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The top science news articles and science news articles and current events, scientific discoveries, studies and research from the past week.
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Prostate cancer risk reduced by sleeping with many women, but increased with many men
Compared to men who have had only one partner during their lifetime, having sex with more than 20 women is associated with a 28% lower risk of one day being diagnosed with prostate cancer, according to researchers at the University of Montreal and INRS - Institut Armand-Frappier.

Genetic causes underlying the disqualification of 2 elite American Standardbred pacers
A DNA mutation that can lead to horses being genetically male, but female in appearance, may explain at least two cases of controversial sexual identity, according to research led by professors from the Texas A&M College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences (CVM) and published in PLOS Genetics.



Nation's 'personality' influences its environmental stewardship, shows new study
Countries with higher levels of compassion and openness score better when it comes to environmental sustainability, says research from the University of Toronto.

Findings point to an 'off switch' for drug resistance in cancer
Like a colony of bacteria or species of animals, cancer cells within a tumor must evolve to survive.

New insight on why people with Down syndrome invariably develop Alzheimer's disease
A new study by researchers at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute reveals the process that leads to changes in the brains of individuals with Down syndrome-the same changes that cause dementia in Alzheimer's patients.

Tarantula venom illuminates electrical activity in live cells
Researchers at the University of California, Davis, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, have created a cellular probe that combines a tarantula toxin with a fluorescent compound to help scientists observe electrical activity in neurons and other cells.

Getting the salt out
The boom in oil and gas produced through hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is seen as a boon for meeting U.S. energy needs.

When hearing aid users listen to music, less is more, says CU-Boulder study
The type of sound processing that modern hearings aids provide to make speech more understandable for wearers may also make music enjoyment more difficult, according to a new study by the University of Colorado Boulder.

Mother's gestational diabetes linked to daughters being overweight later
Women who developed gestational diabetes and were overweight before pregnancy were at a higher risk of having daughters who were obese later in childhood, according to new research published today in Diabetes Care.

How far urine flows in a tiny tube says a lot about your health
When you flush the toilet, you may be discarding microscopic warning signs about your health.

Protecting us from our cells
Our immune system defends us from harmful bacteria and viruses, but, if left unchecked, the cells that destroy those invaders can turn on the body itself, causing auto-immune diseases like type-1 diabetes or multiple sclerosis.

Liquid helium offers a fascinating new way to make charged molecules
A collaboration between researchers at the Universities of Leicester and Innsbruck has developed a completely new way of forming charged molecules which offers tremendous potential for new areas of chemical research.

Association between air toxics and childhood autism
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were more likely to have been exposed to higher levels of certain air toxics during their mothers' pregnancies and the first two years of life compared to children without the condition, according to the preliminary findings of a University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health investigation of children in southwestern Pennsylvania.

Global boom in hydropower expected this decade
An unprecedented boom in hydropower dam construction is underway, primarily in developing countries and emerging economies. While this is expected to double the global electricity production from hydropower, it could reduce the number of our last remaining large free-flowing rivers by about 20 percent and pose a serious threat to freshwater biodiversity.

Baker Institute paper: Data indicate there is no immigration crisis
Is there an "immigration crisis" on the U.S.-Mexico border? Not according to an examination of historical immigration data, according to a new paper from Rice University's Baker Institute for Public Policy.

New policymaking tool for shift to renewable energy
Multiple pathways exist to a low greenhouse gas future, all involving increased efficiency and a dramatic shift in energy supply away from fossil fuels.

TCGA study improves understanding of genetic drivers of thyroid cancer
A comprehensive analysis of the genomes of nearly 500 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) - the most common form of thyroid cancer - has provided new insights into the roles of frequently mutated cancer genes and other genomic alterations that drive disease development.

The Ocean's Living Carbon Pumps
When we talk about global carbon fixation -"pumping" carbon out of the atmosphere and fixing it into organic molecules by photosynthesis - proper measurement is key to understanding this process.

New window on the early universe
Using two world-class supercomputers, the researchers were able to demonstrate the effectiveness of their approach by simulating the formation of a massive galaxy at the dawn of cosmic time.

UNH scientist: Cosmic rays threaten future deep-space astronaut missions
Crewed missions to Mars remain an essential goal for NASA, but scientists are only now beginning to understand and characterize the radiation hazards that could make such ventures risky, concludes a new paper by University of New Hampshire scientists.

Retaining forests where raptors nest can help to protect biodiversity
Predators influence decisions on conservation actions because they awake a remarkable interest in the society. However, favouring just predators in conservation can also mislead the scarce funding invested in nature conservation.

Physicists Solve Longstanding Puzzle of How Moths Find Distant Mates
The way in which male moths locate females flying hundreds of meters away has long been a mystery to scientists.

Lucky Star Escapes Black Hole With Minor Damage
Astronomers have gotten the closest look yet at what happens when a black hole takes a bite out of a star-and the star lives to tell the tale.

NIST's Cloud Computing Roadmap details research requirements and action plans
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has published the final version of the US Government Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap, Volumes I and II.

New research on walnuts and the fight against Alzheimer's disease
A new animal study published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease indicates that a diet including walnuts may have a beneficial effect in reducing the risk, delaying the onset, slowing the progression of, or preventing Alzheimer's disease.

Ebola's evolutionary roots more ancient than previously thought, study finds
A new study is helping to rewrite Ebola's family history. The research shows that filoviruses - a family to which Ebola and its similarly lethal relative, Marburg, belong - are at least 16-23 million years old.

Sea turtles' first days of life: A sprint and a ride towards safety
With new nano-sized acoustic transmitters, scientists from GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, the Turtle Foundation and Queen Mary University of London were able to follow the pathways of loggerhead turtle hatchlings from Cape Verde.

Top marine scientists call for action on 'invisible' fisheries
To protect our oceans from irreversible harm, governments, conservationists, and researchers around the world must address the enormous threat posed by unregulated and destructive fisheries, say top marine scientists.

Design of micro and nanoparticles to improve treatments for Alzheimers and Parkinsons
Enara Herran, a researcher at the UPV/EHU's Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, is working to improve the way Alzheimer's and Parkinson's treatments are administered. And it is a fact that, as Herran herself stressed, "both diseases are becoming more and more common in our society".

Queen's in international 'attosecond' science breakthrough
Scientists from Queen's University Belfast have been involved in a groundbreaking discovery in the area of experimental physics that has implications for understanding how radiotherapy kills cancer cells, among other things.

Ebola virus: update on research in France
The Ebola epidemic is continuing to spread, particularly in West Africa. According to the latest report by the World Health Organisation (WHO) dated 17 October, 9,216 cases of Ebola have been recorded and 4,555 people have died of the virus.

'Shrinking goats' another indicator that climate change affects animal size
Alpine goats appear to be shrinking in size as they react to changes in climate, according to new research from Durham University.

New treatment resolves a hazardous airway complication in child with heart disease
A case study published recently in the journal Pediatrics describes an innovative, minimally invasive procedure that treated plastic bronchitis, a potentially life-threatening disease, in a six-year-old boy with a heart condition.

Without swift influx of substantial aid, Ebola epidemic in Africa poised to explode
The Ebola virus disease epidemic already devastating swaths of West Africa will likely get far worse in the coming weeks and months unless international commitments are significantly and immediately increased, new research led by Yale researchers predicts.

Cornell chemists show ALS is a protein aggregation disease
Using a technique that illuminates subtle changes in individual proteins, chemistry researchers at Cornell University have uncovered new insight into the underlying causes of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).

62% of colorectal cancer patients report financial burden from treatment, study finds
Nearly two-thirds of patients treated for colorectal cancer reported some measure of financial burden due to their treatment, according to a new study from researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center.

Trastuzumab continues to show life for HER2-positve early stage breast cancer
After following breast cancer patients for an average of eight-plus years, researchers say that adding trastuzumab (Herceptin) to chemotherapy significantly improved the overall and disease-free survival of women with early stage HER2-positive breast cancer.

Thyroid cancer genome analysis finds markers of aggressive tumors
A new comprehensive analysis of thyroid cancer from The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network has identified markers of aggressive tumors, which could allow for better targeting of appropriate treatments to individual patients.

Mediterranean, Semi-Arid Ecosystems Prove Resistant to Climate Change
Climate change predictions for the Middle East, like other arid regions of the world, are alarming. In an area known for its water scarcity, rainfall is expected to decrease even further in the near future, spelling disaster for the functioning of unique ecosystems - hotspots of biodiversity and rich genetic fodder for essential crops.

Scientists take step towards drug to treat norovirus stomach bug
An experimental drug currently being trialled for influenza and Ebola viruses could have a new target: norovirus, often known as the winter vomiting virus. A team of researchers at the University of Cambridge has shown that the drug, favipiravir, is effective at reducing - and in some cases eliminating - norovirus infection in mice.

New Insights on Carbonic Acid in Water
Though it garners few public headlines, carbonic acid, the hydrated form of carbon dioxide, is critical to both the health of the atmosphere and the human body. However, because it exists for only a fraction of a second before changing into a mix of hydrogen and bicarbonate ions, carbonic acid has remained an enigma.

UT Southwestern scientists discover new clues to how weight loss is regulated
A hormone seen as a popular target to develop weight-loss drugs works by directly targeting the brain and triggering previously unknown activity in the nervous system, UT Southwestern Medical Center obesity researchers have found.

Controlling Ebola in West Africa most effective way to decrease international risk: Paper
Controlling the Ebola virus outbreak at the source in West Africa is the most effective way to decrease international risk of transmission, according to a research paper published today in The Lancet.

Gene identified for immune system reset after infection
When pathogenic bacteria like Salmonella or Staphylococcus invade a host, the host organism should respond by going into a state of high alert, altering its metabolism to defend against the attack.

Dartmouth Study Measures Breast Cancer Tumor Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy
A Dartmouth study suggests that it may be possible to use Diffuse Optical Spectroscopic Tomographic imaging (DOST) to predict which patients will best respond to chemotherapy used to shrink breast cancer tumors before surgery.

Secret wing colors attract female fruit flies
Bright colours appear on a fruit fly's transparent wings against a dark background as a result of light refraction. Researchers from Lund University in Sweden have now demonstrated that females choose a mate based on the males' hidden wing colours.

Birds roosting in large groups less likely to contract West Nile virus
Although it would seem logical that large numbers of roosting birds would attract more mosquitoes that carry West Nile virus and contract the disease when bitten, recent research at the University of Illinois found the opposite to be true.

Finally: A Missing Link Between Vitamin D and Prostate Cancer
A University of Colorado Cancer Center study recently published in the journal Prostate offers compelling evidence that inflammation may be the link between Vitamin D and prostate cancer.

Experimental breast cancer drug holds promise in combination therapy for Ewing sarcoma
Ewing sarcoma tumors disappeared and did not return in more than 70 percent of mice treated with combination therapy that included drugs from a family of experimental agents developed to fight breast cancer, reported St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists.

New analysis methodology may revolutionize breast cancer therapy
Stroma cells are derived from connective tissue and may critically influence tumour growth.

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