Brightsurf Science News & Current Events Archive (August 2017)

Science news and science current events archive August, 2017.

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Top Science News & Current Event Articles from August 2017

X-ray imaging with a significantly enhanced resolution
Physicists from Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg) have come up with a method that could significantly improve the quality of X-ray images in comparison to conventional methods. Incoherent diffractive imaging (IDI) could help to image individual atoms in nanocrystals or molecules faster and with a much higher resolution.

New treatment options for type 2 diabetes
Researchers believe they now have a considerable amount of evidence, much of it new, that in contrast to the current strategies for attacking type 2 diabetes, the recognition that it involves dormant microbes, chronic inflammatory processes and coagulopathies, offer new opportunities for treatment.

Biosensor could help diagnose illnesses directly in serum
In this age of fast fashion and fast food, people want things immediately. The same holds true when they get sick and want to know what's wrong. But performing rapid, accurate diagnostics on a serum sample without complex and time-consuming manipulations is a tall order. Now, a team reports in ACS Sensors that they have developed a biosensor that overcomes these issues.

16-year study suggests air temperature is external trigger for heart attack
A 16-year study in more than 280,000 patients has suggested that air temperature is an external trigger for heart attack. The findings are presented today at ESC Congress.

New technique to aid IVF embryo selection
Australian researchers have successfully developed an advanced new imaging technique, which can help assess the quality of early-stage embryos.

Can discrimination contribute to feelings of radicalization?
Muslim immigrants who feel marginalized and discriminated against in countries that expect them to integrate into their culture and society are more likely to experience psychological threats to their own significance that could be related to increased support of radicalism, according to new research presented at the American Psychological Association's 125th Annual Convention.

Millions may face protein deficiency as a result of human-caused carbon dioxide emissions
If CO2 levels keep rising as projected, the populations of 47 countries may lose more than 5 percent of their dietary protein by 2050 due to a decline in the nutritional value of rice, wheat, and other staple crops, according to Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health researchers. They estimate an additional 250 million people may be at risk of protein deficiency because of elevated CO2 levels. This is the first study to quantify this risk.

Telemedicine as effective as in-person care for Parkinson's disease
New findings from a nationwide program that links neurologists with patients with Parkinson's disease in their homes via video conferencing shows that telemedicine can successfully deliver quality care. The study, which appears today in the journal Neurology, points to a new way to improve care for people who suffer from the disease, but may have not have access to a neurologist.

CNIC scientists develop new methods for analyzing gene function
Scientists at the CNIC have developed new methods to produce and analyze genetic mosaics. In these mosaics, tissues contain various groups of cells with different known genotypes, permitting study of the differences that these genotypes generate in cell behavior.

Researchers examine contaminants in hunted wildlife
Concerning environmental contaminants, game species are not subject to the same safety testing as commercially marketed livestock.

NASA Ppotects its super heroes from space weather
When astronauts travel in space they can't see or even feel radiation. However, NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is studying the effects radiation plays on the human body and developing ways to monitor and protect against this silent hazard.

Research sheds new light on the link between gut bacteria and anxiety
Research published in the open access journal Microbiome sheds new light on how gut bacteria may influence anxiety-like behaviors. Investigating the link between gut bacteria and biological molecules called microRNAs (miRNAs) in the brain; researchers at the APC Microbiome Institute at University College Cork, which is funded by Science Foundation Ireland, found that a significant number of miRNAs were changed in the brains of microbe-free mice.

Riding the wave: Pioneering research tames nanoquakes
Researchers from the University of Exeter have pioneered a new technique to control high frequency sound waves, commonly found within everyday devices such as mobile phones.

NASA spies wind shear still affecting Tropical Storm Nalgae
Tropical Storm Nalgae can't seem to get a break from vertical wind shear. The storm has been dealing with wind shear since it formed and NASA's Terra satellite observed that was still the case on Aug. 4.

Risk of a fatty heart linked to race, type of weight gain in middle-aged women
A woman's race and where on her body she packs on pounds at midlife could give her doctor valuable clues to her likelihood of having greater volumes of heart fat, a potential risk factor for heart disease, according to new research led by the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health.

Scientist emphasizes importance of multi-level thinking
An unusual paper by Prof. Michael E. McIntyre from University of Cambridge touches on a range of deep questions, including insights into the nature of science itself, and of scientific understanding -- what it means to understand a scientific problem in depth -- and into the communication skills necessary to convey that understanding and to mediate collaboration across specialist disciplines.

Research reveals how estrogen regulates gene expression
The sequential recruitment of coactivators to the estrogen receptor complex results in dynamic specific structural and functional changes that are necessary for effective regulation of gene expression.

Software lets designers exploit the extremely high resolution of 3-D printers
Software lets designers exploit the extremely high resolution of 3-D printers.

Energy dense foods may increase cancer risk regardless of obesity status
While there is a proven link between obesity and certain types of cancer, less is known about how the ratio of energy to food weight, otherwise known as dietary energy density (DED), contributes to cancer risk. To find out, researchers looked at DED in the diets of post-menopausal women and discovered that consuming high DED foods was tied to a 10 percent increase in obesity-related cancer among normal weight women.

Primordial black holes may have helped to forge heavy elements
Astronomers like to say we are the byproducts of stars, stellar furnaces that long ago fused hydrogen and helium into the elements needed for life through the process of stellar nucleosynthesis.

Important to communicate cancer prevention message to young adults to reduce risks later in life
The latest estimates suggest that, by 2020, more than 1.9 million Americans will be diagnosed with cancer each year. In a special supplement to the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, a noted group of experts examines the evidence linking factors in early adulthood (18 to 44 years of age) to subsequent cancer risk and presents opportunities for putting that evidence into public health practice in order to help individuals reduce cancer risk later in life.

Communicating in a foreign language takes emotion out of decision-making
If you could save the lives of five people by pushing another bystander in front of a train to his death, would you do it? And should it make any difference if that choice is presented in a language you speak, but isn't your native tongue? Psychologists at the University of Chicago know communicating in a foreign language matters. In a new study, they take a major step toward understanding why.

NASA's infrared look at Hurricane Gert
NASA's Aqua satellite provided an infrared look at the power within Atlantic Hurricane Gert and saw the hurricane had very cold cloud top temperatures.

Many women diagnosed with cancer have sexual health concerns
A new review published in the European Journal of Cancer Care indicates that, in women diagnosed with cancer, concerns pertaining to sexual health are diverse, multiple, and pervade all types and stages of cancer.

Vascular risk factors and Alzheimer's disease: A new therapeutic opportunity?
Currently, no possibility exists to reliably quantify the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) onset in the general population and in subjects with mild cognitive impairment.

Engineers harness the power of 3-D printing to help train surgeons, shorten surgery times
A team of engineers and pediatric orthopedic surgeons are using 3-D printing to help train surgeons and shorten surgeries for the most common hip disorder found in children ages 9 to 16. In a recent study, researchers showed that allowing surgeons to prep on a 3-D-printed model of the patient's hip joint cut by about 25 percent the amount of time needed for surgery when compared to a control group.

Tropical Depression 11E 'born' with wind shear on satellite imagery
The eleventh tropical depression of the Eastern Pacific Ocean hurricane season came together on August 4 even though it was being affected by vertical wind shear.

NASA sees Tropical Storm Jova being ripped apart
Satellite imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite showed vertical wind shear was already tearing Tropical Storm Jova apart just two days after it formed. By August 14, the storm weakened into a post-tropical cyclone.

Drug safety for penguins
Researchers from the University of Liverpool have determined the most effective drug dose to help penguins in managed care fight off disease.

Ringing in ears keeps brain more at attention, less at rest, study finds
Tinnitus, a chronic ringing or buzzing in the ears, has eluded medical treatment and scientific understanding. A new study by University of Illinois researchers found that chronic tinnitus is associated with changes in certain networks in the brain, and furthermore, those changes cause the brain to stay more at attention and less at rest. The finding provides patients with validation of their experiences and hope for future treatment options.

Novel software can recognize eye contact in everyday situations
Human eye contact is an important information source. Nonetheless, so far, possibilities to recognize eye contact in everyday situations have been very limited. Computer scientists of Saarland University and the Max Planck Institute for Informatics have now developed a method by the aid of which it is possible to detect eye contact, independent of the type and size of the target object, the position of the camera, or the environment.

Skin-ditching gecko inexplicably leaves body armor behind when threatened
When trouble looms, the fish-scale geckos of Madagascar resort to what might seem like an extreme form of self-defense -- tearing out of their own skin. Now, new research shows the geckos' skin contains a hidden strength: bony deposits known as osteoderms, the same material that makes up the tough scales and plates of crocodilians and armadillos. But the presence of osteoderms in fish-scale geckos raises a herpetological mystery: If they have armor, why do they discard it?

Twilight observations reveal huge storm on Neptune
Striking images of a storm system nearly the size of Earth have astronomers doing a double-take after pinpointing its location near Neptune's equator, a region where no bright cloud has been seen before. The discovery was made at dawn on June 26 as UC Berkeley graduate student Ned Molter was testing the Keck telescope to see whether it could make useful observations during twilight, a time most astronomers consider unusable because it's not dark enough.

Research into childhood obstructive sleep-disordered breathing examined
Through a comprehensive review of published research, investigators have identified important gaps in how and where children with obstructive sleep-disordered breathing (oSDB) are best managed. Their findings are published in the journal CHEST.

Prairie-chicken nests appear unaffected by wind energy facility
Wind energy development in the Great Plains is increasing, spurring concern about its potential effects on grassland birds, the most rapidly declining avian group in North America. However, a new study from The Condor: Ornithological Applications suggests that for one grassland bird species of concern -- the greater prairie-chicken -- wind energy infrastructure has little to no effect on nesting. Instead, roads and livestock grazing remain the most significant threats to its successful reproduction.

Wood frogs research clarifies risks posed to animals by warming climate
As conditions warm, fish and wildlife living at the southern edge of their species' ranges are most at risk, according to Penn State researchers who led a major collaborative study of how wood frogs are being affected by climate change.

Older adults with HIV: An overlooked population?
When it comes to HIV prevention and treatment, there is a growing population that is being overlooked -- older adults -- and implicit ageism is partially responsible for this neglect, according to a presentation at the 125th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association.

Climate change and habitat conversion combine to homogenize nature
Climate change and habitat conversion to agriculture are working together to homogenize nature, indicates a study in the journal Global Change Biology led by the University of California, Davis. In other words, the more things change, the more they are the same.

Update on the Larsen-C iceberg breakaway
Since an iceberg four times the size of London broke free earlier this month, scientists have continued to track its progress using satellites. Their observations show the Larsen-C story might not be over yet.

A mathematical crystal ball gazes into future of prostate cancer treatment
Using open data from four previously conducted clinical trials, teams of international researchers designed mathematical models predicting the likelihood that a patient will discontinue docetaxel treatment due to adverse events.

Researchers use machine learning to spot counterfeit consumer products
A team of researchers has developed a new mechanism that uses machine-learning algorithms to distinguish between genuine and counterfeit versions of the same product.

First observation of the hyperfine splitting in antihydrogen
Swansea University scientists are one step closer to answering the question of why matter exists and illuminating the mysteries of the Big Bang and the birth of the universe.

Materials governed by light
The UPV/EHU researcher Rebeca Sola has developed and characterized hybrid materials that respond differently to light, and which have the potential for use in highly different areas ranging from optics to biomedicine. One of the types of materials obtained are inorganic, channeled structures that have incorporated into them fluorescent organic dyes in a structure that firstly offers the dye stability and secondly gives the system rigidity, thus increasing its photophysical properties.

Two weeks in the life of a sunspot
During its 13-day trip across the face of the sun, a sunspot recently put on a show for NASA's sun-watching satellites, producing several solar flares, a coronal mass ejection and a solar energetic particle event.

Weight loss surgery's effects on bone marrow fat and bone mass
Bone marrow fat is thought to regulate bone metabolism, and high levels of marrow fat are seen in states of low bone mass, severe underweight, and diabetes.

Wildlife royalties -- a future for conservation?
Should people who profit from the cultural representation of wildlife pay towards conservation? That is the question asked in new research conducted by zoologists from Oxford University's Wildlife Conservation Research Unit.

Boosting immune cell memory to improve vaccines and cancer immunotherapy
In mouse experiments, researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have discovered that drugs that activate the cells' proteasome, or recycling center, tip the balance in favor of memory CD8+ T cells. This approach could be used to improve how well vaccines and immunotherapies work and how long they last.

Dark Energy Survey reveals most accurate measurement of universe's dark matter
Dark Energy Survey scientists have unveiled the most accurate measurement ever made of the present large-scale structure of the universe. These measurements of the amount and 'clumpiness' (or distribution) of dark matter in the present-day cosmos were made with a precision that, for the first time, rivals that of inferences from the early universe by the European Space Agency's orbiting Planck observatory.

SwRI-led study captures science data from Great American Eclipse
Two NASA WB-57F research aircraft successfully tracked the August 21 solar eclipse as part of a NASA project led by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to study the solar corona and Mercury's surface.

What role does the gut play in type 2 diabetes?
In the destructive cycle that leads to and perpetuates type 2 diabetes, driven by overeating, excessive blood glucose, defective pancreatic beta cell function, and imbalances in insulin-regulating hormone levels, the gut appears to play a key role.

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