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The top science news articles and science news articles and current events, scientific discoveries, studies and research from the past week.
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Researchers find new, inexpensive way to clean water from oil sands production
Researchers have developed a process to remove contaminants from oil sands wastewater using only sunlight and nanoparticles that is more effective and inexpensive than conventional treatment methods.

Babies have logical reasoning before age one, study finds
Human infants are capable of deductive problem solving as early as 10 months of age, a new study by psychologists at Emory University and Bucknell finds. The journal Developmental Science is publishing the research, showing that babies can make transitive inferences about a social hierarchy of dominance.

New nanoscopic tools to study ligand-binding of receptors and quantifying two ligand-binding sites while imaging membrane receptors
Signalling processes in organisms are governed by specific extracellular and intracellular interactions and involve hundreds of different functionally highly versatile receptors situated in cell membranes.

10 million lives saved and 45 million TB cases avoided with Stop TB Partnership 5-year investment plan
The world is losing its battle with tuberculosis (TB), which is now the biggest infectious killer globally, causing 1.5 million deaths every year.

Gene drive reversibility introduces new layer of biosafety
In parallel with their development of the first synthetic gene drives - which greatly increase the chance a specific gene will be passed on to all offspring - George Church, Ph.D., and Kevin Esvelt, Ph.D., helped pioneer proactive biosafety measures to ensure that gene drives are investigated effectively and safely in confined laboratory experiments.

Moderate coffee drinking may lower risk of premature death
People who drink about three to five cups of coffee a day may be less likely to die prematurely from some illnesses than those who don't drink or drink less coffee, according to a new study by Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health researchers and colleagues.

How a raisin can predict a toddler's future academic ability
A simple test using a raisin can predict how well a toddler will perform academically at age eight, according to research conducted at the University of Warwick.

Research points to why some colorectal cancers recur after treatment
Cetuximab, marketed as Erbitux┬®, is one of the key therapies for metastatic colorectal cancer. Yet the cancer still returns in some patients, shortening overall survival.

Environment of tumors impacts metastasis, study finds
If a tumor is like a seed, the soil around it plays a significant role in its growth, a new study finds.

Metabolic profiles distinguish early stage ovarian cancer with unprecedented accuracy
Studying blood serum compounds of different molecular weights has led scientists to a set of biomarkers that may enable development of a highly accurate screening test for early-stage ovarian cancer.

Yoga may lessen side effects in men undergoing prostate cancer treatment
Men with prostate cancer who are undergoing radiation therapy can benefit from yoga, researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania reported at the Society of Integrative Oncology's 12th International Conference.

Study: Risk of undetected cancer in gynecologic surgery higher than previously thought
Minimally invasive gynecologic surgeries have advantages for patients, including shorter hospital stays, quicker recoveries, and less pain.

Evolution of severely immunosuppressed HIV patients depends on the immunologic and virologic response
Health authorities recommend HIV-infected patients starting treatment as soon as posible after diagnosis, regardless of the level of immunosuppression (which are measured by the number of CD4, cells responsible for the immune response and which are infected by the virus) and viral load.

New ASTRO template helps radiation oncologists guide cancer survivors through ongoing care
A new template published by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) standardizes and streamlines the creation of patient-focused plans for long-term cancer survivor care following radiation therapy (RT).

Nanocarriers may carry new hope for brain cancer therapy
Glioblastoma multiforme, a cancer of the brain also known as "octopus tumors" because of the manner in which the cancer cells extend their tendrils into surrounding tissue, is virtually inoperable, resistant to therapies, and always fatal, usually within 15 months of onset.

Human brains evolved to be more responsive to environmental influences, study finds
Human brains exhibit more plasticity, the tendency to be modeled by the environment, than chimpanzee brains, which may account for part of human evolution, according to researchers at Georgia State University, the George Washington University and The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

Hospitals overlook every other person with HIV
A new study reveals that many European hospitals fail to routinely test people who may be at risk of an HIV-infection. If tests were more widely offered in the healthcare system, fewer HIV-patients would go unnoticed, especially in Northern Europe.

Subsolid lung nodules pose greater cancer risk to women than men
Women with a certain type of lung nodule visible on lung cancer screening CT exams face a higher risk of lung cancer than men with similar nodules, according to a new study being presented next week at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

Study finds that Ebola vaccine is safe and stimulates strong immune response
A clinical trial of a new Ebola vaccine (ChAd3-EBO-Z) that resulted from an unprecedented global consortium assembled at the behest of the World Health Organization has found that it is well tolerated and stimulates strong immune responses in adults in Mali, West Africa and in the US, according to a study published in the latest issue of the journal Lancet Infectious Disease.

Clinical trial demonstrates effectiveness of infant apnea prevention technology
Scientists and clinicians at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, and the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) have shown in a clinical trial that a new, vibration-based prevention technology tested in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) reduces apneic events and improves critical clinical parameters in prematurely born infants.

City-wide effort boosts NYC's colorectal cancer screening rates
A coalition formed by the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) which included a team from Mount Sinai to increase colorectal cancer screening rates in New York City resulted in a 40 percent increase in screening rates over four years.

Neuroscientists gain insight into cause of Alzheimer's symptoms
Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute scientists have uncovered a mechanism in the brain that could account for some of the neural degeneration and memory loss in people with Alzheimer's disease.

Climate change: Warm water is mixing up life in the Arctic
The warming of arctic waters in the wake of climate change is likely to produce radical changes in the marine habitats of the High North.

Temple researchers: Association between stress levels & skin problems in college students
College is a stressful time in the lives of students, and a new study by researchers at the Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University (LKSOM) and Temple University found that heightened levels of psychological stress are associated with skin complaints.

Hiding tobacco products at convenience stores reduces teens' risk of future tobacco use
Keeping tobacco products out of view in convenience stores significantly reduces teenagers' susceptibility to future cigarette use compared to when tobacco advertising and products are visible, according to a new RAND Corporation study.

Scientists find bone protein inhibits prostate cancer invasion
Scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in collaboration with researchers from University of California campuses at Merced and Davis have found that a secreted protein predominantly expressed in bone inhibits prostate cancer metastasis to bone.

Why do children develop cancer?
As new scientific discoveries deepen our understanding of how cancer develops in children, doctors and other healthcare providers face challenges in better using that knowledge to guide treatment and counsel families and patients. In addition, as more children continue to survive pediatric cancer, that counseling may extend into a patient's adulthood and old age.

Tumor-suppressor p53 regulates protein that stifles immune attack on cancer
A crucial tumor-thwarting gene protects an immune attack against lung cancer by blocking the key to an off switch on T cells, the customized warriors of the immune system, a team led by researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center reports in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

TSRI scientists reveal potential treatment for life-threatening viral infections
Scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have shown for the first time how a previously unknown process works to promote infection in a number of dangerous viruses, including dengue, West Nile and Ebola.

Master switch for brain development
Scientists at the Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB) in Mainz have unraveled a complex regulatory mechanism that explains how a single gene can drive the formation of brain cells.

Bird decline shows that climate change is more than just hot air
Scientists have long known that birds are feeling the heat due to climate change. However, a new study of a dozen affected species in the Western Cape suggests their decline is more complex than previously thought - and in some cases more serious.

The Lancet: British hospitals face serious shortage of liver specialists
Fewer than one in three hospitals employ a full-time doctor who specialises in liver medicine, according to a survey of 144 hospitals in the UK.

UTSW research finding could lead to targeted therapies for inflammatory bowel diseases
UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers have shown that a pathogen-sensing molecule plays a vital role in keeping gastrointestinal (GI) systems healthy.

Gravity, who needs it?
What happens to your body in space? NASA's Human Research Program has been unfolding answers for over a decade.

Blocking immune cell treats new type of age-related diabetes
Diabetes is often the result of obesity and poor diet choices, but for some older adults the disease might simply be a consequence of aging. New research has discovered that diabetes--or insulin resistance--in aged, lean mice has a different cellular cause than the diabetes that results from weight gain (type 2).

Architecture of protein complex hints at its function in chromosome segregation
Whitehead Institute researchers have revealed the architecture of a protein complex that plays a foundational role in the machine that directs chromosome segregation during cell division.

Personalized drug screening on horizon for multiple myeloma patients
A personalized method for testing the effectiveness of drugs that treat multiple myeloma may predict quickly and more accurately the best treatments for individual patients with the bone marrow cancer.

Intelligent gel attacks cancer
A new injectable 'biogel' is effective in delivering anti-cancer agents directly into cancerous tumours and killing them.

How the Earth's Pacific plates collapsed
Scientists drilling into the ocean floor have for the first time found out what happens when one tectonic plate first gets pushed under another.

US pedestrian wheelchair users third more likely to die in car crashes than general public
Pedestrian wheelchair users in the US are a third more likely to be killed in road traffic collisions than the general public, finds research published in the online journal BMJ Open.

Tropical fossil forests unearthed in Arctic Norway
UK researchers have unearthed ancient fossil forests, thought to be partly responsible for one of the most dramatic shifts in the Earth's climate in the past 400 million years.

Electric fields remove nanoparticles from blood with ease
Engineers at the University of California, San Diego developed a new technology that uses an oscillating electric field to easily and quickly isolate drug-delivery nanoparticles from blood.

Higher nicotine, carcinogen levels among smokeless tobacco users compared with cig users
U.S. adults who used only smokeless tobacco products had higher levels of biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and a cancer-causing toxicant -- the tobacco-specific nitrosamine NNK -- compared with those who used only cigarettes.

New test may improve diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancers
By collecting samples from the portal vein--which carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, including from the pancreas, to the liver--physicians can learn far more about a patient's pancreatic cancer than by relying on peripheral blood from a more easily accessed vein in the arm.

A whiff from blue-green algae likely responsible for Earth's oxygen: Study
Earth's oxygen-rich atmosphere emerged in whiffs from a kind of blue-green algae in shallow oceans around 2.5 billion years ago, according to new research from Canadian and US scientists.

Breastfeeding lowers risk of type 2 diabetes following gestational diabetes
Women with gestational diabetes who consistently and continuously breastfeed from the time of giving birth are half as likely to develop type 2 diabetes within two years after delivery, according to a study from Kaiser Permanente published today in Annals of Internal Medicine.

Greater potential for transport in climate mitigation
Some argue the transportation sector constitutes a major roadblock on the path to avoiding dangerous climate change.

Acorn worm genome reveals gill origins of human pharynx
The newly sequenced genomes of two marine worms are shedding light on the 570 million-year evolution of gills into the pharynx that today gives humans the ability to bite, chew, swallow and speak.

Football strengthens the bones of men with prostate cancer
Men with prostate cancer run the risk of brittle bones as a side-effect of their treatment. But one hour's football training a few times a week counters many of the negative effects of the treatment, according to University of Copenhagen scientists.

Scientists find way to make resistant brain cancer cells sensitive to treatment
Scientists from the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute and clinicians from Carilion Clinic have discovered how to sensitize drug-resistant human glioblastoma cells to chemotherapy.

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