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The top science news articles and science news articles and current events, scientific discoveries, studies and research from the past week.
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Atmospheric aerosols can significantly cool down climate
It is possible to significantly slow down and even temporarily stop the progression of global warming by increasing the atmospheric aerosol concentration, shows a new study from the University of Eastern Finland. However, climate engineering does not remove the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

High levels of protein p62 predict liver cancer recurrence
Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine and Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute have discovered that high levels of the protein p62 in human liver samples are strongly associated with cancer recurrence and reduced patient survival. In mice, they also found that p62 is required for liver cancer to form.



Hormone may offer new approach to type 2 diabetes
Researchers at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and Oxford University have found a hormone that may offer an effective treatment for type 2 diabetes.

36,000 children already tested for early type 1 diabetes
One year after the introduction of the Bavarian pilot project Fr1da, the Institute of Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum München has published the first results in the BMJ Open journal.

Lowering blood pressure reduces risk of heart disease in older adults
Intensive therapies to reduce high blood pressure can cut the risk of heart disease in older adults without increasing the risk for falls, according to doctors at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center.

Commissions that reflected on Ebola outbreak highlight overlapping conclusions in new PLOS piece
To make the world safer against future infectious disease threats, national health systems should be strengthened, the World Health Organization's emergency and outbreak response activities should be consolidated and bolstered, and research and development should be enhanced, says a new Policy Forum article that appears in the May 19 edition of PLOS Medicine.

Identification of a chemotherapy resistance factor in breast cancer patients
Chemotherapy is a key part of the standard treatment regimen for triple-negative breast cancer patients whose cancer lacks expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2).

In obese prostate cancer patients, robotic surgery reduces risk of blood loss
In obese prostate cancer patients, robotic-assisted surgery to remove the prostate reduces the risk of blood loss and prolonged hospital stays, a Loyola Medicine study has found.

Biodiversity protects fish from climate change
Fish provide protein to billions of people and are an especially critical food source in the developing world.

Drop in childhood obesity cannot be explained by health behaviors
While a reported drop in obesity rates among U.S. children has been heralded as positive news, more work must be done to understand exactly why that drop occurred, according to researchers at Rice and Temple universities.

ORNL demonstrates large-scale technique to produce quantum dots
A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

High saturated-fat, low unsaturated-fat diet in adolescence tied to higher breast density
Adolescent girls whose diet is higher in saturated fats and lower in healthier unsaturated fats have higher breast density in early adulthood, which may potentially increase their risk for breast cancer later in life, according to a new study led by researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. The research was published online today in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

Evolution and religion: New insight into instructor attitudes in Arizona
Evolution can be an emotionally charged topic in education, given a wide range of perspectives on it. Two researchers from Arizona State University are taking an in-depth look at how college professors handle it.

Female members on corporate boards can lower number of mergers and acquisitions
Does female membership on corporate boards impact mergers and acquisitions? As the percentage of females on boards of America's largest companies has risen from 15 percent in 2005 to 20 percent in 2015, the question is relevant to today's decision makers.

Higher survival rate for overweight colorectal cancer patients than normal-weight patients
Overweight colorectal cancer patients were 55 percent less likely to die from their cancer than normal-weight patients who have the disease, according to a new Kaiser Permanente study published today in JAMA Oncology.

Researchers demonstrate size quantization of Dirac fermions in graphene
Quantum mechanics is the field of physics governing the behavior of things on atomic scales, where things work very differently from our everyday world.

Fighting the Zika virus with the power of supercomputing
Rutgers is taking a leading role in an IBM-sponsored World Community Grid project that will use supercomputing power to identify potential drug candidates to cure the Zika virus.

Prediabetes: Fatty liver, visceral obesity, production and action of insulin modulate risk
Prediabetes is associated with increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia and cancer. However, the disease risk considerably varies among subjects.

York U invention promises rapid detection of E. coli in water
Tragedies like the E. coli outbreak in Ontario's Walkerton in May 2000 could be averted today with a new invention by researchers at York University that can detect the deadly contaminant in drinking water early.

Graphene: A quantum of current
In 2010 the Nobel Prize in physics was awarded for the discovery of the exceptional material graphene, which consists of a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice.

HIV vaccine design should adapt as HIV virus mutates
Human immunodeficiency virus is known to be a highly variable virus that adapts to a person's immune response during the lifetime infection, and a new study published in Nature Medicine shows that viral adaptation in HIV can predict a person's current disease status, as well as the degree to which newly transmitted HIV-1 is adapted to their new host.

Bereaved parents should be given full details about how to reduce sudden infant death syndrome risk
A new study indicates that health professionals should tell bereaved parents about what they could have done to reduce the risk of the sudden death of their baby.

Research finds skull condition thought extinct is actually widespread
Some forensic anthropologists thought the skull condition called cribra orbitalia (CO) was a thing of the past - but new research from North Carolina State University and the University of the Witwatersrand finds that it not only still exists, but is fairly common in both North America and South Africa.

Zika virus protein could be vaccine target
A viral protein known as NS5 is a promising target for vaccines against Zika and related viruses, according to National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists and colleagues at Mount Sinai's Icahn School of Medicine. Their study, published online May 19, 2016 in Cell Host & Microbe, suggests that altering or removing the NS5 protein from Zika virus would allow the human body's own immune defenses to attack the virus.

Close-up of the Red Planet
During May 2016 the Earth and Mars get closer to each other than at any time in the last ten years. The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has exploited this special configuration to catch a new image of our red neighbour, showing some of its famous surface features.

Gene therapy against brain cancer
Only a few days ago, the press (especially in English-speaking countries) enthusiastically announced the publication of a study that described in great detail the genetics of breast cancer, a discovery that according to many marks a breakthrough in the battle against this cancer.

Healthy eating gets no boost after corner store interventions, Drexel study finds
A lack of access to healthy food is often blamed for poor eating habits in low-income urban areas, but a recent Drexel University study found that simply adding healthier stock to a local convenience store may not actually have any effect.

Vitamin E a potential biomarker for development of brain tumors
Researchers at Umeå University in Sweden and the Cancer Registry of Norway have studied possible causes behind the development of brain tumours.

Shedding light on the 'dark matter' of the genome
What used to be dismissed by many as "junk DNA" is back with a vengeance as growing data points to the importance of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) -- genome's messages that do not code for proteins -- in development and disease.

Children injured in motor vehicle crashes fare better at level I pediatric trauma centers
Children and adolescents injured in motor vehicle accidents have better outcomes when treated at a stand-alone Level I pediatric trauma center (PTC) than at general adult trauma centers (ATC) or adult trauma centers with added Level I pediatric qualifications (ATC+PTC).

The effects of laxatives may provide new clues concerning Parkinson's disease
In a recent retrospective analysis, investigators discovered that the year-on-year increase in rigidity found in Parkinson's disease flattened off with the regular use of laxatives to manage constipation.

Breast cancer tumor-initiating cells use mTOR signaling to recruit suppressor cells to promote tumor
Not every breast cancer tumor follows the same path to grow. Some tumors have the assistance of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a diverse type of immune cell involved in the suppression of the body's response against tumors.

Alcohol intervention programs ineffective on fraternity members
Interventions designed to reduce alcohol use among fraternity members are no more effective than no intervention at all, according to an analysis of 25 years of research involving over 6,000 university students published by the American Psychological Association.

Immunization with bacteria promotes stress resilience, coping behaviors in mice
Injections of the soil bacterium Mycobacterium vaccae promote stress resilience and improve coping behaviors in mice, according to a new study led by researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine and University of Colorado Boulder.

Combining radiation with immunotherapy showing promise against melanoma
Combining radiation treatments with a new generation of immunotherapies is showing promise as a one-two-punch against melanoma, Loyola Medicine researchers report in the Journal of Radiation Oncology.

Polluted dust can impact ocean life thousands of miles away, study says
As climatologists closely monitor the impact of human activity on the world's oceans, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have found yet another worrying trend impacting the health of the Pacific Ocean.

Is laparoscopic repair of ventral hernia the ideal approach for all patients?
Laparascopic repair of ventral hernias has advanced and overcome many challenges during the past two decades, and patients who are obese, diabetic, and have a hernia no larger than 10 cm in width are best suited for this evolving minimally invasive approach.

Mechanism that reduces effect of cocaine on brain discovered
A type of brain cell known as microglia plays a key role in reducing the effects of cocaine in the brain, according to a major study by a team from the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI-MUHC) in Montreal.

The 'Echoverse': A new way to think about brand-consumer interactions
Most studies of the interactions between companies and consumers look at one piece of the puzzle: Advertising or social media or news coverage or "consumer sentiment" as measured in surveys.

Maize genome 'dark matter' discovery a boon for breeders
For astronomers, "dark matter" is the largely hypothetical substance that accounts for approximately 85 percent of the matter in the universe. Now, plant scientists have discovered a different kind of "dark matter" in the maize genome: a tiny percentage of regulatory DNA that accounts for roughly half of the variation in observable traits found in corn.

Excessive drinkers, high income households pay majority of state alcohol tax increases
People who drink too much and those with higher household incomes would pay more following an increase in state alcohol taxes than those who drink less and have lower household incomes.

Ancient tsunami evidence on Mars reveals life potential
The geologic shape of what were once shorelines through Mars' northern plains convinces scientists that two large meteorites - hitting the planet millions of years apart - triggered a pair of mega-tsunamis.

Social media poses threat to people with intellectual disabilities
People with intellectual disabilities are more susceptible to exploitation and abuse, and the rise of the Internet only increases their vulnerability.

Trapping individual cell types in the mouse brain
The complexity of the human brain depends upon the many thousands of individual types of nerve cells it contains.

Long-term memory has back-up plan, researchers find
A team of scientists has identified the existence of a back-up plan for memory storage, which comes into play when the molecular mechanism of primary long-term memory storage fails.

New research could personalize medicine for arthritis patients
Joint injury can lead to post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). In fact, about half of all people who rupture the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in their knee will develop PTOA within 10-20 years of the injury.

'Virtual partner' elicits emotional responses from a human partner in real-time
Can machines think? That's what renowned mathematician Alan Turing sought to understand back in the 1950s when he created an imitation game to find out if a human interrogator could tell a human from a machine based solely on conversation deprived of physical cues.

Is an insulin pump the best therapy for everyone with type 1 diabetes?
Insulin pump therapy contributes to better blood glucose control in type 1 diabetes and, as pump technology continues to improve and become part of sensor-controlled feedback and artificial pancreas systems, essentially all patients would benefit from their capabilities according to a Commentary published in Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics (DTT).

Fish can adapt some to warmer ocean waters, but not necessarily to extreme heat
Fish can adjust to warmer ocean temperatures, but heat waves can still kill them, a team of researchers from Sweden, Norway and Australia reports in an article published this week in Nature Communications.

USC study finds blindness and visual impairment will double by 2050
A study published today by researchers at the University of Southern California (USC) Roski Eye Institute in JAMA Ophthalmology found that the U.S. prevalence in visual impairment (VI) and blindness is expected to double over the next 35 years.

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