Science Current Events | Science News | Brightsurf.com
 

Diabetes complications rooted in faulty cell repair

January 26, 2006

UF researchers restore vitality to cells in lab experiments
University of Florida researchers say primitive cells that act like molecular maintenance men-traveling throughout the body to repair damaged blood vessels-become too rigid to move in patients with diabetes, fueling the disease's vascular complications. But they have found a way to restore the cells' flexibility, at least in the laboratory, according to findings published in the January issue of the journal Diabetes.

Having diabetes markedly raises the risk of developing a host of other ailments, from heart disease to stroke, blindness and kidney failure. Many arise after blood vessels suffer damage, spurring the accumulation of fatty deposits in the arteries or the wild, blinding growth of capillaries in the eye.

"We're interested in what happens in the body at the molecular level to cause these life-threatening problems," said Mark S. Segal, Ph.D., an assistant professor of nephrology, hypertension and transplantation at UF's College of Medicine. "Our work is focused on understanding why diabetic patients are at increased risk for these other diseases."

The problem is rooted in the body's response to vascular injury. The bone marrow churns out cells crucial to repairing the damaged lining of blood vessels. But sometimes they fail to report for duty.

"Part of the defect we think is occurring in diabetic patients is these cells do not carry out appropriate repair, and therefore these patients are at higher risk for cardiovascular disease and other complications," Segal said.

The inability of the cells to repair the peripheral vasculature, the large vessels of the body, is similar to their inability to repair the small vessels within the eye, he added.

"In the vasculature it leads to atherosclerosis, and within the eye it leads to diabetic retinopathy," he said. "So the link is we have one defect in these cells that can lead to both of these problems."

UF researchers isolated these repair cells from blood samples drawn from patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease and studied them in the laboratory. The cells were unable to move about normally. But when nitric oxide gas was added, Segal said, the cells lost their rigidity, becoming suppler, and their ability to move dramatically improved.

In the body, nitric oxide occurs naturally. It helps the repair cells move out of the bone marrow where they are made, and it opens blood vessels and improves the uptake of oxygen. Patients with diabetes, however, commonly have low levels of nitric oxide.

"We went on to show that actually what's happening is nitric oxide is affecting the skeleton, or scaffold of the cell, and by adding nitric oxide we're able to rearrange the scaffold," Segal said. "When we rearrange the scaffold, the cells are able to migrate. The benefit of this is that when cells have improved movement they are able to repair the endothelium (the lining of the blood vessels) better and perhaps prevent atherosclerosis."

UF scientists suspect that in the cells taken from diabetic patients, nitric oxide interacts with a protein that steers the protein to the cell surface instead of inserting it into the cell as it would in healthy people. That causes the cell to stiffen.

The finding raises the possibility that nitric oxide could someday be used to keep the cells mobile, enabling them to travel to distant sites when needed, Segal said.

"The importance of this is related to other work that has shown that many drugs being used on the market today actually affect nitric oxide levels within these cells," Segal said. "So someday there may be two ways to help people whose cells may not function as well as they should. One is through certain medications-there may be a way we could actually give medications that would affect the nitric oxide levels within these cells and enhance their migratory ability. The other is through certain instances where we might actually collect these cells, treat them with nitric oxide outside the body and give them back to patients, to help improve the cells' migration ability."

In the future, for example, patients with diabetes and atherosclerosis who require angioplasty might receive injections of their own repair cells. The cells would be removed, incubated with nitric oxide to improve their function and then returned. They would theoretically help blood vessels heal more quickly, and perhaps keep new fatty deposits from forming, Segal speculated.

The research grew out of previous work at UF in collaboration with UF biochemist Daniel Purich, Ph.D., and pharmacologist Maria Grant, M.D. UF materials scientist Roger Tran-Son-Tay, Ph.D., among others, also participated in the current study.

"The work of Segal and colleagues is groundbreaking and provides important insights into the underlying mechanism of blood vessel damage in diabetes, which is the hallmark lesion for complications affecting the kidneys, eyes and nerves in patients with diabetes," said Anupam Agarwal, M.D., director of the Nephrology Research and Training Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

University of Florida


Related Diabetes Current Events and Diabetes News Articles


In obese prostate cancer patients, robotic surgery reduces risk of blood loss
In obese prostate cancer patients, robotic-assisted surgery to remove the prostate reduces the risk of blood loss and prolonged hospital stays, a Loyola Medicine study has found.

One-third of heart failure patients do not return to work
One-third of patients hospitalised with heart failure for the first time have not returned to work one year later, reveals a study in nearly 12 000 patients presented today at Heart Failure 2016 and the 3rd World Congress on Acute Heart Failure by Dr Rasmus Roerth, a physician at Copenhagen University Hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark.

Blood test uncovers undiagnosed diabetes in hospital patients with high blood sugar
A retrospective review of medical records found the HbA1C test, commonly used to diagnose and manage diabetes, can effectively detect hidden disease among hospital patients with hyperglycemia, commonly known as high blood sugar.

Lowering blood pressure reduces risk of heart disease in older adults
Intensive therapies to reduce high blood pressure can cut the risk of heart disease in older adults without increasing the risk for falls, according to doctors at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center.

Visual impairment, blindness cases in US expected to double by 2050
With the youngest of the baby boomers hitting 65 by 2029, the number of people with visual impairment or blindness in the United States is expected to double to more than 8 million by 2050, according to projections based on the most recent census data and from studies funded by the National Eye Institute, part of the National Institutes of Health.

36,000 children already tested for early type 1 diabetes
One year after the introduction of the Bavarian pilot project Fr1da, the Institute of Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum München has published the first results in the BMJ Open journal.

Hormone may offer new approach to type 2 diabetes
Researchers at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and Oxford University have found a hormone that may offer an effective treatment for type 2 diabetes.

USC study finds blindness and visual impairment will double by 2050
A study published today by researchers at the University of Southern California (USC) Roski Eye Institute in JAMA Ophthalmology found that the U.S. prevalence in visual impairment (VI) and blindness is expected to double over the next 35 years.

Prediabetes: Fatty liver, visceral obesity, production and action of insulin modulate risk
Prediabetes is associated with increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia and cancer. However, the disease risk considerably varies among subjects.

High saturated-fat, low unsaturated-fat diet in adolescence tied to higher breast density
Adolescent girls whose diet is higher in saturated fats and lower in healthier unsaturated fats have higher breast density in early adulthood, which may potentially increase their risk for breast cancer later in life, according to a new study led by researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. The research was published online today in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.
More Diabetes Current Events and Diabetes News Articles

The End of Diabetes: The Eat to Live Plan to Prevent and Reverse Diabetes

The End of Diabetes: The Eat to Live Plan to Prevent and Reverse Diabetes
by Joel Fuhrman (Author)


The New York Times bestselling author of Eat to Live and Super Immunity and one of the country’s leading experts on preventive medicine offers a scientifically proven, practical program to prevent and reverse diabetes—without drugs.At last, a breakthrough program to combat the rising diabetes epidemic and help millions of diabetics, as well as those suffering with high blood pressure and heart disease. Joel Fuhrman, M.D. Research director of the Nutritional Research Foundation, shows you how to live a long, healthy, and happy life—disease free. He offers a complete health transformation, starting with a diet with a high nutrient-per-calorie ratio that can be adapted for individual needs.Dr. Fuhrman makes clear that we don’t have to “control” diabetes. Patients can choose to...

What Do I Eat Now?: A Step-by-Step Guide to Eating Right with Type 2 Diabetes

What Do I Eat Now?: A Step-by-Step Guide to Eating Right with Type 2 Diabetes
by Patti B. Geil R.D. (Author), Tami A. Ross R.D. (Author)


Any person diagnosed with diabetes has one simple question: What do I eat now? When diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, doctors typically tell their patients to start eating healthy. But what does that mean? If figuring out what to eat seems like taking a test, here’s the solution, the American Diabetes Association book, What Do I Eat Now?. Written in clear, concise, and down-to-earth language that takes the mystery out of confusing nutrition recommendations, this indispensable guide can help readers make lasting changes in as little as a month. In only 4 weeks, readers can eat better, improve their diabetes management, and live a healthier lifestyle. With What Do I Eat Now?, readers will be able to:

Start off fast – quickly turn their diet around
Do It Right – learn what to eat...

Mayo Clinic The Essential Diabetes Book

Mayo Clinic The Essential Diabetes Book
by Mayo Clinic (Author)


More people than ever before have diabetes. The disease affects an estimated 21 million adults and children in the US and many people with the disease don't have it under control. Unlike years ago, you have a good chance of living an active and healthy life with diabetes - provided you work with your health-care team to take the necessary steps to control your blood sugar. This title covers: the pre-diabetes stage - taking charge to prevent diabetes; types of diabetes; symptoms and risk factors; treatments and strategies for managing your blood sugar; avoiding serious complications; advances in insulin delivery and new medications; and, recipes

Diabetes:: Reverse Your Diabetes With a Clear and Concise Step by Step Guide (Diabetes - Diabetes Diet - Diabetes free - Diabetes Cure - Reversing Diabetes)

Diabetes:: Reverse Your Diabetes With a Clear and Concise Step by Step Guide (Diabetes - Diabetes Diet - Diabetes free - Diabetes Cure - Reversing Diabetes)
by David Corr (Author)


Clear and Concise Guide to Reverse your Diabetes Starting Today

Excessive thirst, frequent urination, blurry vision, tiredness, tingling sensation in your extremities, wounds that take too long to heal – you notice these symptoms, visit your doctor, are advised some blood work ……..and then …….a sad reality dawns on you! You! Of all the people….you have been impacted by diabetes!

You are scared because you have heard that diabetes is irreversible. You know about friends and family who are struggling with diabetes and trying to live a normal life.

Well, if you or any of your family members are struggling with diabetes, then you understand these symptoms very well. You would have also heard that diabetes is irreversible.

Now, here is the...

The First Year: Type 2 Diabetes: An Essential Guide for the Newly Diagnosed (The Complete First Year)

The First Year: Type 2 Diabetes: An Essential Guide for the Newly Diagnosed (The Complete First Year)
by Gretchen Becker (Author), Allison B. Goldfine (Author)


Diabetes is one of the fastest growing diseases in the world; the American Diabetes Association reports that 1.7 million new diagnoses are made each year. After her own diagnosis, Gretchen Becker became a "patient-expert," educating herself on every aspect of type 2 diabetes and eventually compiling everything she had learned into this step-by-step guidebook for others. Now in its third edition, The First Year: Type 2 Diabetes takes you through everything you need to know and do in your first year with diabetes. In clear and accessible language, Becker covers a wide range of practical, medical,and lifestyle issues, from coming to terms with your diagnosis to diet and exercise, testing routines, insurance issues, and the most up-to-date information on new medications and...

Dr. Neal Barnard's Program for Reversing Diabetes: The Scientifically Proven System for Reversing Diabetes without Drugs

Dr. Neal Barnard's Program for Reversing Diabetes: The Scientifically Proven System for Reversing Diabetes without Drugs
by Neal D. Barnard (Author)


Until Dr. Barnard’s scientific breakthrough, most health professionals believed that once you developed diabetes, you were stuck with it—and could anticipate one complication after another, from worsening eyesight and nerve symptoms to heart and kidney problems. But as this groundbreaking work reveals, this simply is not true. In a series of studies—the most recent funded by the National Institutes of Health—Dr. Barnard has shown that it is possible to repair insulin function and reverse type 2 diabetes. By following his scientifically proven, life-changing program, diabetics can control blood sugar three times more effectively than with the standard diet; and cut back on and in some cases eliminate medications while reducing the risk of diabetes complications. "The long overdue...

Diabetes For Dummies

Diabetes For Dummies
by Dr. Alan L. Rubin (Author)


The straight facts on treating diabetes successfully With diabetes now considered pandemic throughout the world, there have been enormous advances in the field. Now significantly revised and updated, this new edition of Diabetes For Dummies includes the latest information on diabetes medications and monitoring equipment, new findings about treating diabetes in the young and elderly, new ways to diagnose and treat long- and short-term complications, updated nutritional guidelines, new tools for measuring blood sugar and delivering insulin to the body, and much more. There's no question that the burden of diabetes is increasing globally: it's estimated that 387 million people worldwide are living with diabetes, and that staggering number is expected to increase an additional 205 million+ by...

Diabetic Living Diabetes Meals by the Plate: 90 Low-Carb Meals to Mix & Match

Diabetic Living Diabetes Meals by the Plate: 90 Low-Carb Meals to Mix & Match
by Diabetic Living Editors (Author)


An easy, graphic guide to planning delicious, diabetes-friendly meals This innovative, graphic cookbook offers the easiest and most flavorful way to build complete meals that are diabetes-friendly and delicious. Sidestepping complex programs that turn meal-planning into work, the 90 complete meals in Diabetes Meals by the Plate follow the Plate Method—a simple approach to eating the right foods in proper amounts by filling your plate with one half nonstarchy vegetables, one quarter protein, and one quarter starch. A clever photo style showing every meal in its three components makes it easy to enjoy perfectly portioned plates of Balsamic Roasted Chicken and Vegetables with Garlic Toast, or Horseradish BBQ-Topped Mini Meat Loaves with Chopped Romaine Salad. All meals are 500 calories or...

Diabetes: A Step by Step Guide to Manage Diabetes and Enjoy a Healthy Life Today

Diabetes: A Step by Step Guide to Manage Diabetes and Enjoy a Healthy Life Today
by Tori Neuman (Author)


Take control of your diabetes TODAY with these helpful tips and recipes! You're about to dive into proven strategies and methods to control your diabetes and live a fulfilling life! Get access to recipes that demonstrate how to balance your diet and so much more! After reading this book you will be able to choose foods properly, learn how to prevent other diseases related to diabetes and take back control of your life! See What Satisfied Readers Are Saying About This Book "Living with Diabetes is stressful because you need to think all the time what do you eat or drink etc. However this book provides very useful information on how to reverse diabetes including a step by step plan. I like this book because everything in it is well structured and described. This is a perfect book...

The Official Pocket Guide to Diabetic Food Choices

The Official Pocket Guide to Diabetic Food Choices
by American Diabetes Association ADA (Author)


Completely updated to match the newest edition of Choose Your Foods: Food Lists for Diabetes Meal Planning, this pocket-sized guide is now better and more complete than ever.

Every day and at every meal, millions of people use the food list system to plan meals, make healthier choices, and better estimate portions. This proven system is the most popular approach to diabetes meal planning and has been used by dietitians, diabetes educators, and millions of people with diabetes for more than 70 years. This portable version of the Food Lists takes all of the information from the original and repackages it in a format that's perfect for trips to the grocery store or meals on the go. Updates include new foods, revised portions, and updated meal planning tips and techniques.

With...

© 2016 BrightSurf.com