Brightsurf Science News & Current Events Archive (June 1996)

Science news and science current events archive June, 1996.

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Top Science News & Current Event Articles from June 1996

Study Finds Breast-Feeding May Lower Women's Risk Of Breast Cancer
Breast-feeding for at least 12 months during their lifetime appears to offer women some protection against developing breast cancer later in life, a new study by epidemiologists at the University at Buffalo has found. It was presented today at the annual meeting of the Society for Epidemiologic Research.

Doctor, Patient Age Affect Input In Medical Decisions
Doctors may be less likely to welcome input in medical decisions from patients who are near their own age. In a study of medical students, residents and medical school faculty, researchers found that the younger students and resident physicians advocated greater patient input from 75- year-olds than they did from 25-year-olds

Chagnon Warns Of Plight Of Yanomamo In Wake Of Major Floods
Anthropologist Napoleon Chagnon, pioneering investigator of South America's primitive Yanomamo tribes people, warns that serious flooding in the Orinoco River basin, in Venezuela's Amazon region, could threaten their survival. Only some 25,000 Yanomamo are believed to be left in the rain forests of Amazonia Ñ about two-thirds of them in Venezuela, the remainder across the border in Brazil. (186)

Testosterone Dip May Predict Weight Loss In HIV Cases
Declining testosterone in HIV-positive men may be an early signal for the dangerous weight loss that occurs when AIDS develops, according to a Johns Hopkins study

Chemists Develop Probe To Detect Changes In Imaging Agents Inside Body
Chemists at the University of Cincinnati have found a way to determine what happens to medical imaging agents as they travel through the body and accumulate inside various tissues and organs. For example,a heart imaging agent which can detect blockages in blood flow follow in a heart attack.The new probes should help radiologists and chemists develop better and safer imaging agents in the future.

Cornell Students Win National Food Product Competition With Stir-Ins
Cornell food science students won the national championship at the Institute of Food Technologists' annual student food product competition

Theory Bolsters Search For Brown Dwarfs And Giant Planets
Scientists today publish a first theoretical study of the newly discovered -- and the only confirmed --

Sexual Assault Associated With Increased Rate Of Attempted Suicide
A survey of nearly 3,000 North Carolina residents, reported in the June 13 Archives of General Psychiatry, has found that women with a history of sexual assault are six times more likely to attempt suicide at some point in their lives, according to a study at Duke University Medical Center

New UV Lamp Zaps Bugs In Industrial Fluids
A new lamp that produces potent ultraviolet emission has been developed for treating industrial fluids, such as those used in machining, bilge water and liquids from other sources. The product is a joint effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory andTriton Thallasic Technolgies.

Dietary Beta Carotene May Decrease Risk Of Prostate Cancer In Smokers
A new study by University at Buffalo epidemiologists suggests that beta carotene, or a dietary component associated with it, may reduce a smokerÕs risk of developing prostate cancer. Researchers found no reduction in risk with beta carotene among men who had never smoked. Results of the study will be presented tomorrow at the annual meeting of the Society for Epidemiologic Research

UF Economist Optimistic U.S. Growers Will Get NAFTA Relief
Professor John Van Sickle a University of Florida commodities expert says he is optimistic the U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC) will give relief to the nation's vegetable growers, hit hard the past two years by surging imports of tomatoes and peppers from Mexico.

Photos Reveal Human Impact On Grand Canyon During Past Century
A U.S. Geological Survey scientist and crew of 14 researchers and river guides spent 100 days on the Colorado River rephotographing the Grand Canyon as documented in photos a century ago by the Robert Brewster Stanton expedition. Human impact on canyonenvironment since 1890 has been

From Pollutant To Flavor Enhancer, Cornell Scientists Relish New Role For Sauerkraut Brine
Thanks to charismatic enzymes and environmental concerns, the brine from processed sauerkraut no longer may pose an ecological threat

Mutate Or Die: New Polymerase Gives Desperate Yeast An Option
Biologists have discovered the first of a new DNA polymerase family: A last-gasp enzyme that yeast cells turn to when all attempts to fix damaged DNA have failed.Researchers created in yeast the type of damage that sunlight does to our own DNA to show how the enzyme works

Solar Incognita: Scientists Map Unexplored Part Of Sun's Interior
A researchers have produced the first map that provides a detailed view of an important part of the sun's interior, the convection zone. It lies directly beneath the photosphere, and is the source of sunspots, solar flares and other solar activity that affect Earth.These are some of the first results from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, a joint $1.1 billion project of NASA and the European Space Agency.

Polar Explorer Frederick Cook Collection Given To Ohio State
The papers, letters and documents of Frederick Albert Cook, the first American to explore both the North and South Polar regions, will get a new home at Ohio State. Cook is best known for his claim that he reached the North Pole before another American explorer, Robert Peary, claimed to have done so

When Parents Argue, They Are More Likely To Fight With Kids, Too
On days that parents bicker, both mothers and fathers are much more likely to also have tense days with their children, according to a new Cornell University/University of Arizona study

Mental Stress Testing Detects Patients At High Risk For Cardiac Events Missed By Standard Exercise Testing
Patients with a history of coronary artery disease who test positive on experimental mental stress tests are almost three times more likely to suffer a serious cardiac event than those who don't, according to a new study by Duke University Medical Centerresearchers

Race Plus Roaches: A Breathtaking Link
African-Americans are far more likely than Caucasians to develop asthma linked to cockroach sensitivity, according to research from the Johns Hopkins Children's Center

New Discovery About Genes Has Implications For Genetic Therapy
Researchers have discovered that introns -- parts of genes long thought to play no role in conveying genetic information -- may well be the key to determining where new information is transferred into a gene. If true, the finding has important implications for potential future use in guiding genetic therapy

Cornell Food Engineers Redefine The Physics Of Microwave Cooking
Consumers who want fresh microwaved foods that are supposed to be crisp and taste better can look forward to improvement, thanks to new Cornell University studies

New Study Looks At Movement of Ozone-Depleting Chemicals in Stratosphere
A new study by government and university researchers shows how air moves chemicals between different regions of the stratosphere, which may help scientists better understand the depletion of the ozone layer, the Commerce Department's National Oceanic andAtmospheric Administration announced. The findings could also affect assessment of the environmental impact of a proposed fleet of supersonic aircraft and the possible ozone-depleting pollutants they emit

Major Upgrade To Arecibo Observatory Passes Critical Milestone
Arecibo Observatory, the world's largest radio-radar telescope, has completed a major upgrade that makes it even more sensitive and powerful, for studies of objects in the universe.

Testosterone May Affect Learning Skills; May Be Put In Tablet Form
Johns Hopkins scientists studying testosterone-replacement therapy report that the primary male sex hormone may affect some learning skills, including improving visual and perceptual abilities.

Study Reveals African Hornbill Is Link To Rainforest Regeneration
After two years of research deep inside a primordial, West African rainforst, Bay Area scientists believe they've found an important key to tropical forest regeneration in a large, Toucan-like bird called the hornbill. It is the only forest species that moves through deforested areas, dropping fruit-baring tree seeds as it goes, fostering the first stages of reforestation

X-ray Galaxy Clusters Evolve On CTC's SP
Scientists have successfully modeled the evolution of a massive cluster of X-ray galaxies using the 512 processor IBM SP at the Cornell Theory Center. With CTC's SP, computational astrophysicist Paul Bode (Physics, MIT) and astronomer Renyue Cen (Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton) are now able to explore the evolution of these large-scale structures in the universe with simulations of unprecedented complexity and resolution.

University of Cincinnati Biologists Find First Terrestrial Ecosystem That Survives Without Sun's Energy
University of Cincinnati biologists report in the June 27, 1996 issue of Science that an unusual Romanian Cave ecosystem survives and thrives without the sun. The system is most similar to deep sea hydrothermal vent communities. The news summary includes a

Audiologists Test Breakthrough In Hearing Care For Children
University of Arizona audiologists are testing what promises to be a long-awaited breakthrough in hearing care for children -- a fully automatic compact hearing aid that digitally processes sound. Researchers at the UA Grunewald-Blitz Children's Clinic say the DigiFocus is a boon to very young children who cannot make adjustments to their hearing aids -- and who are at a critical stage in learning speech, language and social skills

Transgenic Rice Plants Resist Insects, Drought And Salt Damage
Biologists at Cornell and Washington universities have genetically engineered and successfully field tested rice plants that resist some of the most destructive insects as well as salt and drought damage.

Oral Contraceptives And Sexuality In University Women
A study on the effects of oral contraceptives on the sexuality of university women revealed unprecedented results suggesting women who take triphasic Orthonovum pills enjoy greater sexual desire and satisfaction than other pill users and non pill-users.Published in Archives of Sexual Behavior, the study by San Francisco State University psychology professor Norma McCoy analyzed the responses of 364 college women between 18 and 26

A Mind Reader? This Computer Understands What You Really Want
An experimental program makes the leap from

Harvard Researchers Find Cholera Bacterium May Take Instruction From A Virus
Two Harvard Medical School scientists have found that a cholera pathogen (Vibrio cholera 01) may pick up one of its most lethal patches of DNA-the gene coding for the cholera toxin-from a virus, CTX phage.

Discovery Of Cellular "Suicide Weapon" Opens Way To Control Of Autoimmune Disorders
A key enzyme that acts as a

Computer Program Designed To Improve Airlines Inspections by Identifying Why Errors Occur
University at Buffalo industrial engineers are developing a computer program that will allow airline maintenance workers to determine why errors occur and to see how other airlines have solved similar problems. Work on the Proactive Error Reduction Syste program is being funded by the Federal Aviation Administration. Office of Aviation Medicine, is based on a human-factors approach to solving errors

Use Of Surfectant Therapy Widens Gap In Death Rate Of Black And White Newborns
After FDA approval in 1990 of surfactant therapy to treat breathing problems of premature infants, the death rate of these babies dropped significantly. But a study by Washington University School of Medicine researchers found surfectant therapy use widens the gap in the death rate of black and white newborns

Anthropology News Tips From Johns Hopkins
Anthropology news tips from Johns Hopkins: o food and freedom; American eating habits o case study in immigrant assimilation o property in post-communist Romania o who's cleaning up nuclear weapons plants o abortion debate in Ireland o a gulf between thehomeless and their health professionals

Can Computer Chip Makers Reduce Environmental Impact?
Researchers at Stanford, University of Arizona and MIT, who are harnessing one of the industry's own products ¯ computer- aided design tools ¯ to reduce the environmental impacts of chip manufacturing, have joined forces to form a

Study Finds TV Portrayals Of CPR Are Misleading
A study of three popular television programs, reported in the June 13 issue of The New England Journal of Medicine, has found that TV portrayals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are two to five times more successful than real-life situations, according to researchers at the Durham VA Medical Center, Duke University Medical Center and the University of Chicago

Plasma Technology For Cold Cleanups
Using free radicals generated from a cold plasma, Los Alamos scientists and their industrial partners have demonstrated a novel approach to environmental cleanups. The process is likened to incineration without the heat.

Scientists Produce Smooth Gold Surfaces With Many Potential Uses
Physicists at Ohio State University have found a way to make very smooth gold surfaces that have a variety of potential applications. One application would be to make mirrors in X- ray telescopes. Another possibility is to use the surfaces to support biological specimens so that their individual molecules can be studied

Enticed By A Chemical Tease, Female Beetles Are Rewarded With A Nuptial Gift To Protect The Next Generation
Spanish fly aphrodisiac really works for guys -- bugs that is, Cornell researchers report in Proceedings of the NAS

Those Days Of Cloudy Wine ­ And Other Drinks ­ May Be Over, According to New Cornell Research
American consumers prefer their favorite cool beverages unclouded, like their weather, while drink makers hanker for a long shelf life. Thanks to new Cornell University research, cloudy wine may be a thing of the past

Astronomer Finds Evidence Of Binary Black Holes
From studying the velocities of gases surrounding blackholes in distant galaxies, University of Nebraska-Lincoln astronomer Martin Gaskell has found evidence that pairs of giant black holes exist in many galaxies. His conclusion is based on changes in the apparent velocities of gases as two black holes move about each other.

Chair-Mounted Split Keyboard Helps Reduce Typing Risks
Although expensive and complicated to adjust, a split keyboard mounted onto the arms of a worker's chair can help reduce a typist's risk of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and other cumulative trauma disorders, according to a new Cornell University study.

UB Study Finds Depressive Symptoms In Women May Lead To Alcohol Problems; Relationship Reverses In Men
One of the few longitudinal studies to investigate the relationship between gender, depression and alcohol problems in a large community sample has shown that in women, depressive symptoms may lead to alcohol problems over time, while in men, problems wi

DNA Techniques Allow Scientists To Become Pollution Detectives.
With the oft-mentioned DNA

Candidate Vaccine May Protect Against Lyme Disease, Researchers Say
A new candidate vaccine may provide protection against Lyme disease, even after infection by the bacterium responsible for the disease researchers say. Researchers at Texas A&M University and and MedImmune, Inc., say animal tests suggest the vaccine can clear bacteria as long as four days after infection.

Harvard Researchers Find Genetic Key To T Cell Differentiation
Harvard researchers find genetic key to T cell differentiation In the June 28 Cell, Harvard researcher Laurie Glimcher and her coworkers report their discovery of a gene that drives T lymphocytes to mature into specialized subtypes, which then may play acrucial role in a variety of immune system disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.

Plants Can Substitute Cell Wall Sugar
A team of researchers from the University of Georgia has shown for the first time that an enzyme, faced with the absence of a specific sugar in a cell wall, replaces it with one largely unknown in plants. The study was published today in Science

New Colorectal Cancer Treatment Available
For the first time in nearly 40 years there is a promising new drug in the United States approved by the FDA for the treatment of colorectal cancer. The drug, called CPT-11 or Camptosar, was cleared on June 14 by the FDA, under its accelerated approval regulations, for use as a second line treatment in patients whose disease has recurred or progressed after standard therapy

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