Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

New research sheds light on how the body regulates fundamental neuro-hormone

February 11, 2014
New research has revealed a previously unknown mechanism in the body which regulates a hormone that is crucial for motivation, stress responses and control of blood pressure, pain and appetite. The breakthrough could be used to design drugs to help fight health problems connected with these functions in the future.

Researchers at the University of Bristol and University College London found that lactate - essentially lactic acid - causes cells in the brain to release more noradrenaline (norepinephrine in US English), a hormone and neurotransmitter which is fundamental for brain function. Without it people can hardly wake up or focus on anything.

Production of lactate can be triggered by muscle use, which reinforces the connection between exercise and positive mental wellbeing.

Lactate was first discovered in sour milk by Swedish chemist, Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1780. It is produced naturally by the body, for example when muscles are at work. In the brain, it has always been regarded as an energy source which can be delivered to neurones as fuel to keep them working when brain activity increases.

This research, published today [11 February] in Nature Communications, identifies a secondary function for lactate as a signal between brain cells. It implies that there is an as yet unknown receptor for lactate in the brain which must be present on noradrenaline cells to make them sensitive to lactate.

Professor Sergey Kasparov, from Bristol University's School of Physiology and Pharmacology, said: "Our findings suggest that lactate has more than one incarnation - in addition to its role as an energy source, it is also a signal to neurones to release more noradrenaline."

Dr Anja Teschemacher, also from the University of Bristol, added: "The next big task is to identify the receptor which mediates this effect because this will help to design drugs to block or stimulate this response. If we can regulate the release of noradrenaline - which is absolutely fundamental for brain function - then this could have important implications for the treatment of major health problems such as stress, blood pressure, pain and depression."

Astrocytes, small non-neuronal star-shaped cells in the brain and spinal cord, are the principle source of brain lactate. The discovery that astrocytes communicate directly with neurones opens up a whole new area of pharmacology which has been little explored.

###

The research was funded by the British Heart Foundation (BHF), the Medical Research Council (MRC), The Wellcome Trust and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC).

Paper:

'Lactate-mediated glia-neuronal signaling in the mammalian brain' by F. Tang, S. Lane, A. Korsak, J.F.R. Paton, A.V. Gourine, S. Kasparov & A.G. Teschemacher, in Nature Communications DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4284

University of Bristol


Related Noradrenaline Current Events and Noradrenaline News Articles


UCSB study explores cocaine and the pleasure principle
On the other side of the cocaine high is the cocaine crash, and understanding how one follows the other can provide insight into the physiological effects of drug abuse.

Suicide risk doesn't differ in children taking 2 types of commonly prescribed antidepressants
A Vanderbilt University Medical Center study released today shows there is no evidence that the risk of suicide differs with two commonly prescribed antidepressants prescribed to children and adolescents.

OHSU Vollum Institute research gives new insight into how anti-depressants work in the brain
Research from Oregon Health & Science University's Vollum Institute, published in the current issue of Nature, is giving scientists a never-before-seen view of how nerve cells communicate with each other.

Genetic variation alters efficacy of antidepressant
Having a different form of a gene that regulates the brain chemical noradrenaline influences how well men remember negative memories after taking the antidepressant drug reboxetine, according to a study published in the October 23 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience.

Brain may flush out toxins during sleep
A good night's rest may literally clear the mind. Using mice, researchers showed for the first time that the space between brain cells may increase during sleep, allowing the brain to flush out toxins that build up during waking hours.

Ghrelin, a stress-induced hormone, primes the brain for PTSD
About a dozen years ago, scientists discovered that a hormone called ghrelin enhances appetite. Dubbed the "hunger hormone," ghrelin was quickly targeted by drug companies seeking treatments for obesity - none of which have yet panned out.

Scientists shed light on the brain mechanisms behind a debilitating sleep disorder
Normally muscles contract in order to support the body, but in a rare condition known as cataplexy the body's muscles "fall asleep" and become involuntarily paralyzed.

Scripps Research Institute Team Shows 'Bath Salts' Stimulant Could Be More Addictive than Meth
Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have published one of the first laboratory studies of MDPV, an emerging recreational drug that has been sold as "bath salts."

Force of habit: Stress hormones switch off areas of the brain for goal-directed behaviour
Cognition psychologists at the Ruhr-Universität together with colleagues from the University Hospital Bergmannsheil (Prof. Dr. Martin Tegenthoff) have discovered why stressed persons are more likely to lapse back into habits than to behave goal-directed.

Scripps Research Scientists Help Pinpoint Cause of Stress-Related DNA Damage
Working closely with a team of researchers from Duke University, scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute have helped identify a molecular pathway that plays a key role in stress-related damage to the genome, the entirety of an organism's hereditary information.
More Noradrenaline Current Events and Noradrenaline News Articles

Noradrenaline

Noradrenaline
by U.S. Von Euler (Author)




Noradrenaline: Webster's Timeline History, 1931 - 2007

Noradrenaline: Webster's Timeline History, 1931 - 2007
by Icon Group International (Author)


Webster's bibliographic and event-based timelines are comprehensive in scope, covering virtually all topics, geographic locations and people. They do so from a linguistic point of view, and in the case of this book, the focus is on "Noradrenaline," including when used in literature (e.g. all authors that might have Noradrenaline in their name). As such, this book represents the largest compilation of timeline events associated with Noradrenaline when it is used in proper noun form. Webster's timelines cover bibliographic citations, patented inventions, as well as non-conventional and alternative meanings which capture ambiguities in usage. These furthermore cover all parts of speech (possessive, institutional usage, geographic usage) and contexts, including pop culture, the arts, social...

Faster, Better, Sicker - Timeurgency Perfectionism Stress

Faster, Better, Sicker - Timeurgency Perfectionism Stress


The combination of perfectionism and time urgency stress creates a high risk for developing and having certain diseases including CANCER,CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, METABOLIC SYNDROME, ENDOMETRIOSIS,CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME, FIBROMYALGIA, INFERTILITY and AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES
WHAT IS THE LINK BETWEEN TIME URGENCY PERFECTIONISM AND THE DISEASES DISCUSSED ABOVE?
The nature of this personality type is that in order to achieve the desired perfect outcome, in a given time, a certain amount of stress is required. Each of the stress episodes related to time urgency perfectionism will cause an activation of the psychoneuroimmune system pathways. This means that for each stress the brain will release a hormone that will stimulate the secretion of hormones from the adrenal gland.

  Noradrenaline, Chemistry Physiology Pharmocology and Clinical Aspects
by Charles C. Thomas (Publisher)




Evidence for the existence of central monoamine neurons: Mapping of central dopamine,noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine neurons in the central nervous system with transmitter histochemistry

Evidence for the existence of central monoamine neurons: Mapping of central dopamine,noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine neurons in the central nervous system with transmitter histochemistry
by Kjell Fuxe (Author)


It is important to remember how immature the catecholamine field was in the beginning of the 1960 ies. At the CIBA Foundation Symposium on Adrenergic Mechanisms (London) in 1960 Prof. Gaddum stated: ?The meeting was in a critical mood and no one ventured to speculate on the relation between catecholamines and the brain" . It was therefore a major breakthrough in the monoamine field when it became possible in the 1960ies with the help of a highly sensitive and specific fluorescence method for the cellular demonstration of catecholamines and 5- hydroxytryptamine,the so called Falck-Hillarp technique , to directly demonstrate nerve cell systems in the CNS storing and forming dopamine,noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine, respectively. This book gives...

The Uptake and Storage of Noradrenaline in Sympathetic Nerves

The Uptake and Storage of Noradrenaline in Sympathetic Nerves
by Leslie L. Iversen (Author)




  The Pharmacology of Noradrenaline in the Central Nervous System (Oxford Medical Publications)
by David J. Heal (Editor), Charles A. Marsden (Editor)


Here is an up-to-date, detailed account of the research and that has significantly increased our understanding of the function of noradrenaline in the central nervous system. This neurotransmitter plays an important role in such disorders as anxiety, depression, and loss of memory. The expert contributors review our knowledge of a variety of anatomical, molecular, biochemical, electrophysiological and behavioral aspects of noradrenaline function. They cover the prospects for developing new psychiatric drugs, and indicate areas where future developments may be expected. Among the topics examined are the co-existence of specific peptides with noradrenaline, the pharmacological and molecular characterization of adrenergic receptors, key indices of their functional significance, the role...

  In silico modeling of a1a-adrenoceptor: interaction of its normal and mutated active sites with noradrenaline as well as its agonist and ... Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology
by Ramchandran Vijayan (Author), Naidu Subbarao (Author), Birendra Nath Mallick (Author)


This digital document is an article from American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, published by Thomson Gale on September 22, 2007. The length of the article is 5419 words. The page length shown above is based on a typical 300-word page. The article is delivered in HTML format and is available in your Amazon.com Digital Locker immediately after purchase. You can view it with any web browser.

Citation Details
Title: In silico modeling of a1a-adrenoceptor: interaction of its normal and mutated active sites with noradrenaline as well as its agonist and antagonist.(Report)
Author: Ramchandran Vijayan
Publication: American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology (Magazine/Journal)
Date: September 22, 2007
Publisher: Thomson Gale
Volume: 3 Issue: 4 Page:...

  Neurotransmitters of the Brain: Serotonin Noradrenaline (Norepinephrine), and Dopamine.: An article from: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing
by William T. Blows (Author)


This digital document is an article from Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, published by American Association of Neuroscience Nurses on August 1, 2000. The length of the article is 2791 words. The page length shown above is based on a typical 300-word page. The article is delivered in HTML format and is available in your Amazon.com Digital Locker immediately after purchase. You can view it with any web browser.

Citation Details
Title: Neurotransmitters of the Brain: Serotonin Noradrenaline (Norepinephrine), and Dopamine.
Author: William T. Blows
Publication: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing (Refereed)
Date: August 1, 2000
Publisher: American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
Volume: 32 Issue: 4 Page: 234

Distributed by Thomson...

  The Uptake and Storage of Noradrenaline
by Unnamed Unnamed (Author)




© 2014 BrightSurf.com