Diabetes complications rooted in faulty cell repair
January 26, 2006
UF researchers restore vitality to cells in lab experiments
University of Florida researchers say primitive cells that act like molecular maintenance men-traveling throughout the body to repair damaged blood vessels-become too rigid to move in patients with diabetes, fueling the disease's vascular complications. But they have found a way to restore the cells' flexibility, at least in the laboratory, according to findings published in the January issue of the journal Diabetes.
Having diabetes markedly raises the risk of developing a host of other ailments, from heart disease to stroke, blindness and kidney failure. Many arise after blood vessels suffer damage, spurring the accumulation of fatty deposits in the arteries or the wild, blinding growth of capillaries in the eye.
"We're interested in what happens in the body at the molecular level to cause these life-threatening problems," said Mark S. Segal, Ph.D., an assistant professor of nephrology, hypertension and transplantation at UF's College of Medicine. "Our work is focused on understanding why diabetic patients are at increased risk for these other diseases."
The problem is rooted in the body's response to vascular injury. The bone marrow churns out cells crucial to repairing the damaged lining of blood vessels. But sometimes they fail to report for duty.
"Part of the defect we think is occurring in diabetic patients is these cells do not carry out appropriate repair, and therefore these patients are at higher risk for cardiovascular disease and other complications," Segal said.
The inability of the cells to repair the peripheral vasculature, the large vessels of the body, is similar to their inability to repair the small vessels within the eye, he added.
"In the vasculature it leads to atherosclerosis, and within the eye it leads to diabetic retinopathy," he said. "So the link is we have one defect in these cells that can lead to both of these problems."
UF researchers isolated these repair cells from blood samples drawn from patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease and studied them in the laboratory. The cells were unable to move about normally. But when nitric oxide gas was added, Segal said, the cells lost their rigidity, becoming suppler, and their ability to move dramatically improved.
In the body, nitric oxide occurs naturally. It helps the repair cells move out of the bone marrow where they are made, and it opens blood vessels and improves the uptake of oxygen. Patients with diabetes, however, commonly have low levels of nitric oxide.
"We went on to show that actually what's happening is nitric oxide is affecting the skeleton, or scaffold of the cell, and by adding nitric oxide we're able to rearrange the scaffold," Segal said. "When we rearrange the scaffold, the cells are able to migrate. The benefit of this is that when cells have improved movement they are able to repair the endothelium (the lining of the blood vessels) better and perhaps prevent atherosclerosis."
UF scientists suspect that in the cells taken from diabetic patients, nitric oxide interacts with a protein that steers the protein to the cell surface instead of inserting it into the cell as it would in healthy people. That causes the cell to stiffen.
The finding raises the possibility that nitric oxide could someday be used to keep the cells mobile, enabling them to travel to distant sites when needed, Segal said.
"The importance of this is related to other work that has shown that many drugs being used on the market today actually affect nitric oxide levels within these cells," Segal said. "So someday there may be two ways to help people whose cells may not function as well as they should. One is through certain medications-there may be a way we could actually give medications that would affect the nitric oxide levels within these cells and enhance their migratory ability. The other is through certain instances where we might actually collect these cells, treat them with nitric oxide outside the body and give them back to patients, to help improve the cells' migration ability."
In the future, for example, patients with diabetes and atherosclerosis who require angioplasty might receive injections of their own repair cells. The cells would be removed, incubated with nitric oxide to improve their function and then returned. They would theoretically help blood vessels heal more quickly, and perhaps keep new fatty deposits from forming, Segal speculated.
The research grew out of previous work at UF in collaboration with UF biochemist Daniel Purich, Ph.D., and pharmacologist Maria Grant, M.D. UF materials scientist Roger Tran-Son-Tay, Ph.D., among others, also participated in the current study.
"The work of Segal and colleagues is groundbreaking and provides important insights into the underlying mechanism of blood vessel damage in diabetes, which is the hallmark lesion for complications affecting the kidneys, eyes and nerves in patients with diabetes," said Anupam Agarwal, M.D., director of the Nephrology Research and Training Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.
University of Florida
Related Diabetes Current Events and Diabetes News ArticlesProtecting us from our cells
Our immune system defends us from harmful bacteria and viruses, but, if left unchecked, the cells that destroy those invaders can turn on the body itself, causing auto-immune diseases like type-1 diabetes or multiple sclerosis. Steadily rising increases in mitochondrial DNA mutations cause abrupt shifts in disease
New work by a pioneering scientist details how subtle changes in mitochondrial function may cause a broad range of common metabolic and degenerative diseases.A New Window of Opportunity to Prevent Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases
Future prevention and treatment strategies for vascular diseases may lie in the evaluation of early brain imaging tests long before heart attacks or strokes occur, according to a systematic review conducted by a team of cardiologists, neuroscientists, and psychiatrists from Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published in the October issue of JACC Cardiovascular Imaging.Molecule could suppress immune system's 'friendly fire'
Scientists have found a molecule that could potentially accelerate clinical trials to combat autoimmune diseases.New test could identify infants with rare insulin disease
A rare form of a devastating disease which causes low blood sugar levels in babies and infants may now be recognised earlier thanks to a new test developed by researchers from The University of Manchester. Studies must be carried out to determine whether exercise slows the onset of type 1 diabetes in children and adults
Rates of type 1 diabetes-the autoimmune form of the condition that often begins in childhood and eventually results in lifelong dependency on insulin-are increasing in almost all nations worldwide.Diet for your DNA: Novel nutrition plan sparks debate around data protection
Personalised diet plans will not be widely accepted by the public until regulations are in place to protect information about our DNA, new research has shown.Immune proteins moonlight to regulate brain-cell connections
When it comes to the brain, "more is better" seems like an obvious assumption. But in the case of synapses, which are the connections between brain cells, too many or too few can both disrupt brain function.Resetting the circadian clock: Shift workers might want to skip high-iron foods
Workers punching in for the graveyard shift may be better off not eating high-iron foods at night so they don't disrupt the circadian clock in their livers. Study Shows How Troubled Marriage, Depression History Promote Obesity
The double-whammy of marital hostility and a history of depression can increase the risk for obesity in adults by altering how the body processes high-fat foods, according to new research.
More Diabetes Current Events and Diabetes News Articles
The End of Diabetes: The Eat to Live Plan to Prevent and Reverse Diabetes|
by Joel Fuhrman (Author)
The New York Times bestselling author of Eat to Live and Super Immunity and one of the country’s leading experts on preventive medicine offers a scientifically proven, practical program to prevent and reverse diabetes—without drugs.At last, a breakthrough program to combat the rising diabetes epidemic and help millions of diabetics, as well as those suffering with high blood pressure and heart disease. Joel Fuhrman, M.D. Research director of the Nutritional Research Foundation, shows you how to live a long, healthy, and happy life—disease free. He offers a complete health transformation, starting with a diet with a high nutrient-per-calorie ratio that can be adapted for individual needs.Dr. Fuhrman makes clear that we don’t have to “control” diabetes. Patients can choose to...
Mayo Clinic The Essential Diabetes Book|
by Mayo Clinic (Author)
More people than ever before have diabetes. The disease affects an estimated 21 million adults and children in the US and many people with the disease don't have it under control. Unlike years ago, you have a good chance of living an active and healthy life with diabetes - provided you work with your health-care team to take the necessary steps to control your blood sugar. This title covers: the pre-diabetes stage - taking charge to prevent diabetes; types of diabetes; symptoms and risk factors; treatments and strategies for managing your blood sugar; avoiding serious complications; advances in insulin delivery and new medications; and, recipes
The Official Pocket Guide to Diabetic Exchanges: Choose Your Foods|
by ADA American Diabetes Association (Author)
Completely updated to match the newest edition of Choose Your Foods: Exchange Lists for Diabetes Meal Planning, this pocket-sized bestseller is now better and more complete than ever.
Every day and at every meal, millions of people use the exchange list system to help them plan their meal, choose the healthiest foods, and estimate the right portions. By grouping similar foods into exchangeable portion sizes, people with diabetes can instantly create entire meals, specifically designed to help them control their blood glucose and lose weight. This proven system is the most popular approach to diabetes meal planning and has been used by dietitians, diabetes educators, and millions of people with diabetes for over 40 years.
This portable, pocket-sized version of the Choose Your...
Diabetes Diet: The 101 Best Diabetic Foods|
by Health Research Staff (Author)
Stuck in a meal rut and tired of the same old foods?
If you?re someone who is dealing with diabetes, there?s no question that you must be paying attention to what you eat each day. The foods you put into your body are going to have a very strong influence on not only how well you feel, but on how well you handle this condition altogether.
By making smart food choices, you can maintain control over your diabetes and live the lifestyle that you want to lead.
The following 101 foods will do just that. We?ve selected the top picks that you should include in your diet plan regularly so you no longer have to wonder what to eat.
This list is meant to encourage you to broaden your eating choices. This prevents the boredom that many experience by getting stuck on...
Dr. Neal Barnard's Program for Reversing Diabetes: The Scientifically Proven System for Reversing Diabetes without Drugs|
by Neal D. Barnard (Author)
Until Dr. Barnard’s scientific breakthrough, most health professionals believed that once you developed diabetes, you were stuck with it—and could anticipate one complication after another, from worsening eyesight and nerve symptoms to heart and kidney problems. But as this groundbreaking work reveals, this simply is not true. In a series of studies—the most recent funded by the National Institutes of Health—Dr. Barnard has shown that it is possible to repair insulin function and reverse type 2 diabetes. By following his scientifically proven, life-changing program, diabetics can control blood sugar three times more effectively than with the standard diet; and cut back on and in some cases eliminate medications while reducing the risk of diabetes complications. "The long overdue...
Diabetes For Dummies|
by Alan L. Rubin (Author)
The straight facts on treating diabetes successfullyWith diabetes now considered pandemic throughout the world, there have been an enormous advances in the field since the last edition of Diabetes For Dummies. Now significantly revised and updated, it includes the latest information on medications and monitoring equipment, updated diet and exercise plans, new findings about treating diabetes in the young and elderly, new ways to diagnose and treat long- and short-term complications, and more.Want to know how to manage diabetes? Trusted diabetes expert Dr. Alan Rubin gives you reassuring, authoritative guidance on putting together a state-of-the-art treatment program to treat diabetes successfully and live a full life. You'll learn about all the advances in monitoring glucose, the latest...
Prediabetes: An Opportunity to Prevent Diabetes|
by CME Resource/NetCE
Studies have shown that diabetes can be delayed or prevented in people with prediabetes, but risk reduction relies heavily on lifestyle changes on the part of the patients, making education and counseling of vital importance. The purpose of this course is to provide healthcare professionals with the information and skills necessary to effectively deal with this common condition and learn ways to help patients make healthy lifestyle choices. In addition, members of the public may use this course to enhance their personal knowledge of the subject matter presented.
Upon completion of this course, you should be able to:
1. Identify the incidence and prevalence of prediabetes in the United States.
2. Define the diagnostic criteria for prediabetes and diabetes.
What Do I Eat Now?: A Step-by-Step Guide to Eating Right with Type 2 Diabetes|
by Patti Geil (Author), Tami A. Ross (Author)
The DIY approach to a diabetes diet!
What Do I Eat Now? is the single best resource for people with diabetes to learn how to eat right and eat healthy with diabetes. Each chapter explains a vital concept of diabetes nutrition in easy-to-understand language. Tell Me What to Eat” meal plans and recipes at the end of each chapter get readers started on a lifetime of healthy eating. Don’t waste time trying to figure everything out from scratch when What Do I Eat Now? gives readers a step-by-step plan for understanding how to eat right. Learn as you go by cooking healthy, nutritious, and flavorful diabetic meals!
The First Year: Type 2 Diabetes: An Essential Guide for the Newly Diagnosed|
by Gretchen Becker (Author), Allison B. Goldfine (Foreword)
After Gretchen Becker was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in 1996, she educated herself on every aspect of this chronic condition — by reading medical and scientific books and journals, talking with doctors and listening to her own body. In 2001, she marshaled everything she had learned as a "patient-expert" into the first edition of this book, which she has now completely updated and revised. The First Year®—Type 2 Diabetes uniquely guides you step-by-step through your first year with diabetes, walking you through everything you need to learn and do each day of your first week after diagnosis, each subsequent week of the first month, and each subsequent month of the crucial first year. In clear, concise, accessible language, Becker covers a wide range of practical, medical, and...
Take Control: Eliminating Diabetes From Your Life|
by Pointed Publishing
Diabetes is a complex illness that affects nearly 10% of all Americans. What is it? How does it affect the body? And, what can I do to prevent myself from getting diabetes or treat the diabetes that I already have? This book will answer each question in turn and give you a rich insight into this disease.
Pick up your copy today!