Brightsurf Science News & Current Events Archive (July 2017)

Science news and science current events archive July, 2017.

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Top Science News & Current Event Articles from July 2017

Climate change expected to increase premature deaths from air pollution
A new study from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill estimates that future climate change, if left unaddressed, is expected to cause roughly 60,000 deaths globally in the year 2030 and 260,000 deaths in 2100 due to climate change's effect on global air pollution.   

People with autism are less surprised by the unexpected
Adults with autism may overestimate the volatility of the world around them, finds a new UCL study published in Nature Neuroscience.

Towards a safe and scalable cell therapy for type 1 diabetes by simplifying beta cell differentiation
With the vision of providing a cell therapy for type 1 diabetes patients, scientists at the University of Copenhagen have identified a unique cell surface protein present on human pancreatic precursor cells providing for the first time a molecular handle to purify the cells whose fate is to become cells of the pancreas -- including insulin-producing cells.

Women show cognitive advantage in gender-equal countries
Women's cognitive functioning past middle age may be affected by the degree of gender equality in the country they live in, according to new findings from Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

Guidelines for assessing orthostatic hypotension should be changed, new study recommends
A new study led by Johns Hopkins researchers suggests that testing for the presence of orthostatic hypotension, a form of low blood pressure, be performed within one minute of standing after a person has been lying down. Current guidelines recommend taking the measurement three minutes after a person stands up.

Single-photon emitter has promise for quantum info-processing
Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced the first known material capable of single-photon emission at room temperature and at telecommunications wavelengths.

Internet searches for suicide after '13 Reasons Why'
Internet searches about suicide were higher than expected after the release of the Netflix series '13 Reasons Why' about the suicide of a fictional teen that graphically shows the suicide in its finale, according to a new research letter published by JAMA Internal Medicine.

Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications journal (volume 2 issue 3) published
The new journal Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications has just published the third issue of Volume 2. This issue brings together a diverse set of papers from authors from China, Chile, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United States.

Earth likely to warm more than 2 degrees this century
A new statistically-based analysis, rather than the previous scenarios, shows a 90 percent chance that average warming this century will be greater than 2 degrees Celsius. It finds only 1 percent chance that warming will be less than 1.5 C.

Bold new approaches needed to shrink Gulf of Mexico dead zone and meet elusive goals
Shrinking the annual Gulf of Mexico 'dead zone' down to the size of Delaware will require a 59-percent reduction in the amount of nitrogen runoff that flows down the Mississippi River from as far away as the Corn Belt.

Beware doping athletes! This sensor may be your downfall
A new light-trapping sensor, developed by a University at Buffalo-led team of engineers and described in an Advanced Optical Materials study, makes infrared absorption more sensitive, inexpensive and versatile. It may improve scientists' ability use to sleuth out performance-enhancing drugs in blood samples, tiny particles of explosives in the air and more.

New genomics tool CITE-Seq enables large-scale multidimensional analysis of single cells
A new technique developed by scientists at the New York Genome Center (NYGC) represents an important step forward for single-cell RNA sequencing, an advancing field of genomics that provides detailed insights into individual cells and makes it possible to distinguish between different cell types and to study disease mechanisms at the level of individual cells.

Obese and overweight less likely to consider next meal when making portion size decisions
University of Bristol researchers have found that people with obesity tend to ignore how long it will be until the next meal when choosing how much to eat. In a study designed see if people consider the time interval between two meals when selecting portion sizes, the researchers found that lean people generally do

NASA sees Tropical Storm Nesat landfall in China
NASA's Aqua satellite captured an image of Tropical Storm Nesat after it made landfall its second and final landfall in eastern China.

Miami project presents data demonstrating therapeutic potential of SRK-015 in SCI
The Miami Project to Cure Paralysis and Scholar Rock present preclinical data demonstrating therapeutic potential of SRK-015 in spinal cord injury at 35th Annual National Neurotrauma Symposium.

Skin plays significant role in spread of leishmaniasis
Scientists at the University of York have discovered that parasites responsible for leishmaniasis -- a globally occurring neglected tropical disease spread by sand flies -- are mainly acquired from the skin rather than a person's blood.

Cells that stand in the way of HIV cure: Discovery expands understanding of marrow's role
New research into HIV's hiding places reveals new clues about exactly how it persists in the body for years, in hematopoietic progenitor cells in the bone marrow. The discovery could speed the search for drugs that can flush HIV out of its long-term hideouts and cure an infection for good.

Scientists watch 'artificial atoms' assemble into perfect lattices with many uses
Some of the world's tiniest crystals are known as 'artificial atoms' because they can organize themselves into structures that look like molecules, including 'superlattices' that are potential building blocks for novel materials. Now scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University have made the first observation of these nanocrystals rapidly forming superlattices while they are themselves still growing.

New study finds that lymph node removal isn't necessary for all melanoma patients
Many patients with melanoma need a sentinel-lymph-node biopsy to determine if cancer cells have spread there, but a positive finding doesn't mean all the lymph nodes in the area must be removed, according to new international study.

Ancient Greek theaters used moveable stages more than 2,000 years ago
Theater has been loved by many people since classical times. Along with its popularity, stage theater construction evolved greatly between the ancient Greek and Roman periods. In this research, a Japanese architectural researcher has clarified the development process for some of the stage equipment that was used in the theaters of Messene, an ancient Greek city.

The Ottawa hospital emergency surgery study
Researchers at The Ottawa Hospital and the University of Ottawa have conducted a rigorous study of the health and economic impacts of delays in emergency surgery. Their results suggests that keeping some operating rooms free for emergency surgery can save both money and lives.

Purpose in life by day linked to better sleep at night
Having a purpose in life means you are more likely to sleep better at night with less sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome, reports a new study. Cultivating a purpose in life could be drug-free strategy to improve sleep, scientists said. The study participants were older adults -- who tend to have more insomnia and sleep disturbances -- but researchers said the findings are likely applicable to the broader public.

A closer look at osteoporosis medication's mechanisms may improve outcomes
Osteoporosis is the primary cause of bone fractures in the elderly, reflecting an imbalance between osteoclasts, bone-degrading cells, and osteoblasts, bone-building cells. Teriparatide is the only FDA-approved treatment for osteoporosis that increases osteoblast activity and lifespan. This week in the JCI, Henry Kronenberg and colleagues at Massachusetts General Hospital report that teriperatide treatment also stimulates the formation of new osteoblasts. However, their findings also show that unexpected adverse effects can develop after treatment stops.

Advancing public engagement at the Ecological Society of America
This year, the annual meeting of the ESA in Portland, Ore., Aug. 6-12, 2017, will be the locus of multiple efforts to train and connect ecologists who are deeply interested in public engagement of their research. Special sessions that feature case studies of successful engagement events, approaches and protocols will be offered.

A new synthesis route for alternative catalysts of noble metals
Researchers have developed a new synthesis route for alternative catalysts of noble metals.

The moon is front and center during a total solar eclipse
In the lead-up to a total solar eclipse, most of the attention is on the sun, but Earth's moon also has a starring role.

How do values and attitudes influence economic development?
New research indicates that diversity in cultural values has a negative association with regional economic development within European countries.

NASA sees Central Atlantic Ocean's forming Tropical Depression 4
As Tropical Depression 4 was getting organized in the central Atlantic Ocean the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission or GPM satellite peered into the storm and measured rainfall within. The system became Tropical Depression 4 on July 6.

2 methods to de-identify large patient datasets greatly reduced risk of re-identification
Two de-identification methods, k-anonymization and adding a 'fuzzy factor,' significantly reduced the risk of re-identification of patients in a dataset of 5 million patient records from a large cervical cancer screening program in Norway.

'Superbugs' study reveals complex picture of E. coli bloodstream infections
The first large-scale genetic study of Escherichia coli (E. coli) cultured from patients with bloodstream infections in England showed that drug resistant 'superbugs' don't always out-compete other strains. Research by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and their collaborators showed that new types of E. coli occur frequently, but unlike in some other infections, drug-resistant strains do not become a dominant cause of infection.

Ecological underpinnings of rural poverty
A first-of-its-kind effort to examine the ecological drivers of rural poverty combines economic, ecological and epidemiological models. The lessons learned could inform interventions to lift people out of poverty.

Chronic liver inflammation linked to Western diet
A new study in The American Journal of Pathology reports that mice fed a Western diet, which is high in fat and sugar, resulted in hepatic inflammation, especially in males. Moreover, liver inflammation was most pronounced in Western diet-fed male mice that also lacked farnesoid x receptor (FXR), a bile acid receptor.

Dendritic cells 'divide and conquer' to elude viral infection while promoting immunity
Two subsets of dendritic cells work together to activate T cells against a virus: one dies and produces the viral antigens that the other then sweeps up and presents to the T cells.

Exercise incentives do little to spur gym-going, study shows
Even among people who had just joined a gym and expected to visit regularly, getting paid to exercise did little to make their commitment stick, according to a new study from Case Western Reserve University.

Scientists become research subjects in after-hours brain-scanning project
A quest to analyze the unique features of individual human brains evolved into the so-called Midnight Scan Club. Nico Dosenbach, M.D., Ph.D., an assistant professor of pediatric and developmental neurology at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, and colleagues used imaging techniques to collect a massive amount of data on individual brains. Their work led to 10 individual-specific connectomes -- detailed maps of neural brain connections that reveal spatial and organizational variability in brain networks.

Hospitals should examine physician call coverage at stroke centers
Stroke centers average mechanical thrombectomies once every five days with nearly 60 percent of the procedures occurring during non-work hours.

How texting can protect babies from sudden death
Educational videos delivered by text or email successfully encouraged new mothers to use safe sleep practices for their babies, reducing the risk of sudden unexpected infant death, a new study has found.

Computers using linguistic clues to deduce photo content
Scientists at Disney Research and the University of California, Davis have found that the way a person describes the content of a photo can provide important clues for computer vision programs to determine where various things appear in the image.

On the path to vitamin A in rice
Biochemists from the University of Freiburg have elucidated the structure of an enzyme that supplies carotenoid.

NASA's Terra satellite watching Tropical Storm Greg
NASA Terra satellite provided a clear view of Tropical Storm Greg, located off the southwestern coast of Mexico. Greg is one of three tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and is the closest to land.

Making data-driven 3-D modeling easier
A new computational method, to be demonstrated at SIGGRAPH 2017, is addressing a well-known bottleneck in computer graphics: 3-D content creation. GRASS, a new generative model based on deep neural networks enables the automatic creation of plausible, novel 3-D shapes, giving graphic artists in video games, virtual reality (VR) and film the ability to more quickly and effortlessly create and explore multiple 3-D shapes so as to arrive at a final product.

'No solid evidence' for biopesticide-diarrhea link
A report commissioned by EU food regulators wrongly linked a highly effective biopesticide with diarrhea in humans, an expert says.

Squirrels have long memory for problem solving
Squirrels can remember problem-solving techniques for long periods and can apply them to new situations, researchers have discovered.

Medical expenditures rise in most categories except primary care physicians and home health care
This article was published in the July/August 2017 issue of Annals of Family Medicine research journal.

Spontaneous system follows rules of equilibrium
Discovery could be the beginning of a general framework of rules for seemingly unpredictable non-equilibrium systems.

Food scientists find cranberries may aid the gut microbiome
Many scientists are paying new attention to prebiotics, that is, molecules we eat but cannot digest, because some may promote the growth and health of beneficial microorganisms in our intestines, says nutritional microbiologist David Sela at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In a new study, he and colleagues report the first evidence that certain beneficial gut bacteria are able to grow when fed a carbohydrate found in cranberries and further, that they exhibit a special nontypical metabolism.

Hidden herpes virus may play key role in MS, other brain disorders
The ubiquitous human herpesvirus 6 may play a critical role in impeding the brain's ability to repair itself in diseases like multiple sclerosis. The findings, which appear in the journal Scientific Reports, may help explain the differences in severity in symptoms that many people with the disease experience.

Digital communication improves young patient engagement, according to new study
Using texts, emails, Skype and other digital communication methods can improve the health care experience of younger patients. That is the conclusion of new research, led by the University of Warwick and King's College London, which examined case studies from 20 NHS specialist clinical teams from across England and Wales.

Genetics may lie at the heart of crop yield limitation
You might think that plants grow according to how much nutrition, water and sunlight they are exposed to, but new research by Dr. Nick Pullen and a team from the John Innes Centre, UK shows that the plant's own genetics may be the real limiting factor.

When push comes to injury: What pushing a wheelchair does to your back
When asked to push a simulated wheelchair against increasing resistance, study participants typically exceeded the recommended limits to avoid back injury by nearly 20 percent before they decided to quit.

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