Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

May 03, 2004
Digital mammography longer to interpret
Interpretation times for screening mammography are significantly longer for full-field digital mammography (FFDM) than for screen-film mammography (SFM), says a new study by researchers from Northwestern Memorial Hospital in Chicago, IL.

EU-US workshop on performance assessment of public RTD programmes
The European Commission (EC), DG Research, in collaboration with the Washington Research Evaluation Network (WREN) and the Office of Science of the United States (US) Department of Energy will hold a workshop on

MDCT angiography may help risk-stratify patients in danger of stroke
MDCT angiography can aid in risk assessment based on plaque vulnerability, a finding that would be valuable in deciding how to manage carotid artery stenosis (a narrowing of the carotid artery that can lead to stroke) that shows no symptoms, says a new study by researchers from the University of Virginia Health Sciences in Charlottesville, VA.

First data from deep underground experiment narrow search for dark matter
With the first data from their underground observatory in Northern Minnesota, scientists of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search have peered with greater sensitivity than ever before into the suspected realm of the WIMPS.

Yellowstone hot spot a hot topic at GSA meeting in Boise this week
Geoscientists are gathering May 3-5 in Boise, ID, for a joint meeting of the Cordilleran and Rocky Mountain Sections of the Geological Society of America.

Transvaginal ultrasound superior to transrectal ultrasound for staging rectal cancer in women
Transvaginal ultrasound surpasses the capabilities of transrectal ultrasound in evaluating women with rectal tumors, as shown by a new study performed at the Toronto General Hospital in Canada.

Center for AIDS Research grant renewed with $8 million NIH award
The Center for AIDS Research (Case CFAR)at Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals of Cleveland has received an $8 million five-year renewal grant from the National Institutes of Health.

Laser technique used to build micro-polymeric structure on a human hair, without harming it
A scientific team led by Boston College Chemistry Professor John Fourkas has demonstrated the fabrication of microscopic polymeric structures on top of a human hair.

Adopting 12-step philosophy may enhance outcomes of counseling for cocaine addiction
Study results suggest that encouraging patients to adopt the

Attracting an immune response to cancer
Specialized immune cells known as natural killer (NKT) cells are recruited into human tumors and may help fight the cancer according to a report in the Journal of Experimental Medicine.

Acute diverticulitis occurring more frequently in younger patients in urban U.S. populations
Acute diverticulitis, a disease in which pouches called diverticula protrude through weak spots in the colon and become inflamed, is more widespread among younger U.S. urban populations than is currently believed, says a new study by researchers from the University of Maryland in Baltimore.

Closing in on the cellular culprits of schizophrenia
In at least 10 populations around the world, a significant association between schizophrenia and the gene for dysbindin has been noted - making dysbindin the most highly replicated schizophrenia-associated gene described to date.

Painstaking work targeting TRPV1
Pain management is important for a variety of disorders, and requires balancing the elimination of sensory pain with the maintenance of effective neuronal function.

DARPA funds joint industrial-academic effort to develop advanced optical packet router technologies
A team of researchers in industry and higher education, led by a group at the University of California, Santa Barbara, has been awarded major financial support by the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency's Microsystems Technologies Office to develop new technologies to advance optical router capacity far beyond the current state of the art.

Genetic testing of embryos to pick 'savior sibling' OK with most Americans
A new survey by the Genetics and Public Policy Center at The Johns Hopkins University shows most Americans approve of using genetic testing and selection of embryos to make sure a baby will be a good match to donate blood or tissue to a sick brother or sister.

Bupropion, counseling may help youth with ADHD stop smoking
Results of a small pilot study suggest that combining the drug bupropion with brief counseling sessions may help teens reduce or stop smoking, even those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

I/O psychology: Faking out the fakers
Finding that previous attempts to model job applicant faking have failed, Dr.

Negative side effects downplayed in prostate cancer treatment guides, U-M study finds
When a man is diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer, he must decide among four different treatment methods, each of which carries its own set of benefits and risks.

SMASH imaging increases effectiveness of MRI for musculoskeletal imaging
Using simultaneous acquisition of spatial harmonics (SMASH) T2-weighted imaging for knee MRI results in a significant decrease in imaging time, as compared to conventional fat-saturated T2-weighted imaging, without any negative effects on MRI interpretation or patient clinical outcome, says a new study by researchers from the Neuroskeletal Imaging Institute in Melbourne, FL.

Pap smears, mammography should be targeted at healthy elders, study says
Pap smears and mammography screening should be targeted at healthy older women and avoided by older women in poor health, in whom risks of screening outweigh potential benefits, according to a study by UCSF researchers at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center (SFVAMC).

Co-occurring disorders increase risk of suicide attempt by adolescents
Research has shown that adolescents with substance use disorders are most likely to attempt suicide when they also have a co-occurring mood disorder.

Link between caffeine consumption, high blood pressure found in adolescents
Adolescents, particularly black adolescents, who drink several soft drinks each day may increase their blood pressure and their risk for hypertension, according to a study published in the May issue of Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine.

Study finds bupropion may be effective smoking cessation aid for women
Research has indicated that women smokers have more difficulty quitting and maintaining abstinence from cigarettes than men.

Eating habits as important as meds for diabetic blood sugar control
For those with type 2 diabetes, the most prevalent kind, a person's eating habits -- their basic eating practices, selections while dining out, meal planning and carbohydrate and vegetable strategies -- matter as much or more as medicine for maintaining blood sugar control, says a Penn State researcher.

MRI 'highly useful' in the evaluation of patients with uterine fibroids
Gadolinium-enhanced MRI is highly useful in evaluating patients with uterine fibroids, often ruling out as a treatment option uterine artery embolization (UAE), which blocks the flow of blood to the tumors, says a new study by researchers from the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, IL.

Bleak summer job forecast for nation's teens, new report finds
The summer of 2004 promises to be a bleak one, with just 42 of every 100 teens able to find employment during the summer months, according to a new report from labor market economist Andrew Sum from Northeastern University.

Annals of Internal Medicine, tip sheet, May 4, 2004
Titles from the May 4, 2004 edition of the Annals of Internal Medicine include screening people with hypertension for diabetes is cost-effective but universal screening for diabetes is not (Article, p 689; Editorial, p.

Health care providers should be prepared for high prevalence of co-occurring disorders
People who have major mental illnesses often have co-occurring substance abuse disorders.

Medication for multiple sclerosis may help in treating cocaine addiction
Results of a NIDA-funded study show that a combination of substance abuse counseling and baclofen--a medication often used to treat muscle spasms in people with multiple sclerosis--can reduce cocaine use.

Prevalence of HIV among childbearing women has declined in New York
The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among childbearing women has declined in New York from 1988 through 2000, according to an article in the May issue of The Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Radiologists provide safe delivery method for gene therapy
Computed tomography (CT)-guided injections offer a safe delivery method for gene therapy in patients with metastatic kidney cancer.

Asthma symptoms reduced among children whose schools provided asthma medication
Urban children with asthma who attended schools that provided inhaled corticosteroids (an asthma medication) had improved symptoms and fewer days absent from school than children in a usual care group (inhaled corticosteroids not given through school), according to an article in the May issue of The Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

MDCT angiography is an effective tool for diagnosing blockage of the mesenteric artery
MDCT angiography is a simple, rapid, noninvasive and accurate method of evaluating the patency of superior mesenteric vessels in patients with suspected acute blood restriction in the superior mesenteric artery, which supplies blood to the small bowel, (mesenteric ischemia), say researchers from the Assaf Harofeh Medical Center in Zerifin, Israel.

'Considerable reductions' in radiation exposure possible with 16-MDCT scanner on body applications
By using a 16-slice scanner as opposed to a 4-slice scanner, considerable reductions in effective radiation dose can be achieved on body CT without sacrificing established clinical image quality levels, a new study by researchers from Leiden University Medical Center in Leiden, The Netherlands, says.

Caffeine consumption associated with increases in blood pressure in adolescents
Caffeine intake is associated with increased blood pressure in some adolescents, according to an article in the May issue of The Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

MRI superior to ultrasound in predicting cerebral palsy in preterm infants
In a comparison study between MRI and ultrasound for predicting cerebral palsy in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, researchers from Stanford University Medical Center in Palo Alto, CA, found that MRI is superior to ultrasound in both sensitivity and positive predictive value for cerebral palsy, whereas both ultrasound and MRI showed relatively high specificity and negative predictive value.

Study finds combination therapy successful for treating depression
Depression is common among opiate users and may serve as a trigger for high-risk drug injection practices, continued drug use, and relapse.

Catalysts industry booms as environmental regulations and advanced technologies drive demand
Evolving technologies that enable more environment-friendly processes, higher selectivity, and cost efficiencies are helping to further expand the $12.09 billion global market for catalysts.

First target for childhood malaria vaccine
The discovery of a malaria parasite protein that is associated with the severe childhood form of the disease could save the lives of many thousands of children in sub-Saharan Africa.

Unnatural light-dark cycles expose duelling circadian clocks
In mammals, the endogenous daily pacemaker that regulates circadian rhythms like sleep and wakefulness is localized to a defined site in the brain, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN).

NASA satellites and balloons spot airborne pollution 'train'
NASA scientists discovered pollution could catch an airborne

Staying close to mother helps baby dolphins swim
Young dolphins keep up with their mothers, who are more powerful swimmers, by adopting the ideal position to get a 'free ride' in the mother's slipstream, according to an article published this week in the top-tier Open Access journal, Journal of Biology.

Elastic nails help children with broken legs recover faster than traction and body casting
Elastic titanium nails help children recover faster from a broken leg than the traditional treatment with weeks of traction and a body cast, according to a new study from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.

Researchers discover new clinical syndrome leading to severe osteoarthritis
Researchers have discovered a new clinical syndrome which they have named hereditary chondrolysis, a rare disabling disease in which the cartilage debonds from bone,leading to severe generalized osteoarthritis.

Pfizer's VFEND (R) as effective in treating Candidemia as two-drug standard of care, study shows
Pfizer Inc's antifungal VFEND® (voriconazole) was shown to be as effective as a regimen of amphotericin B followed by fluconazole in the primary treatment of candidemia, including hard-to-treat non-albicans species, according to data presented today at the European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID).

Child safety restraint use increasing in auto trips
Parents are increasingly placing their children in child safety restraints during automobile trips, according to a national study.

Spanking a risk factor for behavior problems among white children
White children who are more frequently spanked before age two are at greater risk for having behavior problems by the time they reach elementary school.

The Dragon Programme's architect - interview with José Achache
This last week saw the start of the Dragon Programme: a landmark Earth Observation initiative between Europe and China.

Wavefront LASIK demonstrated superior to conventional LASIK
An independent researcher compares wavefront-guided LASIK to conventional LASIK, and find wavefront yields superior results.

Coronal reformatting of axial images from 16-MDCT helps stage ovarian cancer
Examining axially acquired images obtained on a 16-MDCT (multidetector computed tomography) scanner in a coronal plane serves as a useful adjunct in the staging of ovarian cancer, says a new study by researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, MA.

Recognition of bacteria in the cytosol by the immune system
Researchers identified a previously unappreciated way in which bacteria can be recognized inside our cells.

MR spectroscopy aids in distinguishing recurring brain tumors from changes related to treatment
MR spectroscopy may be a useful adjunct to conventional imaging to distinguish recurrent tumor from treatment-related change in the brain such as inflammation or dead cells, says a new study by researchers from the University of Michigan Medical Center in Ann Arbor, MI.

For foster children, unstable placements have higher healthcare costs
For children in foster care, those with multiple placements are more likely to incur higher mental health costs than children in more stable placements.

Chromatin remodeling may open up DNA to RNA-mediated silencing
In a finding that deepens our understanding of epigenetic regulation, researchers have identified a novel protein in Arabidopsis that may help so-called short guide RNAs and silencing effector proteins target specific DNA sequences for modification.

UC Riverside researchers develop low-carb corn with enhanced protein and oil
Researchers at the University of California, Riverside reported the development of technology that doubles the protein and oil content of corn while reducing its carbohydrate content, a boost for growers to feed both people and livestock.

MRI 'excellent choice' for evaluating causes of abdominal and pelvic pain in pregnant women
The accuracy and intrinsic safety of MRI in diagnosing abdominal and pelvic disease in pregnant women with acute abdominal or pelvic disease make it an excellent choice for the evaluation of these patients, a new study from researchers at the University of North Carolina Hospitals, Chapel Hill, and the University of San Diego Hospitals in California says.

4-MDCT 'excellent technique' for evaluating kidney donors
3D four-slice multidetector computed tomography (4-MDCT) shows exquisite anatomical detail in evaluating kidney donors, says a new study by researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.

March of Dimes awards $250,000 prize to pioneering scientist
One of the 20th century's most influential female scientists, Mary F.

Examining motivational interviewing in drug abuse therapy
A study designed to assess the usefulness of a single session of motivational interviewing in drug abuse treatment showed that the single session of the psychotherapy technique had no effect on drug use outcomes.

Could vitamins raise levels of bad cholesterol? Animal study suggests they might
Instead of protecting the heart, a new study suggests that the vitamins, such as E, C, and beta carotene, could raise the production by the liver of the so-called bad form of cholesterol, which transports cholesterol into artery walls.

REI medical/research briefs
In this issue of the REI medical/research briefs a study finds few new antibiotics are in the pipeline; researchers identify unifying structural code among diverse classes of natural antibiotics; testosterone gel study first to show long-term benefits and safety; and anthrax vaccine to begin phase 2 trials.

New research suggests therapeutic approach for autoimmune diseases
Researchers at the Jackson Laboratory have identified a novel therapeutic target for treating autoimmune disease.

Animal studies show promise treating severe chronic pain
Researchers may be on the trail of a new and more targeted treatment for severe chronic pain.

Teachers turn to Tolkein to explain physics
Articles in this issue of Physics World magazine include: physicists turn to Lord of the Rings to help teach physics, the search to find the world's greatest ever equation, and more.

Bone contusion in knees of adolescents often occur without significant ligament or cartilage injury
Bone contusions of the knee in adolescents are often found on MRI examinations to have occurred without significant associated injury to the surrounding menisci, ligaments or cartilage, says a new study by researchers from the University of Texas in Galveston and Texas Orthopedics in Houston.

Research on improving cotton receives historical recognition
The research that helped make cotton the so-called

Substance use, social stress compromise pregnant women's immune system
Pregnant women living under stressful conditions and those who use tobacco, alcohol or illegal drugs have compromised immune system responses that threaten the health of both mother and baby, according to a study from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University Medical Center.

JGI decodes wood & toxic waste-degrading fungus genome
The DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI) announces the publication, in the journal Nature Biotechnology, of a high-quality draft genome sequence of the white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. These are the only known microbes capable of efficiently degrading the recalcitrant aromatic plant polymer lignin, one of the most abundant natural materials on earth.

Stress linked to increased risk of depressive and anxiety disorders
High levels of stress during childhood and young adulthood are associated with depressive and anxiety disorders among young adults, according to an article in the May issue of The Archives of General Psychiatry, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Molecular mechanism found that may improve ability of stem cells to fight disease
In the May issue of Nature Cell Biology, Tao Cheng, M.D., assistant professor, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, reports the discovery of a molecular mechanism in the cell cycle that may impact the replicating ability of stem cells to fight diseases.

Study finds HIV protein can drive immune cells away
Massachusetts General Hospital researchers may have provided another clue to the mystery of how HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, evades the defenses of the immune system.

Flagellation in Crohn disease
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from maladaptive immune responses to intestinal microbiota.

Special incubators allow high-quality imaging of critically ill newborns
A newly developed, magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible incubator allows radiologists to safely and efficiently obtain quality diagnostic images of sick infants.

Whole-body CT screening for GI disease may not be effective
The use of whole-body computed tomography (CT) to screen for significant diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract should be questioned, says a preliminary study from researchers at the University of California, San Diego.

Moving the mind's eye depends upon an intact eye movement system
An important aspect of human vision is the ability to attend to objects or events appearing in our peripheral vision without shifting our gaze.

Alternative/supplemental breast imaging methods tested
Dartmouth physicians and engineers are collaborating to test three new imaging techniques to find breast abnormalities, including cancer.

Enzyme prevents lung damage in premature infants
An enzyme that protects the body from reactive chemicals called free radicals is crucial in preventing the inflammation that causes chronic lung disease in premature infants, according to three new studies.

Poker researchers betting on world-class software
Despite an unsavory past, poker has exploded onto television screens in North America and a University of Alberta spin-off company is hoping to cash in on the high stakes industry.

Chemical brain scans may help reassure brain tumor patients
For brain tumor survivors worried that their cancer might come back, follow-up brain scans often give murky answers that leave them wondering if their tumor has returned, or if their brain is just responding to treatment.

NIST quantum keys system sets speed record for 'unbreakable' encryption
The fastest known cryptographic system based on transmission of single photons--the smallest pulses of light---has been demonstrated by a team at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

Electromagnetic breast imaging tested as alternative to mammography
Researchers are testing three promising new electromagnetic imaging techniques to help detect breast abnormalities, including cancer.

New research outlines public health consequences
Longitudinal studies of firefighters, rescue workers and other personnel who responded to the collapse of the World Trade Center following the September 11, 2001 attacks have confirmed the presence of a positive relationship between the intensity and duration of their exposures to airborne pollutants and the severity of their pulmonary symptoms.
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