Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

April 20, 2004
Turkish-American relations conference first of its kind
An unprecedented gathering on American soil of Turkish cabinet members and Turkish cultural and business leaders will converge at Stevens Institute of Technology (Hoboken, NJ) for the first Turkish-American Conference on Technology, Business and Culture:

Two molecules work together to aid transport of immune cells, UT Southwestern researchers find
New research findings about T-cell transport shed light on how the normal immune system functions and could have implications in fighting autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, say researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas.

New word for on-the-job health problem: 'presenteeism'
As much as 60 percent of the total health bill to employers is due to on-the-job slowdowns from a variety of medical complaints, according to Cornell University's Institute for Health and Productivity Studies.

Ultra-fast laser allows efficient, accessible nanoscale machining
Think of a microscopic milling machine, capable of cutting just about any material with better-than-laser precision, in 3-D---and at the nanometer scale.

Other highlights in the April 21 JNCI
Other highlights in the April 21 JNCI include a survey of oncology clinicians' attitudes about providing clinical trial results to participants, a study of tamoxifen's effect on mammographic breast density, a study of breast cancer risk for women with certain categories of benign breast disease, and an evaluation of HPV vaccination benefits and cost-effectiveness.

Airplane wings that change shape like a bird's have scales like a fish
To maximize a plane's efficiency over a broader range of flight speeds, Penn State engineers have developed a concept for morphing airplane wings that change shape like a bird's and are covered with a segmented outer skin like the scales of a fish.

NASA successfully launches gravity probe B mission
The NASA space vehicle designed to test two important predictions of Albert Einstein's Theory of General Relativity launched today from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., aboard a Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle.

An 'off the wall' idea
Northeastern chemistry professor Sanjeev Mukerjee predicts that in ten years, fuel cells will power the gadgets and gizmos that currently run on AC power.

Making a friendlier mosquito
Genetically modified mosquitoes that cannot transmit malaria are one hope for battling the disease that still kills over one million people a year.

Donor livers not consistently allocated according to medical need
A new study suggests that donor livers are not always distributed according to a patient's need, but may be retained by some organ procurement organizations with smaller waiting lists and transplanted into less sick patients, according to a study in the April 21 issue of The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).

Industry may benefit from first CAD search system
Researchers at Purdue University have developed the first system capable of searching a company's huge database of three-dimensional parts created with computer-aided design software.

HIV, West Nile virus, SARS - infections and thoracic transplantation
Complications from infectious diseases, such as HIV and West Nile virus in heart and lung transplant patients, is the focus of a joint symposium at the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) 24th Annual Meeting held in San Francisco.

Research bank makes good use of umbilical cords
After the delivery of a newborn, snipping the umbilical cord and then discarding the cord and placenta is the typical procedure.

ACP announces international medical fellowship
The American College of Physicians announces the launch of a new international exchange program that will bring physicians from around the world to the United States and Canada to participate in observational, short-term medical fellowships under the mentorship of senior physicians.

Prenatal nicotine primes adolescent brain for addiction
Prenatal exposure to nicotine inflicts lasting damage that might leave the brain vulnerable to further injury and addiction upon later use of the drug, according to animal research conducted by Duke University Medical Center pharmacologists.

USC human speech study
USC researchers - in linguistics and engineering - have developed a new tool which captures orchestration of normal speech.

Risk of preeclampsia rises sharply with increased pre-pregnancy body mass index
A Magee-Womens Research Institute study of 1,179 pregnant women found the risk of preeclampsia, a leading cause of premature delivery and maternal and fetal death, rose sharply with even relatively small increases in pre-pregnancy body fatness.

More than a million Americans abuse prescription drugs
Nearly 1.3 million Americans 12 and older abuse prescription drugs and require treatment for their problem, a new study concludes.

Temperature and humidity can affect LASIK surgery results
Humidity and temperature levels can affect LASIK surgery results, increasing the number of people who need follow-up procedures, report researchers from Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center.

The cultural defense
For many immigrants, living in America is a cultural balancing act of preserving native customs while conforming to the laws of the land.

Dietary supplement shows promise for improving immune function in the elderly
A recent clinical study has demonstrated that 7-oxo Dehydroepiandrosterone taken orally twice daily by healthy adults over a period of one month augments several key T-cell mediated immune functions compared to placebo.

Research finds lawn chemicals raise cancer risk in Scottish terriers
Exposure to herbicide-treated lawns and gardens increases the risk of bladder cancer in Scottish terriers, a discovery that could lead to new knowledge about human susceptibility to the disease, according to Purdue University scientists.

Improvements in prescribing medications for hypertension results in better outcomes and cost savings
Adherence to evidence-based prescribing guidelines for hypertension (high blood pressure) could result in substantial savings in prescription costs for elderly patients, and up to $1.2 billion nationally, according to a study in the April 21 issue of The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).

'Off-pump' bypass surgery has similar outcomes, lower cost, than conventional bypass surgery
Coronary artery surgery performed

Study shows opioid growth factor safe for treatment of pancreatic cancer
A booster dose of a substance already found in the body appears to be safe and non-toxic for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, and shows signs of arresting pancreatic cancer cell growth in patients, Penn State College of Medicine researchers report.

Oldest hemoglobin ancestors offer clues to earliest oxygen-based life
Red-blooded genealogists take note: The discovery in microbes of two oxygen-packing proteins, the earliest known ancestors to hemoglobin, brings scientists closer to identifying the earliest life forms to use oxygen.

Chlamydiae infection may be associated with ocular adnexal lymphoma
Infection with a species of bacteria in the same family as the bacteria that cause chlamydia may be associated with a form of lymphoma that affects the tissue surrounding the eye, according to a study in the April 21 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. The study also found that antibiotic treatment may be associated with tumor regression in some patients.

Stacked, packed nanowires hold triplexed megadata
Researchers at the University of Southern California and the NASA Ames Research Center have successfully tested a self-assembled molecular memory device they say has the potential of holding 40 Gigabits per square centimeter -- a far greater density than any achieved on silicon.

Obesity alone not a good predictor of cardiovascular risk and death, fat distribution proved best
The most frequent cause of death for obese people is cardiovascular.

A fly (genome) like any other fly
Biologists may well know more about the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, including its entire genome sequence, than about anything else with legs.

Biochemist becomes 15th UT Southwestern faculty member serving on National Academy of Sciences
Dr. Xiaodong Wang, a professor of biochemistry at UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas who discovered the biochemical pathway responsible for cell death, today was elected to the National Academy of Sciences, one of the highest honors attainable by an American scientist.

UGA professor Jeffrey Bennetzen named to National Academy of Sciences
Jeffrey L. Bennetzen, the Norman and Doris Giles/Georgia Research Alliance professor of molecular genetics at the University of Georgia, has been elected to membership in the prestigious National Academy of Sciences.

Annotation marathon validates 21,037 human genes
The announcement of the human genome sequence three years ago was widely hailed as one of the great scientific achievements in modern history.

Clinic-based intervention program improves smoking cessation rates, study says
Training intake clinicians at primary care facilities to use specific, guideline-based methods to encourage their patients who smoke to quit increases the likelihood that their patients will successfully quit smoking, according to a study published in the April 21 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Intake clinicians are nurses and medical assistants who document the reasons for an office visit and check patients' vital signs.

Sick Kids researchers look at viral triggers for multiple sclerosis in children
Researchers at The Hospital for Sick Children (Sick Kids) have shown an association between paediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) and the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), indicating that exposure to the virus at a certain time in childhood may be an important environmental trigger for the development of MS.

Yellowstone's long-distance travelers in trouble, study says
Bottlenecks from increased development are choking off ancient migration routes for wildlife in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) and other regions, according to a study by the New York-based Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) that appears in the current issue of the journal Conservation Biology.

ISSIR launches The Journal of Sexual Medicine with Blackwell
The official journal of the International Society for Sexual and Impotence Research (ISSIR), The Journal of Sexual Medicine, will launch in July 2004.

A blueprint for US national ocean policy for the 21st Century
Calling on Congress and President Bush to establish a new national ocean policy that balances use with sustainability, is based on sound science and educational excellence, and moves toward an ecosystem-based management approach is the centerpiece of the Preliminary Report released today by the U.S.

Arctic carbon a potential wild card in climate change scenarios
The Arctic Ocean receives about 10 percent of Earth's river water and with it some 25 teragrams [28 million tons] per year of dissolved organic carbon that had been held in far northern bogs and other soils.
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