Brightsurf Science News & Current Events Archive (January 2020)

Science news and science current events archive January, 2020.

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Top Science News & Current Event Articles from January 2020

Half the amount of chemo prevents testicular cancer from coming back, new trial shows
Testicular cancer can be prevented from coming back using half the amount of chemotherapy that is currently used, a new clinical trial has shown. The new trial showed that giving men one cycle of chemotherapy was as effective at preventing men's testicular cancer from coming back as the two cycles used as standard.

Veterans report health as their No. 1 worry
Health concerns are the most important readjustment challenge facing veterans in the first year after they leave military service.

Study finds dopamine, biological clock link to snacking, overeating and obesity
A new study finds that the pleasure center of the brain and the brain's biological clock are linked, and that high-calorie foods -- which bring pleasure -- disrupt normal feeding schedules, resulting in overconsumption.

Don't wait to get concussion care; early treatment may mean faster recovery
Early clinical treatment may significantly reduce recovery time following a concussion, according to new research led by the University of Pittsburgh Sports Medicine Concussion Program. The results, published today in JAMA Neurology, suggest delays in seeking treatment can lead to unnecessarily longer recovery.

New compounds block master regulator of cancer growth, metastasis
Scientists have developed new drug compounds that thwart the pro-cancer activity of FOXM1, a transcription factor that regulates the activity of dozens of genes. The new compounds suppress tumor growth in human cells and in mouse models of several types of human breast cancer.

Vitamin B6, leukemia's deadly addiction
Researchers from CSHL and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center have discovered how Acute Myeloid Leukemia is addicted to vitamin B6. Now that researchers know this, they can pursue new treatment options for the deadly blood cancer.

Yale-led team finds parents can curb teen drinking and driving
Binge drinking by teenagers in their senior year of high school is a strong predictor of dangerous behaviors later in life, including driving while impaired (DWI) and riding with an impaired driver (RWI), according to a new Yale-led study.

Flame retardants and pesticides overtake heavy metals as biggest contributors to IQ loss
Adverse outcomes from childhood exposures to lead and mercury are on the decline in the United States, likely due to decades of restrictions on the use of heavy metals, a new study finds.

UMass Amherst researchers identify new mechanism involved in promoting breast cancer
A new approach to studying the effects of two common chemicals used in cosmetics and sunscreens found they can cause DNA damage in breast cells at surprisingly low concentrations, while the same dose did not harm cells without estrogen receptors.

B-cell enrichment predictive of immunotherapy response in melanoma, sarcoma and kidney cancer
Multiple studies out in Nature indicate that a patient's response to immune checkpoint blockade may depend on B cells located in special structures within the tumor.

Compact broadband acoustic absorber with coherently coupled weak resonances
Recently, the research teams from Tongji University and The Hong Kong Polytechnic University demonstrate that a compact broadband acoustic absorber can be achieved with coherently coupled 'weak resonances' (resonant sound absorbing systems with low absorption peaks).

Mushrooms are older than we thought
According to a new study led by Steeve Bonneville from the Université libre de Bruxelles, the first mushrooms were already present on Earth between 715 and 810 million years ago, 300 million years earlier than the scientific community had believed until now. The results, published in Science Advances, also suggest that mushrooms could have been important partners for the first plants that colonized the continental surface.

New study highlights prevalence of PTSD among obstetricians and gynaecologists
A new University of Liverpool led study, published in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology today (Tuesday, 28 January 2020), has revealed the prevalence of work-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among obstetricians and gynaecologists.

Synthesis considers how being smart helps you at school and school helps you become smarter
Academic achievement plays an important role in children's development because academic skills, especially in reading and math, affect many outcomes, including educational attainment, performance and income at work, health, and longevity. A new synthesis looked at the relation between academic achievement (reading, math) and cognitive abilities (working memory, reasoning, executive function), and offered suggestions on how to improve educational and cognitive outcomes.

Vision may be the real cause of children's problems
Do you have poor motor skills or struggle to read, write or solve math problems? Maybe it's really because of how your brain interprets what it sees.

Machine learning technique speeds up crystal structure determination
A computer-based method could make it less labor-intensive to determine the crystal structures of various materials and molecules, including alloys, proteins and pharmaceuticals. The method uses a machine learning algorithm, similar to the type used in facial recognition and self-driving cars, to independently analyze electron diffraction patterns, and do so with at least 95% accuracy.

MIPT physicists find ways to overcome signal loss in magnonic circuits
Researchers from the MIPT and their Russian colleagues have demonstrated that the coupling elements in magnonic logic circuits are so crucial that a poorly selected waveguide can lead to signal loss. The physicists developed a parametric model for predicting the waveguide configuration that avoids signal loss, built a prototype waveguide, and tested the model in an experiment.

Few people consider religious affiliation of hospital they choose
A small minority of Americans surveyed consider the religious affiliation of the hospitals that treat them, but a majority said they didn't want religious doctrine dictating their healthcare choices, according to a study by researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.

Ghost worms mostly unchanged since the age of dinosaurs
How can two species look almost exactly the same despite evolving separately for 140 million years? A new study sheds light on a group of sand-dwelling worm species that have hardly changed in appearance since the age of dinosaurs, making them one of the most extreme cases known of slow morphological evolution, also called stasis.

SDSU astronomers pinpoint two new 'Tatooine' planetary systems
The discoveries include the first circumbinary planet revealed by observations from NASA's TESS mission, which will search nearly the entire sky.

Study: Early intervention of hyperkalemia cuts mortality in half
In a new study published in the American Journal of Emergency Medicine, Adam Singer, MD, et al reported that quickly correcting high potassium levels, a condition known as hyperkalemia, in emergency department patients cut mortality in that population by half.

Medicaid expansion associated with fewer opioid overdose deaths across the US
The expansion of Medicaid coverage for low-income adults permitted by the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was associated with a 6% reduction in total opioid overdose deaths nationally, according to new research from NYU Grossman School of Medicine and University of California, Davis.

SuperTIGER on its second prowl -- 130,000 feet above Antarctica
A balloon-borne scientific instrument designed to study the origin of cosmic rays is taking its second turn high above the continent of Antarctica three and a half weeks after its launch.

Common foods can help 'landscape' the jungle of our gut microbiome
Foods such as honey, licorice, oregano, and hot sauce have an antimicrobial effect and some of them trigger phage production in our gut. We could use compounds in these foods to control harmful microbes and balance microbial diversity in the gut microbiome.

APS tip sheet: High energy gamma rays
Nine Galactic sources are the highest-energy gamma -ray sources ever detected, which could suggest the presence of Galactic accelerators.

Team builds the first living robots
Scientists repurposed living frog cells -- and assembled them into entirely new life-forms. These tiny 'xenobots' can move toward a target and heal themselves after being cut. These novel living machines are neither a traditional robot nor a known species of animal. They're a new class of artifact: a living, programmable organism.

Burnout linked with irregular heartbeat
Feeling excessively tired, devoid of energy, demoralized, and irritable? You may have burnout, a syndrome associated with a potentially deadly heart rhythm disturbance. That's the conclusion of a large study published today in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, a journal of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).

Diabolical points in coupled active cavities with quantum emitters
Diabolical points (DPs) introduce ways to study topological phase and peculiar energy dispersion. Scientists in China and cooperators from the United Kingdom demon-strated DPs in strongly coupled active microdisks. A new macroscopical control of backscattering based on the competition between defects and quantum emitters was used to achieve DPs. This work paves the way to integrate DPs and more exotic phe-nomena into quantum information process with quantum emitters and will inspire fur-ther research with DPs.

Study answers when moderate to late preterm babies go home
'When is my baby going home?' is one of the first questions asked by families of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Now clinicians have a data-based answer.

With these neurons, extinguishing fear is its own reward
The same neurons responsible for encoding reward also form new memories to suppress fearful ones, according to new research by scientists at The Picower Institute for Learning and Memory at MIT.

Math that feels good
Mathematics and science Braille textbooks are expensive and require an enormous effort to produce -- until now. A team of researchers has developed a method for easily creating textbooks in Braille, with an initial focus on math textbooks. The new process is made possible by a new authoring system which serves as a 'universal translator' for textbook formats. Based on this new method, the production of Braille textbooks will become easy, inexpensive, and widespread.

Reward improves visual perceptual learning -- but only after people sleep
A new study from Brown researchers finds that rewards improve performance on a visual perceptual task only if participants sleep after training.

'Reading' with aphasia is easier than 'running'
Neurolinguists from HSE University have confirmed experimentally that for people with aphasia, it is easier to retrieve verbs describing situations with several participants (such as 'someone is doing something'), although such verbs give rise to more grammar difficulties. The results of the study have been published in Aphasiology.

Physicists trap light in nanoresonators for record time
An international team of Russian, Australian and Korean researchers have experimentally trapped an electromagnetic wave in a gallium arsenide nanoresonator for a record-breaking time, over 200 periods of one wave oscillation. The trap has also been tested as a basis for a light frequency nanoconverter. The results were published in Science. Researchers anticipate drastically new opportunities for subwavelength optics and nanophotonics, including the development of compact sensors, night vision devices, and optical data transmission technologies.

Old molecule, new tricks
Fifty years ago, scientists hit upon what they thought could be the next rocket fuel. Carboranes -- molecules composed of boron, carbon and hydrogen atoms clustered together in three-dimensional shapes -- were seen as the possible basis for next-generation propellants due to their ability to release massive amounts of energy when burned.

Immune system cells contribute to the invading capacity of brain tumours
An article published in Brain Communications, coordinated by Carlos Barcia, researcher at Institut de Neurociències de la UAB, describes how the immune system facilitates the expansion of tumour cells in the brain. The study was performed on human samples of glioblastoma, the most aggressive brain tumour, and on cell culture models. These findings will help to develop treatments for this type of tumour, for which there is not an effective therapy at the moment.

Stanford researchers conduct census of cell surface proteins
A new technique for systematically surveying proteins on the outer surface of cells, which act like molecular social cues to guide cell-cell interactions and assembly into tissues and organs.

Increasing opportunities for sustainable behavior
To mitigate climate change and safeguard ecosystems, we need to make drastic changes in our consumption and transport behaviors. A new IIASA study shows how even minor changes to available infrastructure can trigger tipping points in the collective adoption of sustainable behaviors.

New portable tool analyzes microbes in the environment
Imagine a device that could swiftly analyze microbes in oceans and other aquatic environments, revealing the health of these organisms - too tiny to be seen by the naked eye - and their response to threats to their ecosystems. Rutgers researchers have created just such a tool, a portable device that could be used to assess microbes, screen for antibiotic-resistant bacteria and analyze algae that live in coral reefs. Their work is published in the journal Scientific Reports.

An egg a day not tied to risk of heart disease
The controversy about whether eggs are good or bad for your heart health may be solved, and about one a day is fine. A team of researchers from the Population Health Research Institute (PHRI) of McMaster University and Hamilton Health Sciences found the answer by analyzing data from three large, long-term multinational studies.

Protein pores packed in polymers make super-efficient filtration membranes
A multidisciplinary team of engineers and scientists has developed a new class of filtration membranes for a variety of applications, from water purification to small-molecule separations to contaminant-removal processes, that are faster to produce and higher performing than current technology. This could reduce energy consumption, operational costs and production time in industrial separations.

General population screening reduces life threatening diabetic ketoacidosis, new research shows
JDRF Funded Research finds screening for islet autobodies reduce the occurrence of life threatening diabetic ketoacidosis in children with pre-symptomatic type 1 diabetes.

Organoids (in vitro brains) to study pediatric brain tumors
Hundreds of miniature brains were grown in the laboratories of the University of Trento to study the genetic mechanisms responsible for the most common brain cancer affecting children. The results of a collaborative research effort, coordinated by the University of Trento and carried out with Sapienza University and Ospedale pediatrico Bambino Gesù in Rome and Irccs Neuromed, were published today in Nature Communications.

People may lie to appear honest
People may lie to appear honest if events that turned out in their favor seem too good to be true, according to new research published by the American Psychological Association.

Astronomers witness the dragging of space-time in stellar cosmic dance
An international team of astrophysicists led by Australian Professor Matthew Bailes, from the ARC Centre of Excellence of Gravitational Wave Discovery (OzGrav), has shown exciting new evidence for 'frame-dragging'-- how the spinning of a celestial body twists space and time -- after tracking the orbit of a stellar pair for almost two decades. The data, which is further evidence for Einstein's theory of General Relativity, is published today (Jan. 31, 2020) in the prestigious journal, Science.

Drug class provides cardiovascular benefit for all patients with type 2 diabetes
All type 2 diabetes patient subgroups are likely to achieve cardiovascular protection from the use of SGLT2 inhibitors, according to a large multi-study review published in the Journal of the American Heart Association.

Low-dose metronomic cyclophosphamide complements the actions of an intratumoral C-class...
Intratumoral injection of SD-101 induces significant anti-tumor immunity in preclinical and clinical studies, especially when combined with PD-1 blockade.

Bone analysis suggests small T. rexes were not a separate genus; they were kids
Settling a decades-long debate about whether small Tyrannosaurus rex specimens represent a separate genus or rather just ''kids'' of their kind, a new examination of thinly sliced bones from two specimens at the Burpee Museum of Natural History in Illinois suggests the latter. The specimens were juveniles that had not yet experienced a major growth spurt before they

Color-changing fiber and theory reveal fundamental mystery of knots
Color-changing fibers and mathematical theory combine to disclose the simple rules that govern the strength and stability of commonly used knots, researchers report.

Math test score gap between white and non-white students in Brazil due to complex factors
School test scores often show gaps in performance between white and non-white students. Understanding the complex reasons behind this can help reduce those gaps and promote social equality, explains Mary Paula Arends-Kuenning, associate professor of agricultural and consumer economics at the University of Illinois.

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