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The top science news articles and science news articles and current events, scientific discoveries, studies and research from the past month
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Public Release: 30-Oct-2015 Some like it hot: Moth and butterfly species respond differently to climate change
New research led by ecologists at the University of York shows that certain species of moths and butterflies are becoming more common, and others rarer, as species differ in how they respond to climate change.

Public Release: 29-Oct-2015 UW scientists are the first to simulate 3-D exotic clouds on an exoplanet
Scientists have catalogued nearly 2,000 exoplanets around stars near and far. While most of these are giant and inhospitable, improved techniques and spacecraft have uncovered increasingly smaller worlds. The day may soon come when astrophysicists announce our planet's twin around a distant star.

New information about bacterial enzymes to help scientists develop more effective antibiotics, cancer drugs
Scientists studying the biosynthesis and production of microbial natural products now have a greater insight into the process thanks to research conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory in collaboration with scientists from the Scripps Research Institute and Rice University.

First precision medicine trial in cancer prevention identifies molecular-based chemoprevention strategy
A team of scientists, led by researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and University of California, San Diego Moores Cancer Center, report that a genetic biomarker called loss of heterozygosity or LOH is able to predict which patients with premalignant mouth lesions are at highest risk of developing oral cancer.

New studies show nobel prize-winning drug that knocks out parasitic worms could have second act fighting malaria
A workhorse of a drug that a few weeks ago earned its developers a Nobel prize for its success in treating multiple tropical diseases is showing early promise as a novel and desperately needed tool for interrupting malaria transmission, according to new findings presented today at the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH) Annual Meeting.

Battery mystery solved: Microscopy answers longstanding questions about lithium-rich transition metal oxides
Using complementary microscopy and spectroscopy techniques, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) say they have solved the structure of lithium- and manganese-rich transition metal oxides, a potentially game-changing battery material and the subject of intense debate in the decade since it was discovered.

A new resource for managing crop-damaging greenbugs
Greenbugs (Schizaphis graminum) have been a major vexation for growers of wheat and sorghum for more than half a century, especially in the Great Plains.

Bugs collected on rooftop for 18 years reveal climate change effects
A volunteer registration of insects for 18 consecutive years on the Copenhagen roof of the Natural History Museum of Denmark has revealed local insect community turnover due to climate change. The research suggests a pattern of specialised species being more sensitive to climate change.

Righting a wrong? Right side of brain can compensate for post-stroke loss of speech
After a debate that has lasted more than 130 years, researchers at Georgetown University Medical Center have found that loss of speech from a stroke in the left hemisphere of the brain can be recovered on the back, right side of the brain.

Research finds cranberries are an effective approach to help reduce antibiotic use
An international team of scientists presented new evidence showing how cranberries are poised to be a compelling tool to help reduce antibiotic resistance and oxidative stress.

Babies have logical reasoning before age one, study finds
Human infants are capable of deductive problem solving as early as 10 months of age, a new study by psychologists at Emory University and Bucknell finds. The journal Developmental Science is publishing the research, showing that babies can make transitive inferences about a social hierarchy of dominance.

Tumor RNA in platelets may diagnose and classify cancer, identify treatment strategies
Analysis of tumor RNA carried in platelets - blood components best known for their role in clotting - may prove to be more useful than other "liquid biopsy" technologies for diagnosing cancer and determining its primary location and potential therapeutic approaches.

There might be ways to exploit renewable energy and also allow for protecting biodiversity
Deployment of renewable energy is expanding all over the world. There is high competition between alternative land uses, and conflicts over limited land are likely to emerge between biodiversity conservation and expanded deployment of renewable energy.

Molecular switch generates calorie-burning brown fat
A research team led by UC San Francisco scientists has identified a molecular switch capable of converting unhealthy white fat into healthy, energy-burning brown fat in mice. Drugs that flip this switch rapidly reduced obesity and diabetes risk factors in mice fed a high fat diet.

Climate change is moving mountains, research says
For millions of years global climate change has altered the structure and internal movement of mountain ranges, but the resulting glacial development and erosion can in turn change a mountain's local climate. The degree of this cause-and-effect relationship has never been clearly observed, until now.

Thyroid cancer biomarker assays may show inaccurate readings
Protein biomarkers are used to test for cancer before and after surgeries to remove tumors. To test thyroid malignancy, many biomarkers are tested separately to confirm cancer.

Coronavirus breakthrough by INRS researchers
Quebec researchers have discovered that a mutation in a coronavirus protein slows the spread of the virus in the central nervous system and reduces its neurovirulence.

Study led by Temple researchers showcases potential new oral treatment for IBD
For patients with inflammatory bowel disease, the possibility of taking a single pill to bring long-lasting relief might seem too good to be true. Scientists at the Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University are on the brink of making that happen, thanks to a recent proof-of-concept study, in which the severity of a form of inflammatory bowel disease in mice was dramatically reduced with one oral dose of a protein isolated from a bacterial biofilm.

Bright idea for lowlight photography
Anyone who's taken a picture of birthday candles being blown out or a selfie during a romantic candlelit dinner knows how disappointing it is when the photo comes out dark and grainy.

Mummified seals reveal ecological impact of ice change
Over the last 7,500 years, the area surrounding the Ross Sea has undergone dramatic environmental change. Once an open body of water; a large, land-fast ice shelves began to form there around 1000 years ago, transforming living conditions for the seals.

Gut bacteria could be blamed for obesity and diabetes
An excess of bacteria in the gut can change the way the liver processes fat and could lead to the development of metabolic syndrome, according to health researchers.

Low-fat diet not most effective in long-term weight loss
Researchers conduct a systematic review of randomized clinical trials comparing the long-term effectiveness of low-fat and higher-fat dietary interventions on weight loss

Targeted therapy for gastric cancer possible
Gastric cancer, otherwise known as stomach cancer, does not respond well to existing treatments and it is currently the third leading cause of cancer death in the world (after lung and liver cancer).

Researchers model birth of universe in one of largest cosmological simulations ever run
Researchers are sifting through an avalanche of data produced by one of the largest cosmological simulations ever performed, led by scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory.

Stanford researchers urge lifting of NIH funding restrictions on chimeric research
Citing the "tremendous potential" of research on human stem cells in nonhuman embryos, scientists and a bioethicist from the Stanford University School of Medicine have co-authored a letter urging the removal of funding restrictions imposed on such research last month by the National Institutes of Health.

First precision medicine trial in cancer prevention identifies chemoprevention strategy
A team of scientists, led by researchers at University of California, San Diego Moores Cancer Center and The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, report that a genetic biomarker called loss of heterozygosity or LOH is able to predict which patients with premalignant mouth lesions are at highest risk of developing oral cancer.

300 million-year-old 'supershark' fossils found in Texas
Previously, giant sharks had only been recovered from rock dating back 130 million years, during the age of the dinosaurs.

Managed bees spread and intensify diseases in wild bees
For various reasons, wild pollinators are in decline across many parts of the world. To combat this, managed honey bees and bumblebees are frequently shipped in to provide valuable pollination services to crops. But does this practice pose any risk to the wild bees?

Could your job be making you obese?
Your job could be having an effect on your waistline, suggests new research published in Social Science & Medicine - and it could be bad or good news depending on the sort of control you have over your work.

Ancient brains turn paleontology on its head
Science has long dictated that brains don't fossilize, so when Nicholas Strausfeld co-authored the first ever report of a fossilized brain in a 2012 edition of Nature, it was met with "a lot of flack."

Cyclin' out of gear: Malaria parasites grinding to a halt
Scientists from The University of Nottingham have uncovered the role of cyclin -- the protein molecule that drives the growth of malaria within mosquitoes.

Factor found to balance medically useful stem cell qualities
A key protein controls stem cell properties that could make them more useful in regenerative medicine, according to a study led by Mount Sinai researchers and published online today in the journal Cell Stem Cell.

NTU scientists use dead bacteria to kill colorectal cancer
Scientists from Nanyang Technological University (NTU Singapore) have successfully used dead bacteria to kill colorectal cancer cells.

In preventing return of winter blues, talk outshines light, new study says
A new study to be published online November 5 in the American Journal of Psychiatry casts a shadow on light therapy's status as the gold standard for treating SAD, or seasonal affective disorder.

Gene drive reversibility introduces new layer of biosafety
In parallel with their development of the first synthetic gene drives - which greatly increase the chance a specific gene will be passed on to all offspring - George Church, Ph.D., and Kevin Esvelt, Ph.D., helped pioneer proactive biosafety measures to ensure that gene drives are investigated effectively and safely in confined laboratory experiments.

Treatment of severe acne hampered by antibiotic overuse and delays in prescribing more potent medication
A medical records analysis by researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center concludes that physicians who treat severe acne leave too many patients on ineffective antibiotics for far too long before prescribing more potent needed therapy with the medication isotretinoin, sometimes known by its former brand name Accutane.

Sleepwalkers feel no pain, remain asleep despite suffering injuries
A new study of sleepwalkers found an intriguing paradox: Although sleepwalkers have an increased risk for headaches and migraines while awake, during sleepwalking episodes they are unlikely to feel pain even while suffering an injury.

Scientists call for national effort to understand and harness Earth's microbes
Microbes are essential to life on Earth. They're found in soil and water and inside the human gut. In fact, nearly every habitat and organism hosts a community of microbes, called a microbiome.

Single-agent phototherapy system offers significant new tool to fight cancer
Researchers at Oregon State University today announced an important advance in the field of cancer imaging and phototherapy, using a single-agent system that may ultimately change the efficacy of cancer surgery and treatment around the world.

Chemical complexity promises improved structural alloys for next-gen nuclear energy
Designing alloys to withstand extreme environments is a fundamental challenge for materials scientists. Energy from radiation can create imperfections in alloys, so researchers in an Energy Frontier Research Center led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating ways to design structural materials that develop fewer, smaller flaws under irradiation.

Cornell engineers develop 'killer cells' to destroy cancer in lymph nodes
Cornell biomedical engineers have developed specialized white blood cells - dubbed "super natural killer cells" - that seek out cancer cells in lymph nodes with only one purpose: destroy them.

One-step test for hepatitis C virus infection developed by UC Irvine Health researchers
UC Irvine Health researchers have developed a cost-effective one-step test that screens, detects and confirms hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections.

Multi-tasking flu vaccine could provide better protection against outbreaks
Australian researchers have found a way to boost the effectiveness and cross-protective capabilities of an influenza A vaccine by adding a simple component.

Artificial intelligence finds messy galaxies
An astrophysics student at The Australian National University (ANU) has turned to artificial intelligence to help her to see into the hearts of galaxies.

Unique feeding mechanism among marine reptiles from the age of dinosaurs
Fossils of the elasmosaur Aristonectes were first reported from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia in 1941.

Treetop leaves of tall trees store extra water
A research team led by Associate Professor Ishii Roaki and Doctoral Student Azuma Wakana from the Kobe University Graduate School of Agricultural Science has discovered that the water storage tissue that they recently found in the world's tallest tree, Sequoia sempervirens (coast redwood), is also found in Japan's tallest trees, Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar).

Increased meat consumption, especially when cooked at high temperatures, linked to elevated kidney cancer risk
Diets high in meat may lead to an increased risk of developing renal cell carcinoma (RCC) through intake of carcinogenic compounds created by certain cooking techniques, such as barbecuing and pan-frying.

Healthy diet may reduce risk of ovarian cancer in African-American women
A healthy diet may reduce the risk of ovarian cancer in African-American women, according to data presented at the Eighth American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Conference on the Science of Cancer Health Disparities in Racial/Ethnic Minorities and the Medically Underserved, held Nov. 13-16.

Experimental drug targeting Alzheimer's disease shows anti-aging effects
Salk Institute researchers have found that an experimental drug candidate aimed at combating Alzheimer's disease has a host of unexpected anti-aging effects in animals.

Moderate coffee drinking may lower risk of premature death
People who drink about three to five cups of coffee a day may be less likely to die prematurely from some illnesses than those who don't drink or drink less coffee, according to a new study by Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health researchers and colleagues.

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