Diabetes complications rooted in faulty cell repair
January 26, 2006
UF researchers restore vitality to cells in lab experiments
University of Florida researchers say primitive cells that act like molecular maintenance men-traveling throughout the body to repair damaged blood vessels-become too rigid to move in patients with diabetes, fueling the disease's vascular complications. But they have found a way to restore the cells' flexibility, at least in the laboratory, according to findings published in the January issue of the journal Diabetes.
Having diabetes markedly raises the risk of developing a host of other ailments, from heart disease to stroke, blindness and kidney failure. Many arise after blood vessels suffer damage, spurring the accumulation of fatty deposits in the arteries or the wild, blinding growth of capillaries in the eye.
"We're interested in what happens in the body at the molecular level to cause these life-threatening problems," said Mark S. Segal, Ph.D., an assistant professor of nephrology, hypertension and transplantation at UF's College of Medicine. "Our work is focused on understanding why diabetic patients are at increased risk for these other diseases."
The problem is rooted in the body's response to vascular injury. The bone marrow churns out cells crucial to repairing the damaged lining of blood vessels. But sometimes they fail to report for duty.
"Part of the defect we think is occurring in diabetic patients is these cells do not carry out appropriate repair, and therefore these patients are at higher risk for cardiovascular disease and other complications," Segal said.
The inability of the cells to repair the peripheral vasculature, the large vessels of the body, is similar to their inability to repair the small vessels within the eye, he added.
"In the vasculature it leads to atherosclerosis, and within the eye it leads to diabetic retinopathy," he said. "So the link is we have one defect in these cells that can lead to both of these problems."
UF researchers isolated these repair cells from blood samples drawn from patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease and studied them in the laboratory. The cells were unable to move about normally. But when nitric oxide gas was added, Segal said, the cells lost their rigidity, becoming suppler, and their ability to move dramatically improved.
In the body, nitric oxide occurs naturally. It helps the repair cells move out of the bone marrow where they are made, and it opens blood vessels and improves the uptake of oxygen. Patients with diabetes, however, commonly have low levels of nitric oxide.
"We went on to show that actually what's happening is nitric oxide is affecting the skeleton, or scaffold of the cell, and by adding nitric oxide we're able to rearrange the scaffold," Segal said. "When we rearrange the scaffold, the cells are able to migrate. The benefit of this is that when cells have improved movement they are able to repair the endothelium (the lining of the blood vessels) better and perhaps prevent atherosclerosis."
UF scientists suspect that in the cells taken from diabetic patients, nitric oxide interacts with a protein that steers the protein to the cell surface instead of inserting it into the cell as it would in healthy people. That causes the cell to stiffen.
The finding raises the possibility that nitric oxide could someday be used to keep the cells mobile, enabling them to travel to distant sites when needed, Segal said.
"The importance of this is related to other work that has shown that many drugs being used on the market today actually affect nitric oxide levels within these cells," Segal said. "So someday there may be two ways to help people whose cells may not function as well as they should. One is through certain medications-there may be a way we could actually give medications that would affect the nitric oxide levels within these cells and enhance their migratory ability. The other is through certain instances where we might actually collect these cells, treat them with nitric oxide outside the body and give them back to patients, to help improve the cells' migration ability."
In the future, for example, patients with diabetes and atherosclerosis who require angioplasty might receive injections of their own repair cells. The cells would be removed, incubated with nitric oxide to improve their function and then returned. They would theoretically help blood vessels heal more quickly, and perhaps keep new fatty deposits from forming, Segal speculated.
The research grew out of previous work at UF in collaboration with UF biochemist Daniel Purich, Ph.D., and pharmacologist Maria Grant, M.D. UF materials scientist Roger Tran-Son-Tay, Ph.D., among others, also participated in the current study.
"The work of Segal and colleagues is groundbreaking and provides important insights into the underlying mechanism of blood vessel damage in diabetes, which is the hallmark lesion for complications affecting the kidneys, eyes and nerves in patients with diabetes," said Anupam Agarwal, M.D., director of the Nephrology Research and Training Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.
University of Florida
Related Diabetes Current Events and Diabetes News ArticlesHow evolutionary principles could help save our world
The age of the Anthropocene--the scientific name given to our current geologic age--is dominated by human impacts on our environment.Experts raise concern over unnecessary treatment of mild hypertension in low risk people
Dr Stephen Martin and colleagues argue that this strategy is failing patients and wasting healthcare resources. UNC researchers find final pieces to the circadian clock puzzle
Researchers at the UNC School of Medicine have discovered how two genes - Period and Cryptochrome - keep the circadian clocks in all human cells in time and in proper rhythm with the 24-hour day, as well as the seasons.Schizophrenia not a single disease but multiple genetically distinct disorders
New research shows that schizophrenia isn't a single disease but a group of eight genetically distinct disorders, each with its own set of symptoms.Vitamin E intake critical during 'the first 1,000 days'
Amid conflicting reports about the need for vitamin E and how much is enough, a new analysis published today suggests that adequate levels of this essential micronutrient are especially critical for the very young, the elderly, and women who are or may become pregnant.Age and diabetes duration linked to risk of death and macrovascular complications
New research published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes) shows that age (or age at diagnosis) and duration of diabetes disease are linked to the risk of death and marcovascular complications (those in larger blood vessels), whereas only diabetes duration is linked to the risk of microvascular complications (in smaller blood vessels such as those in the eyes). Mice and men share a diabetes gene
A joint work by EPFL, ETH Zürich and the CHUV has identified a pathological process that takes place in both mice and humans towards one of the most common diseases that people face in the industrialized world: type 2 diabetes.Combining gut hormone with insulin proves more effective at controlling type 2 diabetes than other common treatments
Combined treatment with a drug that mimics the action of a gut hormone and basal insulin is more effective at improving blood sugar control than other anti-diabetic treatments, with similar rates of hypoglycaemia (dangerously low blood sugar levels) and greater weight loss, a systematic review and meta-analysis published in The Lancet shows.Researchers make scientific history with new cellular connection
Researchers led by Dr. Helen McNeill at the Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute have revealed an exciting and unusual biochemical connection. Their discovery has implications for diseases linked to mitochondria, which are the primary sources of energy production within our cells.Few mild-to-moderate Parkinson's disease patients suffer from malnutrition, yet almost one-third are at risk
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can experience difficulties with food preparation and ingestion, which could contribute to poor nutrition and place them at risk for malnourishment.
More Diabetes Current Events and Diabetes News Articles
The End of Diabetes: The Eat to Live Plan to Prevent and Reverse Diabetes|
by Joel Fuhrman (Author)
The New York Times bestselling author of Eat to Live and Super Immunity and one of the country’s leading experts on preventive medicine offers a scientifically proven, practical program to prevent and reverse diabetes—without drugs.At last, a breakthrough program to combat the rising diabetes epidemic and help millions of diabetics, as well as those suffering with high blood pressure and heart disease. Joel Fuhrman, M.D. Research director of the Nutritional Research Foundation, shows you how to live a long, healthy, and happy life—disease free. He offers a complete health transformation, starting with a diet with a high nutrient-per-calorie ratio that can be adapted for individual needs.Dr. Fuhrman makes clear that we don’t have to “control” diabetes. Patients can choose to...
The First Year: Type 2 Diabetes: An Essential Guide for the Newly Diagnosed|
by Gretchen Becker (Author), Allison B. Goldfine (Foreword)
After Gretchen Becker was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in 1996, she educated herself on every aspect of this chronic condition — by reading medical and scientific books and journals, talking with doctors and listening to her own body. In 2001, she marshaled everything she had learned as a "patient-expert" into the first edition of this book, which she has now completely updated and revised. The First Year®—Type 2 Diabetes uniquely guides you step-by-step through your first year with diabetes, walking you through everything you need to learn and do each day of your first week after diagnosis, each subsequent week of the first month, and each subsequent month of the crucial first year. In clear, concise, accessible language, Becker covers a wide range of practical, medical, and...
The Official Pocket Guide to Diabetic Exchanges: Choose Your Foods|
by ADA American Diabetes Association (Author)
Completely updated to match the newest edition of Choose Your Foods: Exchange Lists for Diabetes Meal Planning, this pocket-sized bestseller is now better and more complete than ever.
Every day and at every meal, millions of people use the exchange list system to help them plan their meal, choose the healthiest foods, and estimate the right portions. By grouping similar foods into exchangeable portion sizes, people with diabetes can instantly create entire meals, specifically designed to help them control their blood glucose and lose weight. This proven system is the most popular approach to diabetes meal planning and has been used by dietitians, diabetes educators, and millions of people with diabetes for over 40 years.
This portable, pocket-sized version of the Choose Your...
Mayo Clinic The Essential Diabetes Book|
by Mayo Clinic (Author)
More people than ever before have diabetes. The disease affects an estimated 21 million adults and children in the US and many people with the disease don't have it under control. Unlike years ago, you have a good chance of living an active and healthy life with diabetes - provided you work with your health-care team to take the necessary steps to control your blood sugar. This title covers: the pre-diabetes stage - taking charge to prevent diabetes; types of diabetes; symptoms and risk factors; treatments and strategies for managing your blood sugar; avoiding serious complications; advances in insulin delivery and new medications; and, recipes
Dr. Neal Barnard's Program for Reversing Diabetes: The Scientifically Proven System for Reversing Diabetes without Drugs|
by Neal D. Barnard (Author)
Until Dr. Barnard’s scientific breakthrough, most health professionals believed that once you developed diabetes, you were stuck with it—and could anticipate one complication after another, from worsening eyesight and nerve symptoms to heart and kidney problems. But as this groundbreaking work reveals, this simply is not true. In a series of studies—the most recent funded by the National Institutes of Health—Dr. Barnard has shown that it is possible to repair insulin function and reverse type 2 diabetes. By following his scientifically proven, life-changing program, diabetics can control blood sugar three times more effectively than with the standard diet; and cut back on and in some cases eliminate medications while reducing the risk of diabetes complications. "The long overdue...
Diabetes For Dummies|
by Alan L. Rubin (Author)
The straight facts on treating diabetes successfullyWith diabetes now considered pandemic throughout the world, there have been an enormous advances in the field since the last edition of Diabetes For Dummies. Now significantly revised and updated, it includes the latest information on medications and monitoring equipment, updated diet and exercise plans, new findings about treating diabetes in the young and elderly, new ways to diagnose and treat long- and short-term complications, and more.Want to know how to manage diabetes? Trusted diabetes expert Dr. Alan Rubin gives you reassuring, authoritative guidance on putting together a state-of-the-art treatment program to treat diabetes successfully and live a full life. You'll learn about all the advances in monitoring glucose, the latest...
What Do I Eat Now?: A Step-by-Step Guide to Eating Right with Type 2 Diabetes|
by Patti Geil (Author), Tami A. Ross (Author)
The DIY approach to a diabetes diet!
What Do I Eat Now? is the single best resource for people with diabetes to learn how to eat right and eat healthy with diabetes. Each chapter explains a vital concept of diabetes nutrition in easy-to-understand language. Tell Me What to Eat” meal plans and recipes at the end of each chapter get readers started on a lifetime of healthy eating. Don’t waste time trying to figure everything out from scratch when What Do I Eat Now? gives readers a step-by-step plan for understanding how to eat right. Learn as you go by cooking healthy, nutritious, and flavorful diabetic meals!
Diabetes Diet: The 101 Best Diabetic Foods|
by Health Research Staff (Author)
Stuck in a meal rut and tired of the same old foods?
If you?re someone who is dealing with diabetes, there?s no question that you must be paying attention to what you eat each day. The foods you put into your body are going to have a very strong influence on not only how well you feel, but on how well you handle this condition altogether.
By making smart food choices, you can maintain control over your diabetes and live the lifestyle that you want to lead.
The following 101 foods will do just that. We?ve selected the top picks that you should include in your diet plan regularly so you no longer have to wonder what to eat.
This list is meant to encourage you to broaden your eating choices. This prevents the boredom that many experience by getting stuck on...
Diabetes: The Ultimate Diabetes Guide - The Best Tips and Advice You Need To Treat Diabetes Successfully!|
Learn the Best Advice on Diabetes Today!
Today only, get this Kindle e-book for only $2.99, regularly priced at $8.49. Read on your PC, Mac, smart phone, tablet or Kindle device.
This book contains proven steps and strategies on how to cope with Diabetes.
Diabetes Mellitus or Diabetes is a condition where a person has high levels of sugar in the blood. This can be caused by the pancreas being unable to produce enough insulin, or the cells of the body cannot do its job in transferring the sugar into it.
There are lots of people who are affected by Diabetes and there have been a lot of clinical studies done in order to help these people. This condition is very serious, and if left unattended, can lead to worse complications, and eventually,...
Prediabetes: An Opportunity to Prevent Diabetes|
by CME Resource/NetCE
Studies have shown that diabetes can be delayed or prevented in people with prediabetes, but risk reduction relies heavily on lifestyle changes on the part of the patients, making education and counseling of vital importance. The purpose of this course is to provide healthcare professionals with the information and skills necessary to effectively deal with this common condition and learn ways to help patients make healthy lifestyle choices. In addition, members of the public may use this course to enhance their personal knowledge of the subject matter presented.
Upon completion of this course, you should be able to:
1. Identify the incidence and prevalence of prediabetes in the United States.
2. Define the diagnostic criteria for prediabetes and diabetes.