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The top science news articles and science news articles and current events, scientific discoveries, studies and research from the past week.
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Campaign increases mouth and throat cancer screenings among low-income rural Floridians
Raising awareness of the dangers of mouth and throat cancer increased the number of black men in some of Florida's poorest counties who sought screening for the first time, opening the door to improved survival rates through early detection and treatment, UF Health researchers report.

Signaling pathway revealed through which a promising anti-leukemia drug kills cancer cells
Inhibiting a protein called BRD4 critical to the survival of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells has shown to be an effective therapeutic strategy.



TGen study matches infant stiff-joint syndromes to possible genetic origins
A study led by the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) has for the first time matched dozens of infantile diseases and syndromes involving muscle weakness and stiff joints to their likely genetic origins.

Bees follow separate but similar paths in social evolution
There's more than one explanation for how colony-living animals like bees evolve their unique social structure, according to a detailed genome analysis conducted by Karen Kapheim and colleagues.

Diabetes drug may reduce heart attack risk in HIV patients
In patients with HIV, a diabetes drug may have benefits beyond lowering blood sugar. A new study from researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis suggests the drug may prevent cardiovascular problems because it works to reduce inflammation linked to heart disease and stroke in these patients.

Experimental immunotherapy shows high response rate in advanced lung cancer
An early phase study testing an anti-PDL1 agent in combination with standard chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer has provided promising early results, prompting multiple phase III studies in lung cancer.

Link between vitamin E and exposure to air pollution
A new study from King's College London and the University of Nottingham has found an association between the amount of vitamin E in the body, exposure to particulate pollution and lung function.

New screening method for prostate cancer recurrence
The American Cancer Society estimated that 220,800 new cases of prostate cancer will be diagnosed in the United States in 2015. Approximately 27,540 men will die of the disease, accounting for 5 percent of all cancer deaths.

ORNL demonstrates first large-scale graphene fabrication
One of the barriers to using graphene at a commercial scale could be overcome using a method demonstrated by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Revealing the ocean's hidden fertilizer
Phosphorus is one of the most common substances on Earth. An essential nutrient for every living organism--humans require approximately 700 milligrams per day--we are rarely concerned about consuming enough of it because it is present in most of the foods we eat.

CLAIRE brings electron microscopy to soft materials
Soft matter encompasses a broad swath of materials, including liquids, polymers, gels, foam and - most importantly - biomolecules. At the heart of soft materials, governing their overall properties and capabilities, are the interactions of nano-sized components.

Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy achieves better overall survival than surgery for early lung cancer
Patients with operable stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) could achieve better overall survival rates if treated with Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) rather than the current standard of care -- invasive surgery -- according to research from a phase III randomized international study from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

Random nanowire configurations increase conductivity over heavily ordered configurations
Researchers at Lehigh University have identified for the first time that a performance gain in the electrical conductivity of random metal nanowire networks can be achieved by slightly restricting nanowire orientation.

Genomics laboratory capability in Liberia supports Ebola virus outbreak response
Army scientists working to support the Ebola virus outbreak response in West Africa have established the first genomic surveillance capability in Liberia, enabling them to monitor genetic changes in the virus within one week of sample collection.

Genome-wide DNA study shows lasting impact of malnutrition in early pregnancy
Researchers at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health and Leiden University in the Netherlands found that children whose mothers were malnourished at famine levels during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy had changes in DNA methylation known to suppress genes involved in growth, development, and metabolism documented at age 59.

Mayo Clinic: New mouse model for ALS and frontotemporal dementia gene
Researchers at Mayo Clinic in Florida have developed a mouse model that exhibits the neuropathological and behavioral features associated with the most common genetic form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), which are caused by a mutation in the C9ORF72 gene.

Cancer survivors have evolving information needs
Judging by the nature and topics of their information seeking, cancer patients' information needs appear to differ depending on the type of cancer they have and where they are in their survivorship.

Earthquakes reveal deep secrets beneath East Asia
A new work based on 3-D supercomputer simulations of earthquake data has found hidden rock structures deep under East Asia. Researchers from China, Canada, and the U.S. worked together to publish their results in March 2015 in the American Geophysical Union Journal of Geophysical Research, Solid Earth.

Anti-poverty strategy offers sustained benefit for ultra-poor, says study in Science
A new six-country study shows a comprehensive approach for the ultra-poor, the approximately one billion people who live on less than $1.25 a day, boosted livelihoods, income, and health.

Which is most valuable: Gold, cocaine or rhino horn?
Many of the world's largest herbivores -- including several species of elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotamuses and gorillas -- are in danger of becoming extinct.

Deep-water fish has a warm heart
Though some large predatory fish, like tuna, have been shown to temporarily warm muscles or organs during pursuit, at least one fish may have done that one better by being able to internally generate heat that warms its heart and brain, a new study reports.

A 'graduation' from poverty
An anti-poverty program tested extensively on three continents has produced sustained gains in individuals' income, wealth, and well-being, according to a study published today in the journal Science.

Fresh theories about dark matter
Tom Broadhurst, the Ikerbasque researcher in the Department of Theoretical Physics of the UPV/EHU, together with Sandor Molnar of the National Taiwan University and visiting Ikerbasque researcher at the UPV/EHU in 2013, have conducted a simulation that explains the collision between two clusters of galaxies.

Tackling obesity needs a number of magic bullets
No one health issue has the most impact on human health, or engenders more debate about how to tackle it, than obesity.

Where the rubber meets the road
Friction, the force that slows down objects as they slide across a surface, can save lives when car brakes are slammed.

Researchers hone technique for finding signs of life on the Red Planet
For centuries, people have imagined the possibility of life on Mars. But long-held dreams that Martians could be invaders of Earth, or little green men, or civilized superbeings, all have been undercut by missions to our neighboring planet that have, so far, uncovered no life at all.

Mercury's core dynamo present early in planet's history
The Messenger spacecraft, which crash-landed into Mercury just a few days ago, found traces of magnetization in Mercury's crust, a new study reports.

Retirement in the suburbs
Astronomers using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have, for the first time, collected a census of young white dwarf stars beginning their migration from the crowded centre of an ancient star cluster to its less populated outskirts.

New research suggests afterlife belief preserves hope when thinking about death
The prospect of death does not necessarily leave people feeling hopelessly mortal but depends rather on afterlife belief, suggests new research from psychologists at the University of Kent.

Phage spread antibiotic resistance
Investigators found that nearly half of the 50 chicken meat samples purchased from supermarkets, street markets, and butchers in Austria contained viruses that are capable of transferring antibiotic resistance genes from one bacterium to another--or from one species to another.

Love your Mother Earth
A new paper, co-authored by Woods Hole Research Center Senior Scientist Richard A. Houghton, entitled, "Audit of the global carbon budget: estimate errors and their impact on uptake uncertainty", was published in the journal Biogeosciences.

Findings reveal clues to functioning of mysterious 'mimivirus'
Researchers have discovered the structure of a key protein on the surface of an unusually large virus called the mimivirus, aiding efforts to determine its hosts and unknown functions.

Men far less likely to prevent, screen for osteoporosis
While the consequences of osteoporosis are worse in men than women - including death - older males are far less likely to take preventive measures against the potentially devastating bone-thinning disease or accept recommendations for screening, according to startling new research by North Shore-LIJ Health System geriatricians.

New study finds that many probiotics are contaminated with traces of gluten
More than half of popular probiotics contain traces of gluten, according to an analysis performed by investigators at the Celiac Disease Center at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC). Tests on 22 top-selling probiotics revealed that 12 of them (or 55%) had detectable gluten.

Epilepsy has been found to reduce the generation of new neurons
The mission of neural stem cells located in the hippocampus, one of the main regions of the brain, is to generate new neurons during the adult life of mammals, including human beings, of course, and their function is to participate in certain types of learning and responses to anxiety and stress.

Facebook users the main filter of content
Do online social networks, such as Facebook, create "filter bubbles" around their users so that people only see what they want to see?

New form of inherited blindness discovered
Scientists from the University of Leeds, in collaboration with researchers from the Institute of Ophthalmology in London and Ghent University in Belgium, have discovered that mutations in the gene DRAM2 cause a new type of late-onset inherited blindness.

Study implicates new gene in multiple sclerosis disease activity
A new study led by investigators at Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) reports the discovery of a genetic variant that is associated with a patient's likelihood of responding to interferon-beta, one of the medications used in treating multiple sclerosis (MS).

It's best to make friends of friends
Bonding with a friend of a friend is something most humans gravitate toward naturally, or at least Facebook likes to think so every time it suggests friends for you to "friend."

Exercise, however modest, found progressively beneficial to the elderly
Even exercise of short duration and low intensity has life expectancy benefits for the elderly. Such conclusions have been well examined in the general population, where a recommended exercise program of 30 minutes at least five days a week (or 150 minutes per week) has been shown to reduce the average risk of death by 30 percent.

Corporate greed
That gut feeling many workers, laborers and other underlings have about their CEOs is spot on, according to three recent studies in the Journal of Management, the Journal of Management Studies and the Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies that say CEO greed is bad for business.

Exploring a new frontier of cyber-physical systems: The human body
Today the National Science Foundation (NSF) announced two, five-year, center-scale awards totaling $8.75 million to advance the state-of-the-art in medical and cyber-physical systems (CPS).

Tumor sequencing study highlights benefits of profiling healthy tissue as well
As the practice of genetically profiling patient tumors for clinical treatment decision making becomes more commonplace, a recent study from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center suggests that profiling normal DNA also provides an important opportunity to identify inherited mutations that could be critical for patients and their families.

Program brings lasting progress for world's poorest
A program that combines direct aid and training can help the world's poorest households "graduate" from extreme poverty into sustainable standards of living, a new analysis shows.

Do flies have fear (or something like it)?
When fruit flies respond to the threat of an overhead shadow, are they afraid? That's a hard question to answer, say researchers reporting in the Cell Press journal Current Biology on May 14. However, their studies do show that flies' response to visual threats includes many essential elements of what we humans call fear.

New research reveals first warm-blooded fish
New research by NOAA Fisheries has revealed the opah, or moonfish, as the first fully warm-blooded fish that circulates heated blood throughout its body much like mammals and birds, giving it a competitive advantage in the cold ocean depths.

The World Bank Group and PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases launch APOC collection
On May 14, 2015, the World Bank Group and PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases will launch a collection of peer-reviewed articles on the history and success of the control of river blindness (onchocerciasis) in Africa that started with the Onchocerciasis Control Program (OCP) in 1974 and transitioned into the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) in 1995.

Study investigates the quality of organs from potential donors with HIV
In 2013, the United States government passed the HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act, which allows research to be conducted on the safety of organ donation from deceased donors with HIV to recipients with HIV.

Study in INFORMS journal: Offline TV ads prompt online purchases by multitaskers
Many television advertisers voice fears that distracted viewers -- those increasingly frenetic multitaskers using smartphones, laptops and tablets while viewing TV - are becoming less receptive to advertisers' messages.

Bacteria contribute to immune suppression in skin after repeated schistosome exposure
Our two square meters of skin act as a defensive barrier against environmental pathogens but is also covered by beneficial commensal bacteria. We live alongside these bacteria without excessive and unnecessary immune responses, which could destroy the skin's function as a barrier and so make us more vulnerable to infections.

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