Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

March 04, 2003
New Jersey chemist wins national award for drug discoveries
A.K. Ganguly of Upper Montclair, N.J., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for designing compounds to treat disease, including cancer and high cholesterol.

Mutants from a lowly weed may solve maladies
Mutants from a lowly weed. That's where many solutions to maladies - from salt stress in plants to HIV in humans - may lie in wait for scientists to discover.

Georgia chemist wins national award for computer-based research
Henry F. Schaefer III of Athens, Ga., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for his achievements in applying the power of computing to solve unwieldy questions in chemistry, such as how DNA reacts to radiation.

Mathematical models reveal 'molten' and 'glassy' states of RNA
Mathematical models have given physicists a new look at DNA's chemical counterpart, RNA.

California chemist wins national award for drug discoveries
Paul J. Reider of Thousand Oaks, Calif., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for his pivotal role in the development of new therapies for AIDS, asthma and arthritis.

Wilmington chemist wins national award for environmentally friendly processes
Leo E. Manzer of Wilmington, Del., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for his wide-ranging contributions to the development of more benign industrial processes, such as replacements for ozone-damaging chloroflurocarbons, or CFCs.

Pacific Northwest chemist wins national award for studies of biological systems
Richard D. Smith of Richland Wash., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for his achievements in developing ever finer tools with which to study and understand biological processes.

USC researchers show oral drug turns on silenced genes, turns off cancer
Oral administration of a drug that inhibits a process known as DNA methylation results in a reduction in the size of malignant tumors in mice, according to a team of researchers led by scientists from the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California.

Purdue chemist wins national award for innovative education efforts
George M. Bodner of West Lafayette, Ind., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for his achievements, both in the classroom and laboratory, in shaping how educators can more effectively teach chemistry and other sciences.

New potential therapy for sickle cell disease
A study from Children's Hospital Boston gives intriguing preliminary evidence that inhaling the gas nitric oxide may relieve the vaso-occlusive pain crises suffered by patients with sickle-cell disease.

New hints into development of osteoporosis
Defects in a protein called alphaV beta3 ntegrin appear to contribute to the development of osteoporosis, and these effects can be reversed by enhancing a protein called macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), according to research at Washington University School of Medicine in St.

Penn State chemist wins national award for milestone in research
David L. Allara of State College, Pa., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for his role in developing fundamental tools with which to study organic surfaces - such as interfaces for adhesives, biomedical implants, and lubricants.

In elderly patients, combination chemotherapy no more effective than individual drugs
For elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), combination chemotherapy with the drugs vinorelbine and gemcitabine appears to be no more effective than either drug alone, but is more toxic, according to a study in the March 5 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

Maine chemist wins national award for research and mentoring
Ronald L. Christensen of Brunswick, Maine, will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for his insights into how plants capture light energy - studies he has conducted using Bowdoin College undergraduates as research associates.

Los Angeles chemist wins national award for computer mimics in drug research
Kendall N. Houk of Los Angeles will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for using computers to understand how reactions essential to life occur.

Texas chemist wins national award for vitamin, other natural products research
A. Ian Scott of College Station, Texas, will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for uncovering and recreating the processes nature uses to build vitamins, enzymes and other compounds potentially useful in medicine.

Berkeley chemist wins national award for chemical models
William H. Miller of Berkeley, Calif., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for his achievements in developing mathematical models to study and predict chemical reactions.

Conservation Management Institute developing national database for chronic wasting disease
Chronic Wasting Disease, a fatal brain disease of white-tailed deer and elk, threatens wildlife management throughout the United States.

Physics in Philadelphia: From quarks to quasars
From the smallest scale--quarks, nuclei, atoms--all the way up to the largest scale--that of galaxies and the universe as a whole--the latest findings in physics research will be presented at the American Physical Society April meeting.

An extra hour of sleep can make a big difference for kids
The modest sleep loss that results from going to bed an hour later than usual can compromise children's alertness and brain functioning, a new study suggests.

Delaware chemists win national award for environmentally benign insecticide
Stephen F. McCann and his colleagues Charles Harrison, George Lahm, Rafael Shapiro and Keith Wing of E.I.

Study examines acupuncture to alleviate symptoms for advanced colorectal cancer patients
Colorectal cancer patients with end-stage disease often suffer from physical and psychological symptoms that negatively affect their quality of life and require frequent hospital stays.

Screening baby food for GM ingredients
Detecting the slightest traces of GM ingredients in baby foods to enable consumers to make an informed choice.

Pacific Northwest chemist wins national award for computer-based research
David A. Dixon of Richland, Wash., was honored Jan. 16 by the American Chemical Society for using computers to understand the reactions of fluorine, including the design of environmentally benign alternates to chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs.

Boston chemist wins national award for research with enzymes, antibiotics
Christopher T. Walsh of Boston will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for his broad-ranging insights into how the enzymes of organisms drive chemical reactions, including how the antibiotic of last resort, vancomycin, can be defeated by bacterial enzymes.

Devolution remains popular despite problems with Good Friday Agreement
Devolution remains the most popular constitutional option in Northern Ireland, despite the problems with the Belfast agreement and growing suspicions between Protestants and Catholics, according to new research published today.

Baton Rouge chemist wins national award as mentor for minority students
Isiah M. Warner of Baton Rouge, La., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for his undaunted efforts to guide minority and disadvantaged students toward academic and professional achievement.

Pregnancy prevention efforts rely on neighborhood ties
Successful neighborhood-based efforts to prevent teen pregnancy may depend on whether these efforts include respected neighborhood leaders who can build partnerships with institutions like congregations that already have strong community ties, according to a study of a community-based pregnancy prevention initiative in Oklahoma City.

San Diego chemist wins national award for innovative drug design
K.C. Nicolaou of La Jolla, Calif., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for directing the groundbreaking synthesis of two molecules, found in nature, with potential for treating disease.

Ann Arbor chemist wins national award for extracting sulfur from fuel
Ralph T. Yang of Ann Arbor, Mich., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for developing new ways to separate and purify compounds, such as sulfur contaminants in fuel, by trapping them on the surfaces of material for removal.

A cancer diagnosis can spark a cascade of health-related lifestyle changes
More than 65 percent of adult cancer patients in western Washington report making one or more health-related lifestyle changes in response to their cancer diagnosis, and almost all overwhelmingly feel that such changes improve their health and well-being.

Allentown chemist wins national award for plastic polymer inventions
Lloyd M. Robeson of Allentown, Pa., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for his achievements in polymer research, particularly in polymer blends such as a moldable compound for orthopedic splints and in membrane separations of gases such as oxygen and nitrogen.

The elusive preeclampsia factor discovered?
Preeclampsia, the major cause of premature birth and perinatal child death accounts for approximately 15% of all maternal deaths.

Other highlights of the March 5 JNCI
Other highlights in the March 5 issue of JNCI include a study suggesting that higher plasma levels of folate and possibly vitamin B6 may reduce the risk of breast cancer, a study suggesting that patients with cystic fibrosis have an increased risk of digestive tract cancers, a study showing that certain treatments may help boost the antiangiogenic potential of blood plasma, and a study showing that the oral administration of the drug zebularine can reactivate silenced genes.

Rochester chemist wins national award for research with petroleum catalysts
William D. Jones of Rochester, N.Y., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for his discoveries about the early steps in turning petroleum into products such as plastic.

Washington-area chemist wins national award for free-radical research
Marilyn Jacox of Gaithersburg, Md., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for broadening our understanding of free radicals, highly reactive molecules made both in nature and by humans.

Indiana chemist wins national award for semiconductor research
Jillian M. Buriak of West Lafayette, Ind., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for developing ways to attach molecular signals directly to silicon chips, with an eye toward ever smaller electronic devices and perhaps even biological implants.

Pennsylvania chemist wins national award for drug research
Roger M. Freidinger of Lansdale, Pa., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for his achievements in designing and making compounds to treat disease, especially drugs based on the building blocks of proteins.

St. Louis chemist wins national award for spinning, shapely nuclei
Demetrios G. Sarantites of St. Louis, Mo., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for gaining insights about the nuclei of atoms and how they decay by spinning them so rapidly they assume exotic shapes.

Tamoxifen's effectiveness depends on level of tumor protein
The effectiveness of the breast cancer drug tamoxifen may depend on tumor expression levels of a protein called AIB1, according to a study in the March 5 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. The study found that, in breast cancer patients receiving tamoxifen, high levels of AIB1 were associated with worse disease-free survival.

Boulder chemist wins national award for studies of atmosphere
John Birks of Boulder, Colo., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for his contributions to our understanding of the earth's atmosphere, including the effects of ozone depletion and nuclear explosions.

Rutgers researcher: Brains in dyslexic children can be 'rewired' to improve reading skills
In a scientific first, researchers have shown that the brains of dyslexic children can be

Cincinnati educator wins national award for chemistry teaching
Linda K. Ford of Cincinnati, Ohio, will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for her innovative and insightful approach to teaching high school students about chemistry and its role in everyday life.

San Diego, Harvard chemists wins national award for innovative ways to make drug candidates
Phil S. Baran of Cambridge, Mass., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for his groundbreaking synthesis of two molecules, found in nature, with potential for treating disease.

Hibernating black bears shed light on treatments for osteoporosis
Wild black bears may hold some secrets to preserving bone in humans.

Many depressed patients have low satisfaction with care
Antidepressant drugs are the most prevalent, and often the only, treatment offered to patients newly diagnosed with depression, even when mental health therapy is readily available, according to a new study.

Current theory on cause of kidney stones refuted
New research into the origin of kidney stone formation published in the March 1 issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation may well change the direction of the most basic level of research in that area.

Pasadena chemist wins national award for 'molecular mousetrap'
Jesse (Jack) L. Beauchamp of Pasadena, Calif., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for developing innovative ways to analyze molecules, methods that can help track pollutants in the environment, identify compounds in space, and detect explosives.

Chapel Hill chemist wins national award for innovations in plastics
Maurice S. Brookhart of Chapel Hill, N.C., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for developing novel approaches to making new types of polymers, or plastics.

Berkeley chemist wins national award for innovative research
Robert G. Bergman of Berkeley, Calif., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for his discoveries about unusual chemical reactions and how they work.

Berkeley chemist wins national award for research on contact lenses, other products
Clayton J. Radke of Berkeley, Calif., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for his diverse and innovative research at interfaces -- surfaces such as those between contact lens and eye.

Experimental Biology 2003 meets in San Diego April 11-15
More than 12,000 biological and biomedical researchers will gather for the Experimental Biology 2003 meeting in San Diego April 11 - 15.

Diamond film may enable critical new sensors for bioterror
With the help of a novel diamond film developed by chemists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the age of the inexpensive, compact sensor that can continuously scan airports, subways and battlefields for the slightest trace of biological weapons may be at hand.

Urbana chemist wins national award for 'universal' chemistry
Scott E. Denmark of Urbana, Ill., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for developing more efficient ways to make pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals and a host of other possible products.

Los Angeles chemist wins national award for propellant, defense research
Karl O. Christe of Los Angeles will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for his innovative achievements in inorganic chemistry research, including his work on a nitrogen-based propellant and compounds for chemical lasers.

BIDMC researchers identify source of preeclampsia
Researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) have identified a protein that leads to the development of preeclampsia, a serious and potentially life-threatening complication of pregnancy.

World's largest scientific society to hold ACS ProSpectives conference on ADMET in May
The American Chemical Society, the world's largest scientific society, will hold an ACS ProSpectives conference May 4-6 on ADMET in the 21st Century: A Comprehensive Review of the Technology and Strategic Applications.

American Dietetic Association urges Congress to increase the role of nutrition education in schools
The number of overweight and obese children is at an all-time high in the United States.

Dual action of proteins inhibits tamoxifen's cancer-fighting effect
High levels of two proteins known to affect the growth of breast cancer cells also inhibit the cancer-fighting potential of tamoxifen, a drug used to prevent recurrence and new breast cancers in women at risk.

Pasadena chemist wins national award for catalyst research
Robert H. Grubbs of South Pasadena, Calif., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for his innovative insights into catalysts, molecules necessary to make polymers such as plastic and organic molecules such as pharmaceuticals.

Illinois chemist wins national award for milestone in research
Ralph G. Nuzzo of Urbana, Ill., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for his role in developing tools to study organic surfaces such as the interfaces between cells in the body.

Rochester chemist wins national award for outstanding service and research
Richard Eisenberg of Rochester, N.Y., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for his contributions as a researcher, editor and teacher in the field of inorganic chemistry.

Rutgers chemist wins national award for research in high-tech materials
Martha Greenblatt of Highland Park, N.J., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for her remarkable achievements in uncovering and developing new compounds whose potential applications range from computer chips to chocolate chips.

First national programme to combat schistosomiasis launched in Uganda
The first national programme to tackle schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa will be launched today in Uganda by President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni.

Seattle chemist wins national award for discovering new materials
Larry R. Dalton of Seattle will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for discovering new compounds for the next generation of information technology as well as for his efforts to excite the next generation of scientists.

Chicago chemist wins national award for service to society through chemistry
Zafra M. Lerman of Chicago will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for her extraordinary efforts toward the release of imprisoned scientists in China, Russia and the former Soviet Union as well as toward educational opportunities for disadvantaged students.

Pennsylvania chemist wins national award for drug research
Bruce E. Maryanoff of New Hope, Pa., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for his leadership in discovering and developing new drugs to treat disorders, including topiramate for preventing epileptic seizures.

Boston chemist wins national award for protein research
William S. Hancock of Boston will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for developing methods of analyzing proteins that researchers now use the world over to understand the body and to help treat disease.

Study links Smart Start, child-care quality and children's outcomes
North Carolina preschoolers participating in high-quality child-care programs are ahead of their peers who attend low-quality programs, according to a new study of the state program known as Smart Start.

Iowa City chemist wins national award for drug research
Robert J. Linhardt of Iowa City, Iowa, will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for his achievements in understanding and improving pharmaceuticals based on carbohydrates, in particular the clot inhibitor heparin.

Ann Arbor chemist wins national award for drug discovery
Bruce D. Roth of Ann Arbor, Mich., will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for inventing and helping develop the molecule that would become Lipitor(r), the most commonly prescribed drug to lower cholesterol.

Salt Lake City chemist wins national award for petroleum refining discoveries
Peter J. Stang of Salt Lake City will be honored March 25 by the American Chemical Society for discovering and studying new kinds of molecules, knowledge the petroleum industry can use to turn crude oil into useful products more efficiently.

Emotional distress leads children to doubt their competence
Children who experience emotional distress from depression and anxiety are prone to viewing themselves and their world in a negative light -- and this thinking leads them to underestimate their abilities, suggest the results of a long-term study of nearly 1,000 elementary school children.
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