Brightsurf Science News & Current Events Archive (June 2020)

Science news and science current events archive June, 2020.

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Top Science News & Current Event Articles from June 2020

Dieting? Studies weigh in on opportunities and risks
Get the latest research findings on fad diets, losing weight and healthful eating at NUTRITION 2020 LIVE ONLINE, a virtual conference featuring leading nutrition experts from around the world.

'Unparalleled' discovery of ancient skeletons sheds light on mystery of when people started eating maize
The 'unparalleled' discovery of remarkably well-preserved ancient skeletons in Central American rock shelters has shed new light on when maize became a key part of people's diet on the continent.

New method to identify genes that can drive development of brain tumors
Researchers at Uppsala University have developed a method for identifying functional mutations and their effect on genes relevant to the development of glioblastoma. The results show that a specific, evolutionarily conserved, mutation in the vicinity of SEMA3C disrupts the binding of certain proteins whose task is to bind genes and regulate their activity.

What do electric vehicle drivers think of the charging network they use?
A new study provides the best insight yet into the attitudes of electric vehicle (EV) drivers about the existing network of charging stations. The findings in some cases contradict conventional wisdom about driver preferences.

Human presence weakens social relationships of giraffes
Living close to human settlements disturbs the social networks of giraffes. They have weaker bonds with other giraffes and fewer interactions with other members of the species, an international study led by the University of Zurich on the social structure of over 500 female giraffes in Tanzania has shown.

Fecal transplants show promise as treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
A new study from Lawson Health Research Institute and Western University suggests that fecal transplants could be used as a treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The randomized controlled trial published in The American Journal of Gastroenterology found that fecal transplants in patients with NAFLD result in a reduction in how easily pathogens and other unwanted molecules pass through the human gut and into circulation, known as intestinal permeability.

How magnetic fields and 3D printers will create the pills of tomorrow
Doctors could soon be administering an entire course of treatment for life-threatening conditions with a 3D printed capsule controlled by magnetic fields thanks to advances made by University of Sussex researchers.

Ancient micrometeoroids carried specks of stardust, water to asteroid 4 Vesta
Researchers at Washington University in St. Louis are the first to study presolar materials that landed on a planet-like body. Their findings may help solve the mystery: where did all the water on Earth come from?

A rare heart bone is discovered in chimpanzees
Experts from the University of Nottingham have discovered that some chimpanzees have a bone in their heart, which could be vital in managing their health and conservation.

Keep moving to prevent major mobility disability
According to research, being physically inactive is the strongest risk factor for disability as we age. A team of researchers created a study to examine the effects of performing light physical activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on older adults. The researchers were interested in studying how participating in these different intensities of activity, and whether a person spreads their physical activity throughout the day, affects the chances for developing a major mobility disability.

Heart attack in a dish: a 3D model
Researchers in the Medical University of South Carolina Clemson Bioengineering program report in Nature Biomedical Engineering that they have developed human cardiac organoids that model what happens in a heart attack in a microtissue less than 1 millimeter in diameter. This is the first model that accurately recapitulates the complex tissue dysfunction after a heart attack with multiple human cell types in one organoid.

Up to 45 percent of SARS-CoV-2 infections may be asymptomatic
Asymptomatic infections may have played a significant role in the early and ongoing spread of COVID-19 and highlight the need for expansive testing and contact tracing to mitigate the pandemic.

Carbon emission from permafrost soils underestimated by 14%
Picture 500 million cars stacked in rows. That's how much carbon -- about 1,000 petagrams, or one billion metric tons - -is locked away in Arctic permafrost.

The nexus between economic inequality and social welfare
A new interpretation of the concept of inequity - in the sense of unequal distributions across individuals, time and states of the world -- and a new, general measure of welfare from a study just published in the Journal of Economic Surveys, with the contribution of the CMCC Foundation.

During the COVID-19 outbreak in China, marked emission reductions, but unexpected air pollution
Using a combination of satellite and ground-based observations to study air pollution changes in China during COVID-19 lockdowns, researchers report up to 90% reductions of certain emissions, but also an unexpected increase in particulate matter pollution.

University of Melbourne to build and launch innovative satellite
Funding helps develop cutting edge space capabilities in Australia and collaboration with multiple Australian space industry companies and the Italian Space Agency

Soap bubbles pollinated a pear orchard without damaging delicate flowers
Soap bubbles facilitated the pollination of a pear orchard by delivering pollen grains to targeted flowers, demonstrating that this whimsical technique can successfully pollinate fruit-bearing plants. The study, from the Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology in Nomi, Japan, and published June 17 in the journal iScience, suggests that soap bubbles may present a low-tech complement to robotic pollination technology designed to supplement the work of vanishing bees.

No disadvantages to having kids early
Maturing and reproducing early hardly has any downsides. If you're a wild boar, that is.

Achievement isn't why more men are majoring in physics, engineering and computer science
Researchers at New York University's Steinhardt School found that the reason there are more undergraduate men than women majoring in physics, engineering and computer science is not because men are higher achievers. On the contrary, the scholars found that men with very low high-school GPAs in math and science and very low SAT math scores were choosing these math-intensive majors just as often as women with much higher math and science achievement.

Adolescents from disadvantaged neighborhoods show gene regulation differences
An 18-year study of 2,000 children born in England and Wales found that young adults raised in communities marked by more economic deprivation, physical dilapidation, social disconnection, and danger display differences in the epigenome -- the proteins and chemical compounds that regulate the activity of their genes. The findings suggest that gene regulation may be one biological pathway through which neighborhood disadvantage 'gets under the skin' to engender long-term health disparities.

Online program improves insomnia in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors
In a study published today by Pediatric Blood and Cancer, researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute show that an online program developed specifically for AYA cancer survivors can significantly alleviate insomnia and improve overall quality of life.

A new synthesis of poly heterocyclic compounds: Expected anti-cancer reagents
In this article, we have described a new practical cyclocondensation synthesis for a series of [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-c]pyrido[3,2-e] pyrimidine and pyrido[2',3':4,5] pyrimido[6,1-c][1,2,4] triazine from 2-amino-3-cyano-4.6-diarylpyridines.

Artificial intelligence classifies colorectal cancer using IR imaging
Infrared microscopy can automatically detect the type of intestinal tumour within only 30 minutes. These results are then used to make targeted therapy decisions.

AI dual-stain approach improved accuracy, efficiency of cervical cancer screening
In a new study, a computer algorithm improved the accuracy and efficiency of cervical cancer screening compared with cytology (Pap test), the current standard for follow-up of women who test positive with primary human papillomavirus (HPV) screening. The algorithm was developed and the study conducted by investigators at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, in collaboration with researchers from several other institutions.

Pantera leo's family tree takes shape
Once upon a time, lions were the world's most widespread mammals. Now we know more about their genealogy -- and that could make it easier to help the species survive.

International team of scientists warns of increasing threats posed by invasive species
URI Professor Laura Meyerson part of a team of researchers published in the journal Biological Reviews for a study on proliferation of alien invasive species and the dangers they pose.

Report points to intergroup tensions from different interpretations of social distancing
Ambiguity over social distancing as lockdown eases over the coming months could lead to tensions between groups warn researchers.

Bleaching affects aquarium corals, too
A world-first study examines the temperature thresholds of Australian aquarium corals and finds they are at risk under climate change.

Stanford researchers reveal air pollution's connection to infant mortality
The study of sub-Saharan Africa finds that a relatively small increase in airborne particles significantly increase infant mortality rates. A cost-effective solution may lie in an exotic-sounding proposal. WATCH RELATED VIDEO: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zq2i68rekKw&feature=youtu.be

Artificial intelligence identifies, locates seizures in real-time
Research from the McKelvey School of Engineering at Washington University in St. Louis has shown that understanding brain activity as a network instead of readings from an EEG allow for more accurate and efficient detection of seizures in real-time.

Oncotarget: IQGAP1 control of centrosome function defines variants of breast cancer
The cover for issue 26 of Oncotarget features Figure 6, 'Mislocalization of IQGAP1-BRCA1 in human TNBC tumors phenocopies the dominant mutants and the TNBC cells,' by Osman, et al. and reported that IQGAP1 is a signaling scaffold implicated in TNBC, but its mechanism is unknown.

On the hunt for megafauna in North America
Research from Curtin University has found that pre-historic climate change does not explain the extinction of megafauna in North America at the end of the last Ice Age.

Smart molecules could be key to computers with 100-times bigger memories
Researchers have discovered a single molecule 'switch' that can act like a transistor and offers the potential to store binary information -- such as the 1s and 0s used in classical computing.

New research deepens understanding of Earth's interaction with the solar wind
A team of scientists at PPPL and Princeton University has reproduced a process that occurs in space to deepen understanding of what happens when the Earth encounters the solar wind.

A satisfying romantic relationship may improve breast cancer survivors' health
Breast cancer survivors in romantic relationships who feel happy and satisfied with their partners may be at lower risk for a host of health problems, new research suggests.

UCI scientists engineer human cells with squid-like transparency
In a paper published today in Nature Communications, scientists at the University of California, Irvine described how they drew inspiration from cephalopod skin to endow mammalian cells with tunable transparency and light-scattering characteristics.

Collaborative research addresses need for conservation of springs in drying climate
Hydrogeologist Abe Springer contributed results and implications on springs as refugia from his research group's springs ecohydrology research and helped develop a geomorphological-based classification system for springs ecosystems.

COVID-19 in pediatric surgical patients at 3 US children's hospitals
This study assessed how many pediatric patients presenting for surgery at three tertiary care children's hospitals across the US had COVID-19.

Analysis of Seattle EMS and hospital data indicates low COVID infection risk from bystander CPR
Analysis of Seattle emergency medical services (EMS) and hospital data from Jan. 1 to April 15, 2020, indicates bystander CPR is a lifesaving endeavor whose benefits outweigh the risks of COVID-19 infection, according to a new article published yesterday in the American Heart Association's flagship journal Circulation.

Artificial brains may need sleep too
Neural networks that become unstable after continuous periods of self-learning will return to stability after exposed to sleep like states, according to a study of simulated spiking neural networks, suggesting that even artificial brains need to nap occasionally.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
If renal remission is achieved therapeutically in cases of lupus nephritis (LN), the 10-year survival rate increases significantly. Successful therapy is therefore of great importance. As a recent presentation at the ERA-EDTA Congress showed, this can be achieved by additional administration of belimumab.

Red tape may have a silver lining for micro businesses -- new study
Small business owners who complain about excessive regulation may be overlooking the business benefits it brings, according to a new study from the University of Bath.

Ischemic stroke rates decrease during COVID-19 pandemic
Research reveals fewer people have been admitted to stroke centers in Michigan and northwest Ohio since the onslaught of the COVID-19 pandemic, and significantly fewer patients received a mechanical thrombectomy for their ischemic stroke.

Novel DNA analysis will help to identify food origin and counterfeit food in the future
Estonian scientists are developing a DNA-based method of analysis that enables them to identify food components and specify the origin of a foodstuff.

How rod-shaped particles might distract an out-of-control COVID immune response
A long-ignored white blood cell may be central to the immune system overreaction that is the most common cause of death for COVID-19 patients--and University of Michigan researchers found that rod-shaped particles can take them out of circulation.

News reports of education 'achievement gaps' may perpetuate stereotypes of Black Americans
A new study finds that TV news reporting about racial achievement gaps led viewers to report exaggerated stereotypes of Black Americans as lacking education and may have increased implicit stereotyping of Black students as less competent than White students.

Hibernation in mice: Are humans next?
University of Tsukuba and RIKEN researchers identified cells in the brain that can induce a hibernation-like state in mice or rats, species that do not naturally hibernate. In this state, oxygen consumption, body temperature, heart rate, and respiration were all lowered, and animals spontaneously recovered without any tissue damage. Inducing this state in humans could have several medical benefits, especially for buying time in emergency medical situations and extending the life of organs for transplant.

Study links elevated levels of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) with breast cancer risk
Hollings Cancer Center researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) and colleagues assessed the connection between dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and breast cancer risk. The study was part of a larger decade-long prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer screening trial (PLCO) designed and sponsored by the National Cancer Institute.

A salt solution toward better bioelectronics
A water-stable dopant enhances and stabilizes the performance of electron-transporting organic electrochemical transistors.

Scientists discover three-dimensional structure in smaller water droplet
A research team led by Prof. JIANG Ling and Prof. YANG Xueming from the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, in collaboration with Prof. LI Jun from Tsinghua University, has now revealed that the noncyclic 3D structure of water clusters begins to exist with pentamers at low finite temperatures.

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