumer, industrial and transportation products, and analyzes the potential hazards associated with their prolonged use. This book also surveys the applicable codes and standards for lithium-ion technology. Lithium-Ion Batteries Hazard and Use Assessment is designed for practitioners as a reference guide for lithium-ion batteries and cells. Researchers working in a related field will also find the book valuable.

Lithium-Ion Batteries: Advances and Applications

Lithium-Ion Batteries: Advances and Applications
by Gianfranco Pistoia (Editor)


Lithium-Ion Batteries features an in-depth description of different lithium-ion applications, including important features such as safety and reliability. This title acquaints readers with the numerous and often consumer-oriented applications of this widespread battery type. Lithium-Ion Batteries also explores the concepts of nanostructured materials, as well as the importance of battery management systems. This handbook is an invaluable resource for electrochemical engineers and battery and fuel cell experts everywhere, from research institutions and universities to a worldwide array of professional industries. Contains all applications of consumer and industrial lithium-ion batteries, including reviews, in a single volumeFeatures contributions from the world's leading industry and...

A Systems Approach to Lithium-Ion Battery Management (Power Engineering)

A Systems Approach to Lithium-Ion Battery Management (Power Engineering)
by Phillip Weicker (Author)


The advent of lithium ion batteries has brought a significant shift in the area of large format battery systems. Previously limited to heavy and bulky lead-acid storage batteries, large format batteries were used only where absolutely necessary as a means of energy storage. The improved energy density, cycle life, power capability, and durability of lithium ion cells has given us electric and hybrid vehicles with meaningful driving range and performance, grid-tied energy storage systems for integration of renewable energy and load leveling, backup power systems and other applications. This book discusses battery management system (BMS) technology for large format lithium-ion battery packs from a systems perspective. This resource covers the future of BMS, giving us new ways to generate,...

Lithium-Ion batteries for Electric Vehicles:: Characterization, Modeling, State-of-Charge estimation and Disequalization phenomena

Lithium-Ion batteries for Electric Vehicles:: Characterization, Modeling, State-of-Charge estimation and Disequalization phenomena
by Fabio Codecà (Author), Pierfrancesco Spagnol (Author), Sergio M. Savaresi (Author)


The increased sensibility on environmental problems and the growing price of oil have focused research during the past few years on reducing energy consumption. As for the automotive field, research is devoted to increase vehicle efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions. In that context, the increasing interest on vehicle electrification (HEV, PHEV, EV) brought manufacturers and researchers to invest significant resources in the research and development of advanced energy storage systems, particularly in advanced battery systems. The Book focuses on lithium-ion technology because of its superior characteristics suitable for electric vehicles. Even if batteries are so common in day-by-day life, thanks to portable electronic systems, the need to use them in EVs and HEVs has underlined new...

Electrolytes for Lithium and Lithium-Ion Batteries (Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry)

Electrolytes for Lithium and Lithium-Ion Batteries (Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry)
by T. Richard Jow (Editor), Kang Xu (Editor), Oleg Borodin (Editor), Makoto Ue (Editor)


Electrolytes for Lithium and Lithium-ion Batteries provides a comprehensive overview of the scientific understanding and technological development of electrolyte materials in the last several years. This book covers key electrolytes such as LiPF6 salt in mixed-carbonate solvents with additives for the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries as well as new electrolyte materials developed recently that lay the foundation for future advances. This book also reviews the characterization of electrolyte materials for their transport properties, structures, phase relationships, stabilities, and impurities. The book discusses in-depth the electrode-electrolyte interactions and interphasial chemistries that are key for the successful use of the electrolyte in practical devices. The Quantum Mechanical...

Battery Management Systems for Large Lithium Ion Battery Packs

Battery Management Systems for Large Lithium Ion Battery Packs
by Davide Andrea (Author)


A battery management system (BMS) is any electronic device that manages a rechargeable battery pack. The BMS monitors the battery pack's state, calculates secondary data, offers protection, and controls its environment. This timely book provides a solid understanding of battery management systems (BMS) in large Li-Ion battery packs, describing the important technical challenges in this field and exploring the most effective solutions. Professionals find in-depth discussions on BMS topologies, functions, and complexities, helping them determine which permutation is right for their application. Packed with numerous graphics, tables, and images, the book explains the 'whys' and 'hows' of Li-Ion BMS design, installation, configuration and troubleshooting. This hands-on resource includes an...

Nanomaterials for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications

Nanomaterials for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications
by Rachid Yazami (Editor)


This book covers the most recent advances in the science and technology of nanostructured materials for lithium-ion application. With contributions from renowned scientists and technologists, the chapters discuss state-of-the-art research on nanostructured anode and cathode materials, some already used in commercial batteries and others still in development. They include nanostructured anode materials based on Si, Ge, Sn, and other metals and metal oxides together with cathode materials of olivine, the hexagonal and spinel crystal structures.

Lithium-Ion Batteries: Solid-Electrolyte Interphase

Lithium-Ion Batteries: Solid-Electrolyte Interphase
by Perla B. Balbuena (Editor), Yixuan Wang (Editor)


This work focuses on the mechanisms of formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the electrode surfaces of lithium-ion batteries. The SEI film is due to electromechanical reduction of species present in the electrolyte. It is widely recognized that the presence of the film plays an essential role in the battery performance, and its very nature can determine an extended (or shorter) life for the battery. In spite of the numerous related research efforts, details on the stability of the SEI composition and its influence on the battery capacity are still controversial. This book carefully analyzes and discusses the most recent findings and advances on this topic.

Lithium-Ion Batteries: Advanced Materials and Technologies (Green Chemistry and Chemical Engineering)

Lithium-Ion Batteries: Advanced Materials and Technologies (Green Chemistry and Chemical Engineering)
by Xianxia Yuan (Editor), Hansan Liu (Editor), Jiujun Zhang (Editor)


Written by a group of top scientists and engineers in academic and industrial R&D, Lithium-Ion Batteries: Advanced Materials and Technologies gives a clear picture of the current status of these highly efficient batteries. Leading international specialists from universities, government laboratories, and the lithium-ion battery industry share their knowledge and insights on recent advances in the fundamental theories, experimental methods, and research achievements of lithium-ion battery technology. Along with coverage of state-of-the-art manufacturing processes, the book focuses on the technical progress and challenges of cathode materials, anode materials, electrolytes, and separators. It also presents numerical modeling and theoretical calculations, discusses the design of safe and...

© 2014 BrightSurf.com