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The top science news articles and science news articles and current events, scientific discoveries, studies and research from the past week.
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Priorities for research on pharmaceutical and personal care products in the environment
In 2011 the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) held a workshop for 45 international experts to identify and prioritize the scientific research needed to understand the risks of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment.

Natural gas usage will have little effect on CO2 emissions, UCI-led study finds
Abundant supplies of natural gas will do little to reduce harmful U.S. emissions causing climate change, according to researchers at UC Irvine, Stanford University, and the nonprofit organization Near Zero.



Mount Sinai Beth Israel Study Explores Drug Users' Opinions on Genetic Testing
Genomic medicine is rapidly developing, bringing with its advances promises of individualized genetic information to tailor and optimize prevention and treatment interventions.

Smallest-possible diamonds form ultra-thin nanothread
A team including Carnegie's Malcolm Guthrie and George Cody has, for the first time, discovered how to produce ultra-thin "diamond nanothreads" that promise extraordinary properties, including strength and stiffness greater than that of today's strongest nanotubes and polymer fibers.

On the Road to Artificial Photosynthesis
The excessive atmospheric carbon dioxide that is driving global climate change could be harnessed into a renewable energy technology that would be a win for both the environment and the economy.

Scientists discover an on/off switch for aging cells
Scientists at the Salk Institute have discovered an on-and-off "switch" in cells that may hold the key to healthy aging. This switch points to a way to encourage healthy cells to keep dividing and generating, for example, new lung or liver tissue, even in old age.

Tropical disease prevalence in Latin America presents opportunity for US, Baker Institute expert says
Recently published prevalence estimates of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in five Latin American countries - Bolivia, Cuba, Ecuador, Nicaragua and Venezuela - could suggest a new direction for United States foreign policy in the region, according to a tropical-disease expert at Rice University's Baker Institute for Public Policy.

New research outlines promising therapies for small cell lung cancer
Two recently published studies by a research team at University Hospitals (UH) Case Medical Center Seidman Cancer Center have the potential to advance treatments for small cell lung cell cancer (SCLC).

The ideal age of sexual partners is different for men and women
New evolutionary psychology research shows gender differences in age preferences regarding sexual partners.

Researchers discover solar energy-driven process makes tailings ponds reclamation instant
Cleaning up oil sands tailings has just gotten a lot greener thanks to a novel technique developed by University of Alberta civil engineering professors that uses solar energy to accelerate tailings pond reclamation efforts by industry.

Protein 'map' could lead to potent new cancer drugs
Imperial chemists have gained fresh insights into how a disease-causing enzyme makes changes to proteins and how it can be stopped.

Discrepancies in access to new cancer drugs revealed
Access to potentially life-extending cancer drugs varies significantly in different regions of the world, two new studies show at the ESMO 2014 Congress in Madrid, Spain.

Cryptogenic strokes may find explanation in the heart
More than half of the patients who have suffered a stroke with no well-defined aetiology have an enlarged left atrial appendage of the heart, according to a Finnish study.

Coping techniques help patients with COPD improve mentally, physically
Coaching patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to manage stress, practice relaxation and participate in light exercise can boost a patient's quality of life and can even improve physical symptoms, researchers at Duke Medicine report.

Lack of sleep increases risk of failure in school
A new Swedish study shows that adolescents who suffer from sleep disturbance or habitual short sleep duration are less likely to succeed academically compared to those who enjoy a good night's sleep.

Exploring the connection between empathy, neurohormones and aggression
Empathy is typically seen as eliciting warmth and compassion-a generally positive state that makes people do good things to others.

Stanford researchers create 'evolved' protein that may stop cancer from spreading
A team of Stanford researchers has developed a protein therapy that disrupts the process that causes cancer cells to break away from original tumor sites, travel through the blood stream and start aggressive new growths elsewhere in the body.

Water research tackles growing grassland threat: trees
Two Kansas State University biologists are studying streams to prevent tallgrass prairies from turning into shrublands and forests.

Playing tag with sugars in the cornfield
Sugars are usually known as energy storage units in plants and the insects that feed on them.

'Multi-spectra glasses' for scanning electron microscopy
Reflection zone plates produced by HZB enable lighter elements in material samples to be precisely detected using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) by providing high resolution in the range of 50-1120 eV.

If trees could talk
Permafrost thaw drives forest loss in Canada, while drought has killed trees in Panama, southern India and Borneo.

Spot on against autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammations
Multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes and lupus have one thing in common: They are all autoimmune diseases in which the immune cells can no longer differentiate between friend or foe and thus attack the body's own tissue.

Innovative Stone Age tools were not African invention, say researchers
A new discovery of thousands of Stone Age tools has provided a major insight into human innovation 325,000 years ago and how early technological developments spread across the world, according to research published in the journal Science.

Can genetic engineering help food crops better tolerate drought?
The staggering growth rate of the global population demands innovative and sustainable solutions to increase food production by as much as 70-100% in the next few decades.

Antibacterial resistance a cause for major concern according to world leading cystic fibrosis expert
World leading Cystic Fibrosis experts, from Queen's University Belfast, have called for greater research to address the major concern of antibacterial resistance.

Graphene sensor tracks down cancer biomarkers
An ultrasensitive biosensor made from the wonder material graphene has been used to detect molecules that indicate an increased risk of developing cancer.

Colorado's Front Range fire severity not much different than past, say CU study
The perception that Colorado's Front Range wildfires are becoming increasingly severe does not hold much water scientifically, according to a massive new study led by the University of Colorado Boulder and Humboldt State University in Arcata, Calif.

Researchers identify early sign of pancreatic cancer
Scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and other institutions have discovered a sign of the early development of pancreatic cancer - an upsurge in certain amino acids that occurs before the disease is diagnosed and symptoms appear.

Higher Risk of Autism Found in Children Born at Short and Long Interpregnancy Intervals
A study published in the MONTH 2014 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry found that children who were conceived either less than 1 year or more than 5 years after the birth of their prior sibling were more likely to be diagnosed with autism than children conceived following an interval of 2-5 years.

No sign of health or nutrition problems from GMO livestock feed, study finds
A new scientific review from the University of California, Davis, reports that the performance and health of food-producing animals consuming genetically engineered feed, first introduced 18 years ago, has been comparable to that of animals consuming non-GE feed.

Mothers of children with autism less likely to have taken iron supplements
Mothers of children with autism are significantly less likely to report taking iron supplements before and during their pregnancies than the mothers of children who are developing normally, a study by researchers with the UC Davis MIND Institute has found.

Blackout? Robots to the Rescue
Big disasters almost always result in big power failures. Not only do they take down the TV and fridge, they also wreak havoc with key infrastructure like cell towers.

Genetic 'instruction set' for antibodies knocks down hepatitis C in mice
A triple-punch of antibodies both prevented hepatitis C infection and wiped out the disease after it had established itself in laboratory mice, according to a study led by Princeton University researchers.

The discovery of 27 vertebrates fully reveals the unmatched biodiversity in Tanzania
A study by an international team of scientists coordinatedby Italy's MUSE - Science Museum updates knowledge on the faunal richness of the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania and Kenya; presents the discovery of 27 new vertebrate species (of which 23 amphibians and reptiles); identifies the drivers of the area's exception biological importance and advocates for its candidature to the UNESCO's List of World Heritage Sites.

A wriggly solution to a first-world problem
Australian researchers have achieved groundbreaking results in a clinical trial using hookworms to reduce the symptoms of celiac disease.

Researchers uncover structure of enzyme that makes plant cellulose
Purdue researchers have discovered the structure of the enzyme that makes cellulose, a finding that could lead to easier ways of breaking down plant materials to make biofuels and other products and materials.

USC researchers discover dual purpose of cancer drug in regulating expression of genes
Keck Medicine of USC scientists have discovered new clues about a drug instrumental in treating a certain blood cancer that may provide important targets for researchers searching for cures.

New chip promising for tumor-targeting research
Researchers have developed a chip capable of simulating a tumor's "microenvironment" and plan to use the new system to test the effectiveness of nanoparticles and drugs that target cancer.

Biochemists solve 'address problem' in cells that leads to lethal kidney disease
Research by UCLA biochemists may lead to a new treatment - or even a cure - for PH1, a rare and potentially deadly genetic kidney disease that afflicts children.

Reversing the effects of pulmonary fibrosis
Yale University researchers are studying a potential new treatment that reverses the effects of pulmonary fibrosis, a respiratory disease in which scars develop in the lungs and severely hamper breathing.

Study: Widespread vitamin D deficiency in thyroidectomy patients
A new study from researchers at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit finds widespread vitamin D deficiency among patients who undergo a thyroidectomy, potentially putting them at greater risk for developing dangerously low blood calcium levels after surgery.

State policies are effective in reducing power plant emissions, CU-Boulder-led analysis finds
A new study led by the University of Colorado Boulder found that different strategies used by states to reduce power plant emissions -- direct ones such as emission caps and indirect ones like encouraging renewable energy -- are both effective. The study is the first analysis of its kind.

How the ends of chromosomes are maintained for cancer cell immortality
Maintaining the ends of chromosomes, called telomeres, is a requisite feature of cells that are able to continuously divide and also a hallmark of human cancer.

Gastric bypass bests banding for weight loss, diabetes, high blood pressure, and cholesterol control
Gastric bypass surgery has better outcomes than gastric banding for long-term weight loss, controlling type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure, and lowering cholesterol levels, according to a new review by UT Southwestern Medical Center surgeons of nearly 30 long-term studies comparing the two types of bariatric procedures.

Bariatric surgery not a magic wand to curb depression
Most severely obese people experience much better spirits once they shed weight through a diet, lifestyle changes or medical intervention.

Lymphatic fluid used for first time to detect bovine paratuberculosis
Paratuberculosis is a bovine disease affecting up to 19 percent of dairy farms in Austria.

Massive weight loss increases risk of complications in body-shaping surgery
Patients who lost more than 100 pounds and those who shed weight through bariatric surgery had the highest risk of complications from later surgical procedures to reshape their leaner bodies, a new study from UT Southwestern Medical Center shows.

Study: Biochar alters water flow to improve sand and clay
As more gardeners and farmers add ground charcoal, or biochar, to soil to both boost crop yields and counter global climate change, a new study by researchers at Rice University and Colorado College could help settle the debate about one of biochar's biggest benefits -- the seemingly contradictory ability to make clay soils drain faster and sandy soils drain slower.

Study identifies gauntlet of obstacles facing migrating pronghorn in greater Yellowstone
One of North America's last remaining long-distance land migrations, better known as the Path of the Pronghorn, is being threatened by a mosaic of natural gas field development, highway traffic, and fencing in the upper Green River Basin, according to the Wildlife Conservation Society.

Solar cell compound probed under pressure
Gallium arsenide, GaAs, a semiconductor composed of gallium and arsenic is well known to have physical properties that promise practical applications.

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