Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

August 07, 2001
First light: astronomers use distant quasar to probe cosmic 'dark age,' universe origins
Using light from the most distant object known, astronomers have found traces of the first generation of atoms in the universe, 14 billion light years from Earth.

Patent rights stimulate R&D, but fall short in helping poor countries obtain lifesaving drugs
Intellectual property protection is needed to encourage risk taking and innovation in large research-based pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology firms.

Glushko-Samuelson Foundation, Cognitive Science Society select Richard M. Shiffrin to receive Rumelhart Prize
The Glushko-Samuelson Foundation and Cognitive Science Society select Indiana University Psychology Professor Richard Shiffrin for $100,000 David E.

Teamwork characterizes surgical teams that are faster learners of new procedures, suggests O.R. study
Comparing leading surgical teams that began adopting a new procedure, researchers suggest that those emphasizing organizational learning and teamwork learn faster than others with equivalent levels of experience, according to a study published in a journal of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMSĀ®).

Tracking unexplained illness and death could help identify emerging infectious diseases
A method called prospective surveillance, which studies unexplained illness and death due to possibly infectious causes, allowed for earlier detection of emerging and reemerging infections in 73 percent of cases, Yale researchers conclude in a new study.

NASA's Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program advances propulsion technology with successful engine test series
NASA's Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program is making advances in propulsion technology with this third and final successful engine hot-fire designed to test electro-mechanical actuators.

Russian, PNNL scientists advance US seed production, oil remediation
Scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and three Russian organizations are conducting field tests this month in Washington, Oregon and Montana to determine the commercial potential of two products -- an oil-eating microbe to clean up oil-contaminated soils and a plant growth stimulator.

Adolescents and young adults at high risk for deadly meningitis, says University of Pittsburgh-led study
Adolescents and young adults have an unusually high risk of severe and sometimes fatal bacterial meningitis, according to a study led by the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health (GSPH) and published in the Aug.

Duke study highlights failure to improve representation of women and elderly in cardiovascular clinical trials
Despite efforts during the past decade to reverse the situation, women and the elderly remain significantly underrepresented in cardiovascular clinical trials, according to a new study by Duke University Medical Center researchers.

ADHD and tic disorders in children corrected with guanfacine, Yale researchers find
Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorders showed a 37 percent improvement when they took the medication guanfacine, an alternative to drugs like Ritalin, which can worsen tics, Yale researchers found in a new study published in the July issue of American Journal of Psychiatry.

Tips from the Journals of the American Society for Microbiology: August 2001
Genetically engineered poliovirus proves effective vaccine against SIV. Bacteria induce multidrug resistance in each other.

INEEL's Super-Hard Steel one of this year's top 100 technological achievements
One of the hardest metallic materials known, Super Hard Steel has been recognized as one of the 100 most significant technological achievements for the year 2001 by R&D Magazine.

'Gold Bug' sheds light on how some gold deposits formed
Some gold deposits found close to the Earth's crust may be ancient microbial waste, according to noted microbiologist Derek Lovley at UMass.

NHLBI study finds brief counseling by health professionals boosts patients' physical fitness
Just 3 hours of advice and counseling by doctors and other health care professionals over 2 years can boost sedentary adults' physical fitness, according to a new study sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

Survival of quaking aspen groves a complex problem
Quaking aspen groves in the American West have been on the decline since the beginning of serious settlement and exploitation, but recent studies of California aspen by Penn State geographers suggest that the aspen decrease is more complicated than previously thought.

Hebrew University researchers seek to 'inactivate' cancer cells
A technique for controlling cancer by inducing it to remain in a dormant state has been developed by researchers at the Lautenberg Center for General and Tumor Immunology at the Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School in Jerusalem.

Study offers relief for first-time blood donors
Folks who feel faint at the prospect of donating blood should take heart: a new study suggests a little music and a movie could reduce the feelings of dizziness, nausea and other symptoms occasionally experienced by first-time blood donors.

Ethanol from corn faulted as energy waster
Neither increases in government subsidies to corn-based ethanol fuel nor hikes in the price of petroleum can overcome what one Cornell University agricultural scientist calls a fundamental input-yield problem: It takes more energy to make ethanol from grain than the combustion of ethanol produces.

IU Professor to receive $100,000 prize
An Indiana University psychology professor, nationally-known for his work in cognitive science, will receive the $100,000 David E.
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